Pharmacogenetic allele nomenclature: International workgroup recommendations for test result reporting.
ABSTRACT: This article provides nomenclature recommendations developed by an international workgroup to increase transparency and standardization of pharmacogenetic (PGx) result reporting. Presently, sequence variants identified by PGx tests are described using different nomenclature systems. In addition, PGx analysis may detect different sets of variants for each gene, which can affect interpretation of results. This practice has caused confusion and may thereby impede the adoption of clinical PGx testing. Standardization is critical to move PGx forward.
Project description:Introduction:Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing is a leading application for personalized and precision medicine; however, there are barriers, including limited provider and patient understanding, which affect its uptake. There is a need for tools that can enhance the patient and provider experience with testing and promoting the shared and informed decision-making. Materials and methods:In this study, we sought to gather additional feedback on a PGx toolkit comprised of four educational tools that had been previously evaluated through an online survey by pharmacists. Specifically, we conducted semi-structured interviews with pharmacists and members of the public regarding their understanding and utility of the toolkit and its individual components. Results:Participants found three of the four toolkit components, a test information sheet, flipbook, and results sheet, to be useful and important. The fourth component, results card, was viewed less favorably. Participants differed in their preference for medical jargon and detailed results nomenclature (namely star * alleles). Conclusion:User input during the development of educational materials is essential for optimizing utilization, effectiveness, and comprehension.
Project description:By guiding initial warfarin dose, pharmacogenetic (PGx) algorithms may improve the safety of warfarin initiation. However, once international normalised ratio (INR) response is known, the contribution of PGx to dose refinements is uncertain. This study sought to develop and validate clinical and PGx dosing algorithms for warfarin dose refinement on days 6-11 after therapy initiation. An international sample of 2,022 patients at 13 medical centres on three continents provided clinical, INR, and genetic data at treatment days 6-11 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose. Independent derivation and retrospective validation samples were composed by randomly dividing the population (80%/20%). Prior warfarin doses were weighted by their expected effect on S-warfarin concentrations using an exponential-decay pharmacokinetic model. The INR divided by that "effective" dose constituted a treatment response index . Treatment response index, age, amiodarone, body surface area, warfarin indication, and target INR were associated with dose in the derivation sample. A clinical algorithm based on these factors was remarkably accurate: in the retrospective validation cohort its R(2) was 61.2% and median absolute error (MAE) was 5.0 mg/week. Accuracy and safety was confirmed in a prospective cohort (N=43). CYP2C9 variants and VKORC1-1639 G?A were significant dose predictors in both the derivation and validation samples. In the retrospective validation cohort, the PGx algorithm had: R(2)= 69.1% (p<0.05 vs. clinical algorithm), MAE= 4.7 mg/week. In conclusion, a pharmacogenetic warfarin dose-refinement algorithm based on clinical, INR, and genetic factors can explain at least 69.1% of therapeutic warfarin dose variability after about one week of therapy.
Project description:To investigate patient experiences with pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing.Patients were offered PGx testing through a study on pharmacist-assisted delivery of PGx testing and invited to complete pre- and post-testing surveys about their experience.Of 63 patients tested, 17 completed the baseline survey (27%). Interest in testing was mostly impacted by desire to inform selection of best treatment (n = 13). Seven of 12 patients that completed the follow-up survey indicated that their provider discussed the test result with them. Five patients understood their test result very or somewhat well. All would be likely to have PGx testing again.Patients perceived PGx testing to be useful, though more effort may be needed to improve patient-provider communication of test results.
Project description:It is anticipated that as the range of drugs for which pharmacogenetic testing becomes available expands, primary care physicians (PCPs) will become major users of these tests. To assess their training, familiarity, and attitudes toward pharmacogenetic testing in order to identify barriers to uptake that may be addressed at this early stage of test use, we conducted a national survey of a sample of PCPs. Respondents were mostly white (79%), based primarily in community-based primary care (81%) and almost evenly divided between family medicine and internal medicine. The majority of respondents had heard of PGx testing and anticipated that these tests are or would soon become a valuable tool to inform drug response. However, only a minority of respondents (13%) indicated they felt comfortable ordering PGx tests and almost a quarter reported not having any education about pharmacogenetics. Our results indicate that primary care practitioners envision a major role for themselves in the delivery of PGx testing but recognize their lack of adequate knowledge and experience about these tests. Development of effective tools for guiding PCPs in the use of PGx tests should be a high priority.
Project description:To describe the rationale and design of a study evaluating the delivery of pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing in community pharmacies. Study rationale: Pharmacists have expressed interest in offering PGx testing; however, their lack of knowledge and experience, patients' acceptance and feasibility are unknown in this setting.Through a cluster randomized trial, we will assess pharmacist and patient experiences with delivery of PGx testing as a standalone service or integrated into medication therapy management services. Anticipated results: We anticipate that PGx testing can be delivered in a community pharmacy setting and accepted and valued by patients.This study is expected to provide valuable evidence about the real-world feasibility and acceptance of a community pharmacist-delivered approach of PGx testing.
Project description:Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing involves the analysis of genes known to affect response to medications. The field has been projected as a leading application of personalized or precision medicine, but the use of PGx tests has been stymied, in part, by the lack of clinical evidence of utility and reported low provider awareness. Another factor is the availability of testing. The range and types of PGx tests available have not been assessed to date. In the period September 2017-January 2018 we analyzed the numbers and types of PGx tests offered by clinical testing laboratories in the US. Of the 111 such labs that we identified, we confirmed that 76 offered PGx testing services. Of these, 31 offered only tests for single genes; 30 offered only tests for multiple genes; and 15 offered both types of tests. Collectively, 45 laboratories offered 114 multigene panel tests covering 295 genes. The majority of these tests did not have any clinical guidelines. PGx tests vary in type and makeup, which presents challenges in appropriate test evaluation and selection for providers, insurers, health systems, and patients alike.
Project description:To describe the rationale and design of a pilot program to implement and evaluate pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing in a primary care setting.Several factors have impeded the uptake of PGx testing, including lack of provider knowledge and challenges with operationalizing PGx testing in a clinical practice setting.We plan to compare two strategies for the implementation of PGx testing: a pharmacist-initiated testing arm compared with a physician-initiated PGx testing arm. Providers in both groups will be required to attend an introduction to PGx seminar. Anticipated results: We anticipate that providers in the pharmacist-initiated group will be more likely to order PGx testing than providers in the physician-initiated group.Overall, we aim to generate data that will inform an effective delivery model for PGx testing and to facilitate a seamless integration of PGx testing in primary care practices.
Project description:Introduction:Pharmacists are poised to be the health care professionals best suited to provide medication-related consults and services based on a patient's genetics. Despite its potential benefits, the implementation of pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing into primary clinical settings has been slow among medically underserved populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time that PGx-driven recommendations have been incorporated into a Comprehensive Medication Management (CMM) service in a Hispanic population. Objectives:The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of adding PGx guidance into pharmacist-driven CMM. Methods:This is a pre- and post-interventional design study. Patients were recruited from a psychologist's clinic. A total of 24 patients had a face-to-face interview with a pharmacist to complete a CMM, Personal Medication Record, and Medication-Related Action Plan (MAP) blind to PGx findings. Collected buccal DNA samples were genotyped using drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMET) Plus Array. Results:The pharmacist generated new MAPs for each patient based on PGx results. Genetic variants that could potentially affect the safety and effectiveness of at least one drug in the pharmacotherapy were identified in 96% of patients, for whom the pharmacist changed the initial recommendations. Polymorphisms in genes encoding for isoenzymes CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9 were identified in 83%, 52%, and 41% of patients, respectively. Pharmacists performing CMM identified 22 additional medication problems after PGx determinations. Moreover, they agreed with the clinical utility of PGx in the studied sample based on perceived value of adding PGx to traditional CMM and its utility in the decision-making process of pharmacists. Conclusions:The study confirmed the critical role to be played by pharmacists in facilitating the clinical usage of relevant genetic information to optimize drug therapy decisions as well as their involvement on many levels of these multidisciplinary implementation efforts, including championing and leading PGx-guided CMM services.
Project description:The identification and characterization of pharmacogenetic variants in Latin American populations is still an ongoing endeavor. Here, we investigated SNVs on genes listed by the Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base in 1284 Mestizos and 94 Natives from Mexico. Five institutional cohorts with NGS data were retrieved from different research projects at INMEGEN, sequencing files were filtered for 55 pharmacogenes present in all cohorts to identify novel and known variation. Bioinformatic tools VEP, PROVEAN, and FATHMM were used to assess, in silico, the functional impact of this variation. Next, we focused on 17 genes with actionable variants that have been clinically implemented. Allele frequencies were compared with major continental groups and differences discussed in the scope of a pharmacogenomic impact. We observed a wide genetic variability for known and novel SNVs, the largest variation was on UGT1A > ACE > COMT > ABCB1 and the lowest on APOE and NAT2. Although with allele frequencies around 1%, novel variation was observed in 16 of 17 PGKB genes. In Natives we identified 59 variants and 58 in Mestizos. Several genes did not show novel variation, on CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in Natives; and APOE, UGT1A, and VKORC1 in Mestizos. Similarities in allele frequency, comparing major continental groups for VIP pharmacogenes, hint towards a comparable PGx for drugs metabolized by UGT1A1, DPYD, ABCB1, CBR3, COMT, and TPMT; in contrast to variants on CYP3A5 and CYP2B6 for which significant MAF differences were identified. Our observations offer some discernment into the extent of pharmacogenetic variation registered up-to-date in Mexicans and contribute to quantitatively dissect actionable pharmacogenetic variants in Natives and Mestizos.
Project description:AIM:To determine the projected impact of a multigene pharmacogenetic (PGx) test on medication prescribing. MATERIALS & METHODS:A retrospective analysis was conducted with 122 cardiac catheterization laboratory patients undergoing angiography for eligibility of potential PGx-guided interventions that could have occurred if multigene PGx information was pre-emptively available at the time of the procedure. Medication data and presence of actionable at-risk genotypes were used to determine eligibility of a PGx intervention. RESULTS:20% of the study population (n = 24) would have qualified for at least one PGx-based medication intervention per US FDA or Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines within 6 months of their cardiac catheterization procedure. Commonly encountered gene-drug pairs for these interventions included: CYP2C19 for clopidogrel and antidepressants, CYP2D6 for antidepressants and codeine, SLCO1B1 for simvastatin, and VKORC1/CYP2C9 for warfarin. CONCLUSION:Pre-emptive use of a multigene PGx test in the cardiac catheterization laboratory offers potential to reduce adverse medication outcomes.