The first genome sequence of a metatherian herpesvirus: Macropodid herpesvirus 1.
ABSTRACT: While many placental herpesvirus genomes have been fully sequenced, the complete genome of a marsupial herpesvirus has not been described. Here we present the first genome sequence of a metatherian herpesvirus, Macropodid herpesvirus 1 (MaHV-1).The MaHV-1 viral genome was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer, de novo assembly was performed and the genome was annotated. The MaHV-1 genome was 140 kbp in length and clustered phylogenetically with the primate simplexviruses, sharing 67% nucleotide sequence identity with Human herpesviruses 1 and 2. The MaHV-1 genome contained 66 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to those in other herpesvirus genomes, but lacked homologues of UL3, UL4, UL56 and glycoprotein J. This is the first alphaherpesvirus genome that has been found to lack the UL3 and UL4 homologues. We identified six novel ORFs and confirmed their transcription by RT-PCR.This is the first genome sequence of a herpesvirus that infects metatherians, a taxonomically unique mammalian clade. Members of the Simplexvirus genus are remarkably conserved, so the absence of ORFs otherwise retained in eutherian and avian alphaherpesviruses contributes to our understanding of the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further study of metatherian herpesvirus genetics and pathogenesis provides a unique approach to understanding herpesvirus-mammalian interactions.
Project description:The DNA sequence of 3,240 nucleotides of the XbaI G fragment located in the unique long (UL) region of the equine herpesvirus 1 genome revealed two major open reading frames (ORFs) designated UL3 and UL4. The UL3 ORF of 470 amino acids (aa) maps at nucleotides (nt) 4450 to 3038 from the long terminus, and its predicted 51.4-kDa protein product exhibits significant homology to the ICP27 alpha regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; 32% identity) and to the ORF4 protein of varicella-zoster virus (13% identity). Interestingly, a zinc finger motif is conserved in the C-terminal domains of both ICP27 of HSV-1 (aa 483 to 508) and UL3 of equine herpesvirus 1 (aa 441 to 466). The UL4 ORF of 343 aa maps at nt 5618 to 4587 and could encode a protein of 38.1 kDa which exhibits significant homology to the UL53 protein (cell fusion protein or glycoprotein K) of HSV-1 (26% identity) and to the ORF5 protein of varicella-zoster virus (33% identity). Analyses of the UL4 amino acid sequence revealed domains characteristic of a membrane-bound glycoprotein and included potential signature sequences for (i) a signal sequence, (ii) two N-linked glycosylation sites, and (iii) four transmembrane domains. Nucleotide sequence analyses also revealed potential TATA boxes located upstream of the UL3 and UL4 ORFs. However, only a single polyadenylation signal (nt 2988 to 2983) was detected downstream of the UL3 ORF. Northern (RNA) blot hybridization and S1 nuclease analyses were used to map and characterize the UL3 and UL4 mRNAs. Metabolic inhibitors were used to identify the kinetic class of these two genes. The data revealed that UL3 is an early gene that encodes a 1.6-kb mRNA, while UL4 is a late gene encoding a 3.8-kb mRNA that overlaps the UL3 transcript. Both transcripts were shown by S1 nuclease analyses to initiate 24 to 26 nt downstream of their respective TATA boxes and to have a common transcription termination signal as a pair of 3'-coterminal mRNAs.
Project description:The nucleotide sequences of eight open reading frames (ORFs) located at the 5' end of the unique long region of the duck enteritis virus (DEV) Clone-03 strain were determined. The genes identified were designated UL1, UL2, UL3, UL4, UL5, UL6 and UL7 homologues of the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The DEV UL3.5 located between UL3 and UL4 had no homologue in the HSV-1. The arrangement and transcription orientation of the eight genes were collinear with their homologues in the HSV-1. Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the alignments of the deduced amino acids of eight proteins with their homologues in 12 alpha-herpesviruses. In the UL1, UL3, UL3.5, UL5 and UL7 proteins trees, the branches were more closely related to the genus Mardivirus. However, the UL2, UL4, and UL6 proteins phylogenetic trees indicated a large distance from Mardivirus, indicating that the DEV evolved differently from other viruses in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae and formed a single branch within this subfamily.
Project description:Serial, high multiplicity passage of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) leads to the generation of defective interfering particles (DIP). EHV-1 DIP inhibit and interfere with the replication of standard EHV-1, establishing a state of persistent infection. These DIP package severely truncated and rearranged forms of the standard viral genome. Contained within the DIP genome are only three genes: UL3, UL4, and a unique hybrid gene (Hyb). The hybrid gene forms through a recombination event that fuses portions of the early regulatory IR4 and UL5 genes and is essential for DIP-mediated interference. The UL4 gene is an early gene dispensable for lytic replication and inhibits viral and cellular gene expression. However, the contribution of the UL4 gene during DIP-mediated persistent infection is unknown. Here, we describe the generation of a completely deleted UL4 virus and its use to investigate the role of the UL4 gene in the generation of the defective genome. Deletion of the UL4 gene resulted in delayed virus growth at late times post-infection. Cells infected with a mutant EHV-1 that lacked expression of the UL4 protein due to an inserted stop codon in the UL4 gene produced defective particles, while cells infected with a mutant EHV-1 that had the complete UL4 gene sequence deleted were unable to produce DIP. These data suggest that the UL4 gene sequence, but not the UL4 protein, is critical for the generation of defective interfering particles.
Project description:Live herpesvirus-vectored vaccines are widely used in veterinary medicine to protect against many infectious diseases. In poultry, three strains of herpesvirus vaccines are used against Marek's disease (MD). However, of these, only the herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully developed and used as a recombinant vaccine vector to induce protection against other avian viral diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) or avian influenza (AI). Although effective when administered individually, recombinant HVT vectors have limitations when combined in multivalent vaccines. Thus there is a need for developing additional viral vectors that could be combined with HVT in inducing protection against multiple avian diseases in multivalent vaccines. Gallid herpesvirus 3 (GaHV3) strain SB-1 is widely used by the poultry industry as bivalent vaccine in combination with HVT to exploit synergistic effects against MD. Here, we report the development and application of SB-1 as a vaccine vector to express the VP2 capsid antigen of IBD virus. A VP2 expression cassette was introduced into the SB-1 genome at three intergenic locations (UL3/UL4, UL10/UL11 and UL21/UL22) using recombineering methods on the full-length pSB-1 infectious clone of the virus. We show that the recombinant SB-1 vectors expressing VP2 induced neutralising antibody responses at levels comparable to that of commercial HVT-based VAXXITEKHVT+IBD vaccine. Birds vaccinated with the experimental recombinant SB-1 vaccine were protected against clinical disease after challenge with the very virulent UK661 IBDV isolate, demonstrating its value as an efficient viral vector for developing multivalent vaccines against avian diseases.
Project description:Herpesviruses or herpesviral sequences have been identified in various bat species. Here, we report the isolation, cell tropism, and complete genome sequence of a novel betaherpesvirus from the bat Miniopterus schreibersii (MsHV). In primary cell culture, MsHV causes cytopathic effects (CPE) and reaches peak virus production 2 weeks after infection. MsHV was found to infect and replicate less efficiently in a feline kidney cell, CRFK, and failed to replicate in 13 other cell lines tested. Sequencing of the MsHV genome using the 454 system, with a 224-fold coverage, revealed a genome size of 222,870 bp. The genome was extensively analyzed in comparison to those of related viruses. Of the 190 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), 40 were identified as herpesvirus core genes. Among 93 proteins with identifiable homologues in tree shrew herpesvirus (THV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), or rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV), most had highest sequence identities with THV counterparts. However, the MsHV genome organization is colinear with that of RCMV rather than that of THV. The following unique features were discovered in the MsHV genome. One predicted protein, B125, is similar to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) U94, a homologue of the parvovirus Rep protein. For the unique ORFs, 7 are predicted to encode major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related proteins, 2 to encode MHC class I homologues, and 3 to encode MHC class II homologues; 4 encode the homologues of C-type lectin- or natural killer cell lectin-like receptors;, and the products of a unique gene family, the b149 family, of 16 members, have no significant sequence identity with known proteins but exhibit immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich domains revealed by three-dimensional (3D) structural prediction. To our knowledge, MsHV is the first virus genome known to encode MHC class II homologues.
Project description:The primary sequence of the long unique region L-DNA (L for low GC) of rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) isolate 26-95 was determined. The L-DNA consists of 130,733 bp that contain 84 open reading frames (ORFs). The overall organization of the RRV26-95 genome was found to be very similar to that of human Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). BLAST search analysis revealed that in almost all cases RRV26-95 coding sequences have a greater degree of similarity to corresponding KSHV sequences than to other herpesviruses. All of the ORFs present in KSHV have at least one homologue in RRV26-95 except K3 and K5 (bovine herpesvirus-4 immediate-early protein homologues), K7 (nut-1), and K12 (Kaposin). RRV26-95 contains one MIP-1 and eight interferon regulatory factor (vIRF) homologues compared to three MIP-1 and four vIRF homologues in KSHV. All homologues are correspondingly located in KSHV and RRV with the exception of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR is correspondingly located near the left end of the genome in RRV26-95 and herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), but in KSHV the DHFR gene is displaced 16,069 nucleotides in a rightward direction in the genome. DHFR is also unusual in that the RRV26-95 DHFR more closely resembles HVS DHFR (74% similarity) than KSHV DHFR (55% similarity). Of the 84 ORFs in RRV26-95, 83 contain sequences similar to the recently determined sequences of the independent RRV isolate 17577. RRV26-95 and RRV17577 sequences differ in that ORF 67.5 sequences contained in RRV26-95 were not found in RRV17577. In addition, ORF 4 is significantly shorter in RRV26-95 than was reported for RRV17577 (395 versus 645 amino acids). Only four of the corresponding ORFs between RRV26-95 and RRV17577 exhibited less than 95% sequence identity: glycoproteins H and L, uracil DNA glucosidase, and a tegument protein (ORF 67). Both RRV26-95 and RRV17577 have unique ORFs between positions 21444 to 21752 and 110910 to 114899 in a rightward direction and from positions 116524 to 111082 in a leftward direction that are not found in KSHV. Our analysis indicates that RRV26-95 and RRV17577 are clearly independent isolates of the same virus species and that both are closely related in structural organization and overall sequence to KSHV. The availability of detailed sequence information, the ability to grow RRV lytically in cell culture, and the ability to infect monkeys experimentally with RRV will facilitate the construction of mutant strains of virus for evaluating the contribution of individual genes to biological properties.
Project description:Equine herpesvirus type 9 (EHV-9), which we isolated from a case of epizootic encephalitis in a herd of Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni) in 1993, has been known to cause fatal encephalitis in Thomson's gazelle, giraffe, and polar bear in natural infections. Our previous report indicated that EHV-9 was similar to the equine pathogen equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), which mainly causes abortion, respiratory infection, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy. We determined the genome sequence of EHV-9. The genome has a length of 148,371 bp and all 80 of the open reading frames (ORFs) found in the genome of EHV-1. The nucleotide sequences of the ORFs in EHV-9 were 86 to 95% identical to those in EHV-1. The whole genome sequence should help to reveal the neuropathogenicity of EHV-9.
Project description:We have sequenced the long unique region (LUR) and characterized the terminal repeats of the genome of a rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV), strain 17577. The LUR as sequenced is 131,364 bp in length, with a G+C content of 52.2% and a CpG ratio of 1.11. The genome codes for 79 open reading frames (ORFs), with 67 of these ORFs similar to genes found in both Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (formal name, human herpesvirus 8) and herpesvirus saimiri. Eight of the 12 unique genes show similarity to genes found in KSHV, including genes for viral interleukin-6, viral macrophage inflammatory protein, and a family of viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs). Genomic organization is essentially colinear with KSHV, the primary differences being the number of cytokine and IRF genes and the location of the gene for dihydrofolate reductase. Highly repetitive sequences are located in positions corresponding to repetitive sequences found in KSHV. Phylogenetic analysis of several ORFs supports the similarity between RRV and KSHV. Overall, the sequence, structural, and phylogenetic data combine to provide strong evidence that RRV 17577 is the rhesus macaque homolog of KSHV.
Project description:Neurotropism is a distinctive feature of members of the Alphaherpesvirinae. However, its molecular basis remains enigmatic. In the past, research has been focused mainly on the role of viral envelope proteins in modulating herpesvirus neuroinvasion and neurovirulence (T. C. Mettenleiter, Virus Res. 92:192-206, 2003). To further analyze the molecular requirements for neuroinvasion of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PrV), adult mice were infected intranasally with a set of single- or multiple-deletion mutants lacking the UL3, UL4, UL7, UL11, UL13, UL16, UL17, UL21, UL31, UL34, UL37, UL41, UL43, UL46, UL47, UL48, UL51, US3, US9, glycoprotein E (gE), gM, UL11/US9, UL11/UL16, UL16/UL21, UL11/UL16/UL21, UL11/gE, UL11/gM, UL43/gK, UL43/gM, or UL43/gK/gM genes. Neurovirulence was evaluated by measuring mean survival times compared to that after wild-type virus infection. Furthermore, by immunohistochemical detection of infected neurons, the kinetics of viral spread in the murine central nervous system was investigated.
Project description:Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1) causes wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever, a lymphoproliferative syndrome in ungulate species other than the natural host. Based on biological properties and limited structural data, it has been classified as a member of the genus Rhadinovirus of the subfamily Gammaherpes-virinae. Here, we report on cloning and structural analysis of the complete genome of AHV-1 C500. The low GC content DNA (L-DNA) region of the genome consists of 130,608 bp with low (46.17%) GC content and marked suppression of CpG dinucleotide frequency. Like in herpesvirus saimiri, the prototype of the rhadinoviruses, the L-DNA is flanked by approximately 20 to 25 GC-rich (71.83%) high GC content DNA (H-DNA) repeats of 1,113 to 1,118 nucleotides. The analysis of the L-DNA sequence revealed 70 open reading frames (ORFs), 61 of which showed homology to other herpesviruses. The conserved ORFs are arranged in four blocks collinear to other Rhadinovirus genomes. These gene blocks are flanked by nonconserved regions containing ORFs without similarities to known herpesvirus genes. Notably, a spliced reading frame with a coding capacity for a 199-amino-acid protein is located in a position homologous to the transforming genes of herpesvirus saimiri at the left end of the L-DNA. A gene with homology to the semaphorin family is located adjacent to this. Despite common biological and epidemiological properties, AHV-1 differs significantly from herpesvirus saimiri with regard to cell homologous genes, probably using a different set of effector proteins to achieve a similar T-lymphocyte-transforming phenotype.