Slot-Mode Optomechanical Crystals: A Versatile Platform for Multimode Optomechanics.
ABSTRACT: Cavity optomechanical systems are being studied for their potential in areas such as metrology, communications, and quantum information science. For a number of recently proposed applications in which multiple optical and mechanical modes interact, an outstanding challenge is to develop multimode architectures that allow flexibility in the optical and mechanical sub-system designs while maintaining the strong interactions that have been demonstrated in single-mode systems. To that end, we demonstrate slot-mode optomechanical crystals, devices in which photonic and phononic crystal nanobeams separated by a narrow slot are coupled via optomechanical interactions. These nanobeam pairs are patterned to confine a mechanical breathing mode at the center of one beam and a low-loss optical mode in the slot between the beams. This architecture affords great design flexibility towards multimode optomechanics, as well as substantial optomechanical coupling rates. We show this by producing slot-mode devices in stoichiometric Si3N4, with optical modes in the 980 nm band coupled to mechanical modes at 3.4 GHz, 1.8 GHz, and 400 MHz. We exploit the Si3N4 tensile stress to achieve slot widths down to 24 nm, which leads to enhanced optomechanical coupling, sufficient for the observation of optomechanical self-oscillations at all studied frequencies. We then develop multimode optomechanical systems with triple-beam geometries, in which two optical modes couple to a single mechanical mode, and two mechanical modes couple to a single optical mode. Taken together, these results demonstrate great flexibility in the design of multimode chip-scale optomechanical systems with large optomechanical coupling.
Project description:We realize a simple and robust optomechanical system with a multitude of long-lived (Q >?107) mechanical modes in a phononic-bandgap shielded membrane resonator. An optical mode of a compact Fabry-Perot resonator detects these modes' motion with a measurement rate (96 kHz) that exceeds the mechanical decoherence rates already at moderate cryogenic temperatures (10 K). Reaching this quantum regime entails, inter alia, quantum measurement backaction exceeding thermal forces and thus strong optomechanical quantum correlations. In particular, we observe ponderomotive squeezing of the output light mediated by a multitude of mechanical resonator modes, with quantum noise suppression up to -2.4 dB (-3.6 dB if corrected for detection losses) and bandwidths ?90 kHz. The multimode nature of the membrane and Fabry-Perot resonators will allow multimode entanglement involving electromagnetic, mechanical, and spin degrees of freedom.
Project description:The simultaneous control of optical and mechanical waves has enabled a range of fundamental and technological breakthroughs, from the demonstration of ultra-stable frequency reference devices, to the exploration of the quantum-classical boundaries in optomechanical laser-cooling experiments. More recently, such an optomechanical interaction has been observed in integrated nano-waveguides and microcavities in the Brillouin regime, where short-wavelength mechanical modes scatter light at several GHz. Here we engineer coupled optical microcavities to enable a low threshold excitation of mechanical travelling-wave modes through backward stimulated Brillouin scattering. Exploring the backward scattering we propose silicon microcavity designs based on laterally coupled single and double-layer cavities, the proposed structures enable optomechanical coupling with very high frequency modes (11 to 25?GHz) and large optomechanical coupling rates (g<sub>0</sub>/2?) from 50?kHz to 90?kHz.
Project description:Nanobeam cavities based on hetero optomechanical crystals are proposed. With optical and mechanical modes separately confined by two types of periodic structures, the mechanical frequency is designed as high as 5.88 GHz. Due to the optical field and the strain field concentrated in the optomechanical cavity and resembling each other with an enhanced overlap, a high optomechanical coupling rate of 1.31 MHz is predicted.
Project description:Efficient switching and routing of photons of different wavelengths is a requirement for realizing a quantum internet. Multimode optomechanical systems can solve this technological challenge and enable studies of fundamental science involving widely separated wavelengths that are inaccessible to single-mode optomechanical systems. To this end, we demonstrate interference between two optomechanically induced transparency processes in a diamond on-chip cavity. This system allows us to directly observe the dynamics of an optomechanical dark mode that interferes photons at different wavelengths via their mutual coupling to a common mechanical resonance. This dark mode does not transfer energy to the dissipative mechanical reservoir and is predicted to enable quantum information processing applications that are insensitive to mechanical decoherence. Control of the dark mode is also utilized to demonstrate all-optical, two-colour switching and interference with light separated by over 5?THz in frequency.
Project description:Silicon carbide (SiC) exhibits excellent material properties attractive for broad applications. We demonstrate the first SiC optomechanical microresonators that integrate high mechanical frequency, high mechanical quality, and high optical quality into a single device. The radial-breathing mechanical mode has a mechanical frequency up to 1.69 GHz with a mechanical Q around 5500 in atmosphere, which corresponds to a fm · Qm product as high as 9.47 × 10(12) Hz. The strong optomechanical coupling allows us to efficiently excite and probe the coherent mechanical oscillation by optical waves. The demonstrated devices, in combination with the superior thermal property, chemical inertness, and defect characteristics of SiC, show great potential for applications in metrology, sensing, and quantum photonics, particularly in harsh environments that are challenging for other device platforms.
Project description:Multielement cavity optomechanics constitutes a direction to observe novel effects with mechanical resonators. Several exciting ideas include superradiance, increased optomechanical coupling, and quantum effects between distinct mechanical modes among others. Realizing these experiments has so far been difficult, because of the need for extremely precise positioning of the elements relative to one another due to the high-reflectivity required for each element. Here we overcome this challenge and present the fabrication of monolithic arrays of two highly reflective mechanical resonators in a single chip. We characterize the optical spectra and losses of these 200 ?m long Fabry-Pérot interferometers, measuring finesse values of up to 220. In addition, we observe an enhancement of the coupling rate between the cavity field and the mechanical center-of-mass mode compared to the single membrane case. Further enhancements in coupling with these devices are predicted, potentially reaching the single-photon strong coupling regime, giving these integrated structures an exciting prospect for future multimode quantum experiments.
Project description:Planar microcavities with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) host, besides confined optical modes, also mechanical resonances due to stop bands in the phonon dispersion relation of the DBRs. These resonances have frequencies in the 10- to 100-GHz range, depending on the resonator's optical wavelength, with quality factors exceeding 1,000. The interaction of photons and phonons in such optomechanical systems can be drastically enhanced, opening a new route towards the manipulation of light. Here we implemented active semiconducting layers into the microcavity to obtain a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Thereby, three resonant excitations--photons, phonons and electrons--can interact strongly with each other providing modulation of the VCSEL laser emission: a picosecond strain pulse injected into the VCSEL excites long-living mechanical resonances therein. As a result, modulation of the lasing intensity at frequencies up to 40 GHz is observed. From these findings, prospective applications of active optomechanical resonators integrated into nanophotonic circuits may emerge.
Project description:Nonreciprocal components, such as isolators and circulators, provide highly desirable functionalities for optical circuitry. This motivates the active investigation of mechanisms that break reciprocity, and pose alternatives to magneto-optic effects in on-chip systems. In this work, we use optomechanical interactions to strongly break reciprocity in a compact system. We derive minimal requirements to create nonreciprocity in a wide class of systems that couple two optical modes to a mechanical mode, highlighting the importance of optically biasing the modes at a controlled phase difference. We realize these principles in a silica microtoroid optomechanical resonator and use quantitative heterodyne spectroscopy to demonstrate up to 10?dB optical isolation at telecom wavelengths. We show that nonreciprocal transmission is preserved for nondegenerate modes, and demonstrate nonreciprocal parametric amplification. These results open a route to exploiting various nonreciprocal effects in optomechanical systems in different electromagnetic and mechanical frequency regimes, including optomechanical metamaterials with topologically non-trivial properties.
Project description:Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains.
Project description:Efficient generation of phonons is an important ingredient for a prospective electrically-driven phonon laser. Hybrid quantum systems combining cavity quantum electrodynamics and optomechanics constitute a novel platform with potential for operation at the extremely high frequency range (30-300 GHz). We report on laser-like phonon emission in a hybrid system that optomechanically couples polariton Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with phonons in a semiconductor microcavity. The studied system comprises GaAs/AlAs quantum wells coupled to cavity-confined optical and vibrational modes. The non-resonant continuous wave laser excitation of a polariton BEC in an individual trap of a trap array, induces coherent mechanical self-oscillation, leading to the formation of spectral sidebands displaced by harmonics of the fundamental 20 GHz mode vibration frequency. This phonon "lasing" enhances the phonon occupation five orders of magnitude above the thermal value when tunable neighbor traps are red-shifted with respect to the pumped trap BEC emission at even harmonics of the vibration mode. These experiments, supported by a theoretical model, constitute the first demonstration of coherent cavity optomechanical phenomena with exciton polaritons, paving the way for new hybrid designs for quantum technologies, phonon lasers, and phonon-photon bidirectional translators.