Tolerogenic IDO(+) Dendritic Cells Are Induced by PD-1-Expressing Mast Cells.
ABSTRACT: Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident cells, rich in inflammatory mediators, involved in allergic reactions, and with an increasingly recognized role in immunomodulation. Dendritic cells (DCs), on the other hand, are central to the determination of immune response patterns, being highly efficient antigen-presenting cells that respond promptly to changes in their microenvironment. Here, we show that direct cell contact between immature monocyte-derived DCs (iDCs) and MC bends DCs toward tolerance induction. DCs that had direct contact with MC (MC-iDC) decreased HLA-DR but increased PD-L1 expression and stimulated regulatory T lymphocytes, which expresses FoxP3(+), secrete TGF-? and IL-10, and suppress the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated naïve T lymphocytes. Furthermore, MC-iDC expressed higher levels of indoleamine-2,3-deoxigenase (IDO), a phenomenon that was blocked by treatment of MC with anti-PD-1 or by the treatment of DCs with anti-PD-L1 or anti-PD-L2, but not by blocking of H1 and H2 histamine receptors on DCs. Contact with MC also increased phosphorylated STAT-3 levels in iDCs. When a STAT-3 inhibitor, JSI-124, was added to the DCs before contact with MC, the MC-iDC recovered their ability to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation and did not increase their IDO expression.
Project description:Our previous study demonstrated that transfusion of ultraviolet B-irradiated immature dendritic cells (UVB-iDCs) induced alloantigen-specific tolerance between two different strains of mice. Programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have been suggested to play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance. In the present study, we seek to address whether PD-1/PD-L1 plays a role in the maintenance of UVB-iDC-induced tolerance. We first observe that the UVB-iDC-induced alloantigen-specific tolerance can be maintained for over 6 weeks. Supporting this, at 6 weeks after tolerance induction completion, alloantigen-specific tolerance is still able to be transferred to syngeneic naïve mice through adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, skin transplantation study shows that the survival of allogeneic grafts is prolonged in those tolerant recipients. Further studies show that PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is essential for maintaining the induced tolerance as blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 by anti-PD-L1 antibodies largely breaks the tolerance at both cellular and humoral immunological levels. Importantly, we show that PD-1/PD-L1 interaction in tolerant mice is also essential for controlling alloantigen-responding T cells, which have never experienced alloantigens. The above findings suggest that PD-1/PD-L1 plays a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance induced by UVB-iDCs, as well as in actively controlling effector T cells specific to alloantigens.
Project description:As dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells, they are being tested as cancer vaccines for immunotherapy of established cancers. Although numerous studies have characterized DCs by their phenotype and function, few have identified potential molecular markers of antigen presentation prior to vaccination of host. In this study we generated pre-immature DC (piDC), immature DC (iDC), and mature DC (mDC) from human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) obtained from HLA-A2 healthy donors, and pulsed them with human papillomavirus E7 peptide (p11-20), a class I HLA-A2 binding antigen. We then characterized DCs for cell surface phenotype and gene expression profile by microarray technology. We identified a set of 59 genes that distinguished three differentiation stages of DCs (piDC, iDC and mDC). When piDC, iDC and mDC were pulsed with E7 peptide for 2 hrs, the surface phenotype did not change, however, iDCs rather than mDCs showed transcriptional response by up-regulation of a set of genes. A total of 52 genes were modulated in iDC upon antigen pulsing. Elongation of pulse time for iDCs to 10 and 24 hrs did not significantly bring further changes in gene expression. The E7 peptide up-modulated immune response (KPNA7, IGSF6, NCR3, TREM2, TUBAL3, IL8, NFKBIA), pro-apoptosis (BTG1, SEMA6A, IGFBP3 and SRGN), anti-apoptosis (NFKBIA), DNA repair (MRPS11, RAD21, TXNRD1), and cell adhesion and cell migration genes (EPHA1, PGF, IL8 and CYR61) in iDCs. We confirmed our results by Q-PCR analysis. The E7 peptide but not control peptide (PADRE) induced up-regulation of NFKB1A gene only in HLA-A2 positive iDCs and not in HLA-A2 negative iDCs. These results suggest that E7 up-regulation of genes is specific and HLA restricted and that these genes may represent markers of antigen presentation and help rapidly assess the quality of dendritic cells prior to administration to the host.
Project description:The pro-inflammatory S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8) is elevated in the serum of patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but its function in Plasmodium vivax malaria is not yet clear. This function was investigated in P. vivax-infected patients in this study.The level of S100A8 in the serum was measured with ELISA. Full amino acids of S100A8 were synthesized to verify the functions for maturation of immature dendritic cell (iDC) and evaluation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) generation by mature DC (mDC).A higher amount of S100A8 was detected in vivax-infected patients (141.2 ± 61.849 ng/ml, n = 40) compared with normal control group (48.1 ± 27.384 ng/ml, n = 40). The level of S100A8 did not coincide with that of anti-malarial antibody measured by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using parasite-infected red blood cells as antigen. Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) was up-regulated on the surface of iDCs following treatment with synthetic S100A8, not with synthetic MSP-1, AMA-1 and CSP, as compared to the expression seen for non-treated iDCs. The addition of red blood cells of infected patients to iDCs also elevated their surface expression of CD86. However, the serum levels of S100A8 decreased with increase in parasitaemia. DCs matured by sera containing S100A8 generated Treg cells from naïve T cells. The ratio of Treg cells generated was inversely proportional to the concentration of S100A8 in sera.Treg cells suppress the activity of cytotoxic T cells, which kill malaria parasites; therefore, the up-regulation of S100A8 in malaria patients may contribute to pathogen immune escape or tolerance.
Project description:A small population of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) in mouse tumor-draining LNs can express the immunoregulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We show that these IDO+ pDCs directly activate resting CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs for potent suppressor activity. In vivo, Tregs isolated from tumor-draining LNs were constitutively activated and suppressed antigen-specific T cells immediately ex vivo. In vitro, IDO+ pDCs from tumor-draining LNs rapidly activated resting Tregs from non-tumor-bearing hosts without the need for mitogen or exogenous anti-CD3 crosslinking. Treg activation by IDO+ pDCs was MHC restricted, required an intact amino acid-responsive GCN2 pathway in the Tregs, and was prevented by CTLA4 blockade. Tregs activated by IDO markedly upregulated programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 expression on target DCs, and the ability of Tregs to suppress target T cell proliferation was abrogated by antibodies against the programmed cell death 1/PD-L (PD-1/PD-L) pathway. In contrast, Tregs activated by anti-CD3 crosslinking did not cause upregulation of PD-Ls, and suppression by these cells was unaffected by blocking the PD-1/PD-L pathway. Tregs isolated from tumor-draining LNs in vivo showed potent PD-1/PD-L-mediated suppression, which was selectively lost when tumors were grown in IDO-deficient hosts. We hypothesize that IDO+ pDCs create a profoundly suppressive microenvironment within tumor-draining LNs via constitutive activation of Tregs.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are increasingly important for research and clinical use but obtaining sufficient numbers of dendritic cells is a growing challenge. We systemically investigated the effect of monocyte (MO) seeding density on the generation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (iDCs) in MicroDEN, a perfusion-based culture system, as well as 6-well plates. Cell surface markers and the ability of the iDCs to induce proliferation of allogeneic T cells were examined. The data shows a strong relationship between iDC phenotype, specifically CD80/83/86 expression, and T cell proliferation. MicroDEN generated iDCs proved better than well plate generated iDCs at inducing T cell proliferation within the 200k-600k MO/cm2 seeding density range studied. We attribute this to perfusion in MicroDEN which supplies fresh differentiation medium continuously to the differentiating MOs while concurrently removing depleted medium and toxic byproducts of cellular respiration. MicroDEN generated fewer iDCs on a normalized basis than the well plates at lower MO seeding densities but generated equivalent numbers of iDCs at 600k MO seeding density. These results demonstrate that MicroDEN is capable of generating greater numbers of iDCs with less manual work than standard well plate culture and the MicroDEN generated iDCs have greater ability to induce T cell proliferation.
Project description:Zinc (Zn) is an essential metal for development and maintenance of both the innate and adaptive compartments of the immune system. Zn homeostasis impacts maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) that are important in shaping T cell responses. The mechanisms by which Zn regulates the tolerogenic phenotype of DCs remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of Zn on DC phenotype and the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) using a model of Histoplasma capsulatum fungal infection. Exposure of bone marrow-derived DCs to Zn in vitro induced a tolerogenic phenotype by diminishing surface MHC class II (MHCII) and promoting the tolerogenic markers, programmed death-ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2, and the tryptophan degrading enzyme, IDO. Zn triggered tryptophan degradation by IDO and kynurenine production by DCs and strongly suppressed the proinflammatory response to stimulation by TLR ligands. In vivo, Zn supplementation and subsequent H. capsulatum infection supressed MHCII on DCs, enhanced PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression on MHCII(lo) DCs, and skewed the Treg-Th17 balance in favor of Foxp3(+) Tregs while decreasing Th17 cells. Thus, Zn shapes the tolerogenic potential of DCs in vitro and in vivo and promotes Tregs during fungal infection.
Project description:African American women with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma have worse outcomes compared with women of European descent. Although the discrepancy is partially attributed to differences in access to care, the tumor immune microenvironment may also contribute. Expression of targetable immune regulatory molecules such as programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is of particular interest as it may help guide therapy in this population. Using cases from the largest study of African American women with ovarian cancer, the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, we characterized PD-L1 and IDO expression in 112 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, IDO, CD8, FOX3p, and CD68 was performed. PD-L1 and IDO were scored as the percentage of positive tumor cells and tumor-associated immune cells. CD8 and FOX3p counts were averaged across 10 high-power fields. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between PD-L1 and IDO expression and survival. Tumor cells were positive for PD-L1 and IDO in 29% and 58% of cases, respectively. The majority showed <10% staining, and no cases exceeded 25% positivity. The majority of PD-L1-positive cases coexpressed IDO. PD-L1 and IDO expression was associated with higher CD8 and FOX3p counts (P<0.05). No association was observed between PD-L1 and IDO and survival. In summary, expression of PD-L1 and IDO is seen in a subset of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma from African American women and is correlated with elevated lymphocyte infiltration. While PD-L1 and IDO co-expression suggests a role for dual immunotherapy, diffuse expression of PD-L1 and IDO is rare, invoking caution regarding the potential for immunotherapeutic response.
Project description:Induction of optimal HIV-1-specific T-cell responses, which can contribute to controlling viral infection in vivo, depends on antigen processing and presentation processes occurring in DCs. Opsonization can influence the routing of antigen processing and pathways used for presentation. We studied antigen proteolysis and the role of endocytic receptors in MHC class I (MHCI) and II (MHCII) presentation of antigens derived from HIV-1 in human monocyte-derived immature DCs (IDCs) and mature DCs, comparing free and complement opsonized HIV-1 particles. Opsonization of virions promoted MHCI presentation by DCs, indicating that complement opsonization routes more virions toward the MHCI presentation pathway. Blockade of macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and ?7-integrin enhanced MHCI and MHCII presentation by IDCs and mature DCs, whereas the block of complement receptor 3 decreased MHCI and MHCII presentation. In addition, we found that IDC and MDC proteolytic activities were modulated by HIV-1 exposure; complement-opsonized HIV-1 induced an increased proteasome activity in IDCs. Taken together, these findings indicate that endocytic receptors such as MMR, complement receptor 3, and ?7-integrin can promote or disfavor antigen presentation probably by routing HIV-1 into different endosomal compartments with distinct efficiencies for degradation of viral antigens and MHCI and MHCII presentation, and that HIV-1 affects the antigen-processing machinery.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) competent to express the regulatory enzyme IDO in mice are a small but distinctive subset of DCs. Previously, we reported that a high-dose systemic CpG treatment to ligate TLR9 in vivo induced functional IDO exclusively in splenic CD19(+) DCs, which stimulated resting Foxp3-lineage regulatory T cells (Tregs) to rapidly acquire potent suppressor activity. In this paper, we show that IDO was induced in spleen and peripheral lymph nodes after CpG treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Induced IDO suppressed local T cell responses to exogenous Ags and inhibited proinflammatory cytokine expression in response to TLR9 ligation. IDO induction did not occur in T cell-deficient mice or in mice with defective B7 or programmed death (PD)-1 costimulatory pathways. Consistent with these findings, CTLA4 or PD-1/PD-ligand costimulatory blockade abrogated IDO induction and prevented Treg activation via IDO following high-dose CpG treatment. Consequently, CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells uniformly expressed IL-17 shortly after TLR9 ligation. These data support the hypothesis that constitutive interactions from activated T cells or Tregs and IDO-competent DCs via concomitant CTLA4?B7 and PD-1?PD-ligand signals maintain the default potential to regulate T cell responsiveness via IDO. Acute disruption of these nonredundant interactions abrogated regulation via IDO, providing novel perspectives on the proinflammatory effects of costimulatory blockade therapies. Moreover, interactions between IDO-competent DCs and activated T cells in lymphoid tissues may attenuate proinflammatory responses to adjuvants such as TLR ligands.