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LZTFL1 Upregulated by All-Trans Retinoic Acid during CD4+ T Cell Activation Enhances IL-5 Production.
ABSTRACT: Retinoic acids, which are metabolites of vitamin A, have been shown to be involved in multiple T cell effector responses through their binding to the retinoic acid receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor. Because the molecular mechanism of regulation by retinoic acid is still not fully uncovered, we investigated the gene expression profile of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated human CD4(+) T cells. Leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1 (LZTFL1) was upregulated by ATRA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of LZTFL1 depended on both ATRA and TCR signaling. LZTFL1 accumulated in the plasma membrane compartment of human CD4(+) T cells, and, during immunological synapse formation, it transiently redistributed to the T cell and APC contact zone, indicating its role in T cell activation. Live-cell imaging demonstrates that at the initial stage of immunological synapse formation, LZTFL1 is concentrated at the APC contact site, and, during later stages, it relocates to the distal pole. Knockdown of LZTFL1 reduced the basal- and ATRA-induced levels of IL-5 in CD4(+) T cells, and overexpression of LZTFL1 enhanced the TCR-mediated NFAT signaling, suggesting that LZTFL1 is an important regulator of ATRA-induced T cell response. Together, these data indicate that LZTFL1 modulates T cell activation and IL-5 levels.
Project description:RNA extracted from CD4 cells was analyzed using affymetrix gene array chips.Data set includes analysis of RNA from DMSO or ATRA treated samples. ATRA induced the expression of a number of genes including LZTFL1. Retinoic acids, which are metabolites of vitamin A, have been shown to be involved in multiple T cell effector responses through their binding to the retinoic acid receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor. Because the molecular mechanism of regulation by retinoic acid is still not fully uncovered, we investigated the gene expression profile of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated human CD4(+) T cells. Leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1 (LZTFL1) was upregulated by ATRA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of LZTFL1 depended on both ATRA and TCR signaling. LZTFL1 accumulated in the plasma membrane compartment of human CD4(+) T cells, and, during immunological synapse formation, it transiently redistributed to the T cell and APC contact zone, indicating its role in T cell activation. Live-cell imaging demonstrates that at the initial stage of immunological synapse formation, LZTFL1 is concentrated at the APC contact site, and, during later stages, it relocates to the distal pole. Knockdown of LZTFL1 reduced the basal- and ATRA-induced levels of IL-5 in CD4(+) T cells, and overexpression of LZTFL1 enhanced the TCR-mediated NFAT signaling, suggesting that LZTFL1 is an important regulator of ATRA-induced T cell response. Together, these data indicate that LZTFL1 modulates T cell activation and IL-5 levels. CD4 cells were isolated from human PBMCs and primed with anti-CD3 and IL-2 in presence and absence of retinoic acid. Two days later RNA was extracted and analyzed.
Project description:CD4(+) T cell recognition of MHC:peptide complexes in the context of a costimulatory signal results in the large-scale redistribution of molecules at the T cell-APC interface to form the immunological synapse. The immunological synapse is the location of sustained TCR signaling and delivery of a subset of effector functions. T cells activated in the absence of costimulation are rendered anergic and are hyporesponsive when presented with Ag in the presence of optimal costimulation. Several previous studies have looked at aspects of immunological synapses formed by anergic T cells, but it remains unclear whether there are differences in the formation or composition of anergic immunological synapses. In this study, we energized primary murine CD4(+) T cells by incubation of costimulation-deficient, transfected fibroblast APCs. Using a combination of TCR, MHC:peptide, and ICAM-1 staining, we found that anergic T cells make mature immunological synapses with characteristic central and peripheral supramolecular activation cluster domains that were indistinguishable from control synapses. There were small increases in total phosphotyrosine at the anergic synapse along with significant decreases in phosphorylated ERK 1/2 accumulation. Most striking, there was specific accumulation of c-Cbl and Cbl-b to the anergic synapses. Cbl-b, previously shown to be essential in anergy induction, was found in both the central and the peripheral supramolecular activation clusters of the anergic synapse. This Cbl-b (and c-Cbl) accumulation at the anergic synapse may play an important role in anergy maintenance, induction, or both.
Project description:HIV is transmitted most efficiently from cell to cell, and productive infection occurs mainly in activated CD4 T cells. It is postulated that HIV exploits immunological synapses formed between CD4 T cells and antigen-presenting cells to facilitate the targeting and infection of activated CD4 T cells. This study sought to evaluate how the presence of the HIV envelope (Env) in the CD4 T cell immunological synapse affects synapse formation and intracellular signaling to impact the downstream T cell activation events. CD4 T cells were applied to supported lipid bilayers that were reconstituted with HIV Env gp120, anti-T cell receptor (anti-TCR) monoclonal antibody, and ICAM-1 to represent the surface of HIV Env-bearing antigen-presenting cells. The results showed that the HIV Env did not disrupt immunological synapse formation. Instead, the HIV Env accumulated with TCR at the center of the synapse, altered the kinetics of TCR recruitment to the synapse and affected synapse morphology over time. The HIV Env also prolonged Lck phosphorylation at the synapse and enhanced TCR-induced CD69 upregulation, interleukin-2 secretion, and proliferation to promote virus infection. These results suggest that HIV uses the immunological synapse as a conduit not only for selective virus transmission to activated CD4 T cells but also for boosting the T cell activation state, thereby increasing its likelihood of undergoing productive replication in targeted CD4 T cells.There are about two million new HIV infections every year. A better understanding of how HIV is transmitted to susceptible cells is critical to devise effective strategies to prevent HIV infection. Activated CD4 T cells are preferentially infected by HIV, although how this is accomplished is not fully understood. This study examined whether HIV co-opts the normal T cell activation process through the so-called immunological synapse. We found that the HIV envelope is recruited to the center of the immunological synapse together with the T cell receptor and enhances the T cell receptor-induced activation of CD4 T cells. Heightened cellular activation promotes the capacity of CD4 T cells to support productive HIV replication. This study provides evidence of the exploitation of the normal immunological synapse and T cell activation process by HIV to boost the activation state of targeted CD4 T cells and promote the infection of these cells.
Project description:Antigen recognition by T cells involves large scale spatial reorganization of numerous receptor, adhesion, and costimulatory proteins within the T cell-antigen presenting cell (APC) junction. The resulting patterns can be distinctive, and are collectively known as the immunological synapse. Dynamical assembly of cytoskeletal network is believed to play an important role in driving these assembly processes. In one experimental strategy, the APC is replaced with a synthetic supported membrane. An advantage of this configuration is that solid structures patterned onto the underlying substrate can guide immunological synapse assembly into altered patterns. Here, we use mobile anti-CD3epsilon on the spatial-partitioned supported bilayer to ligate and trigger T cell receptor (TCR) in live Jurkat T cells. Simultaneous tracking of both TCR clusters and GFP-actin speckles reveals their dynamic association and individual flow patterns. Actin retrograde flow directs the inward transport of TCR clusters. Flow-based particle tracking algorithms allow us to investigate the velocity distribution of actin flow field across the whole synapse, and centripetal velocity of actin flow decreases as it moves toward the center of synapse. Localized actin flow analysis reveals that, while there is no influence on actin motion from substrate patterns directly, velocity differences of actin are observed over physically trapped TCR clusters. Actin flow regains its velocity immediately after passing through confined TCR clusters. These observations are consistent with a dynamic and dissipative coupling between TCR clusters and viscoelastic actin network.
Project description:Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, and metastatic behavior is largely responsible for this mortality. Mutations in multiple 'driver' oncogenes and tumor suppressors are known to contribute to the lung tumorigenesis and in some cases represent therapeutic targets. Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor-like 1 (LZTFL1) is located in the chromosome region 3p21.3 where allelic loss and genetic alterations occur early and frequently in lung cancers. Previously, we found that LZTFL1 is downregulated in epithelial tumors, including lung cancer, and functions as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancers. However, the functional role of LZTFL1 in lung oncogenesis is undefined. We show here that downregulation of LZTFL1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with recurrence and poor survival, whereas re-expression of LZTFL1 in lung tumor cells inhibited extravasation/colonization of circulating tumor cells to the lung and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that LZTFL1 is expressed in ciliated human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and its expression correlates with HBEC differentiation. LZTFL1 inhibits transforming growth factor ?-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase and hedgehog signaling. Alteration of intracellular levels of LZTFL1 resulted in changes of expression of genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We conclude that LZTFL1 inhibits lung tumorigenesis, possibly by maintaining epithelial cell differentiation and/or inhibition of signalings that lead to EMT and suggest that reactivation of LZTFL1 expression in tumor cells may be a novel lung cancer therapeutic approach.
Project description:T cells are activated by recognition of foreign peptides displayed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs), an event that triggers assembly of a complex microscale structure at the T cell-APC interface known as the immunological synapse (IS). It remains unresolved whether the unique physical structure of the synapse itself impacts the functional response of T cells, independent of the quantity and quality of ligands encountered by the T cell. As a first step toward addressing this question, we created multicomponent protein surfaces presenting lithographically defined patterns of tethered T cell receptor (TCR) ligands (anti-CD3 "activation sites") surrounded by a field of tethered intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), as a model substrate on which T cells could be seeded to mimic T cell-APC interactions. CD4(+) T cells seeded on these surfaces polarized and migrated; on contact with activation sites, T cells assembled an IS with a structure modulated by the physical pattern of ligand encountered. On surfaces patterned with focal spots of TCR ligand, T cells stably interacted with activation sites, proliferated, and secreted cytokines. In contrast, T cells interacting with activation sites patterned to preclude centralized clustering of TCR ligand failed to form stable contacts with activation sites, exhibited aberrant PKC- clustering in a fraction of cells, and had significantly reduced production of IFN-gamma. These results suggest that focal clustering of TCR ligand characteristic of the "mature" IS may be required under some conditions for full T cell activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Breast cancer is the most common cancer type in female. As microRNAs play vital role in breast cancer, this study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism and clinical value of miR-21 in breast cancer. METHODS:qRT-PCR was performed to detect miR-21 levels in plasma of 127 healthy controls, 82 benign breast tumor, 252 breast cancer patients, as well as in breast cancer cell lines. Transwell and wound healing assay were used to analyze breast cancer metastasis in response to miR-21 inhibitor. Colony formation and eFluor™ 670 based flow cytometric analysis were used to test breast cancer proliferation following miR-21 inhibitor treatment. Leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1 (LZTFL1), the target gene of miR-21 was predicted by MIRDB, TargetScan 5.1, PicTar and miRanda. Survival analysis of LZTFL1 levels in breast cancer prognosis was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method by log-rank test according to data from the Cancer Genome Atlas. Luciferase activity assay was performed to confirm the regulation of miR-21 on LZTFL1. LZTFL1 siRNA and miR-21 inhibitor were co-transfected to breast cancer cells, then cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) makers were tested. BALB/c nude mice were injected in situ with Hs578T cells stably overexpressing miR-21. Breast tumor growth, metastasis and the expression of EMT markers or LZTFL1 were detected in vivo. RESULTS:Plasma miR-21 levels were elevated in breast cancer patients compared with healthy controls and benign breast tumor patients, and the miR-21 levels were significantly decreased after surgery comparing with pre operation in 44 patients. Inhibition of miR-21 suppressed cell proliferation and metastasis in breast cancer cells. LZTFL1 was identified as a novel target gene of miR-21. Knockdown of LZTFL1 overcame the suppression of miR-21 inhibitor on cell proliferation, metastasis and the expression of EMT markers in breast cancer cells. miR-21 overexpression promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that plasma miR-21 level is a crucial biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis and targeting miR-21-LZTFL1-EMT axis might be a promising strategy in breast cancer therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered.
Project description:Activation of T cell receptor (TCR) by antigens occurs in concert with an elaborate multi-scale spatial reorganization of proteins at the immunological synapse, the junction between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC). The directed movement of molecules, which intrinsically requires physical forces, is known to modulate biochemical signaling. It remains unclear, however, if mechanical forces exert any direct influence on the signaling cascades. We use T cells from AND transgenic mice expressing TCRs specific to the moth cytochrome c 88-103 peptide, and replace the APC with a synthetic supported lipid membrane. Through a series of high spatiotemporal molecular tracking studies in live T cells, we demonstrate that the molecular motor, non-muscle myosin IIA, transiently drives TCR transport during the first one to two minutes of immunological synapse formation. Myosin inhibition reduces calcium influx and colocalization of active ZAP-70 (zeta-chain associated protein kinase 70) with TCR, revealing an influence on signaling activity. More tellingly, its inhibition also significantly reduces phosphorylation of the mechanosensing protein CasL (Crk-associated substrate the lymphocyte type), raising the possibility of a direct mechanical mechanism of signal modulation involving CasL.
Project description:To circumvent pathology caused by infectious microbes and tumor growth, the host immune system must constantly clear harmful microorganisms and potentially malignant transformed cells. This task is accomplished in part by T-cells, which can directly kill infected or tumorigenic cells. A crucial event determining the recognition and elimination of detrimental cells is antigen recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) expressed on the surface of T cells. Upon binding of the TCR to cognate peptide-MHC complexes presented on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs), a specialized supramolecular structure known as the immunological synapse (IS) assembles at the T cell-APC interface. Such a structure involves massive redistribution of membrane proteins, including TCR/pMHC complexes, modulatory receptor pairs, and adhesion molecules. Furthermore, assembly of the immunological synapse leads to intracellular events that modulate and define the magnitude and characteristics of the T cell response. Here, we discuss recent literature on the regulation and assembly of IS and the mechanisms evolved by tumors to modulate its function to escape T cell cytotoxicity, as well as novel strategies targeting the IS for therapy.
Project description:During T cell interaction with APC, CD28 is recruited to the central region (cSMAC) of the immunological synapse. CD28-mediated signaling through PI3K results in the recruitment of protein kinase C-theta (PKCtheta) to the cSMAC, activation of NF-kappaB, and up-regulation of IL-2 transcription. However, the mechanism that mediates CD28 localization to the cSMAC and the functional consequences of CD28 localization to the cSMAC are not understood. In this report, we show that CD28 recruitment and persistence at the immunological synapse requires TCR signals and CD80 engagement. Addition of mAb to either MHC class II or CD80 results in the rapid displacement of CD28 from the immunological synapse. Ligand binding is not sufficient for CD28 localization to the immunological synapse, as truncation of the cytosolic tail of CD28 disrupts synapse localization without effecting the ability of CD28 to bind CD80. Furthermore, a single point mutation in the CD28 cytosolic tail (tyrosine 188) interferes with the ability of CD28 to preferentially accumulate at the cSMAC. PKCtheta distribution at the immunological synapse mirrors the distribution of tyrosine 188-mutated CD28, indicating that CD28 drives the localization of PKCtheta even when CD28 is not localized to the cSMAC. Mutation of tyrosine 188 also results in diminished activation of NF-kappaB, suggesting that CD28-mediated localization of PKCtheta to the cSMAC is important for efficient signal transduction. These data reinforce the importance of the interplay of signals between TCR and CD28 and suggest that CD28 signaling through PCKtheta may be mediated through localization to the cSMAC region of the immunological synapse.