Divergent Requirement for a DNA Repair Enzyme during Enterovirus Infections.
ABSTRACT: Viruses of the Enterovirus genus of picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and human rhinovirus, commandeer the functions of host cell proteins to aid in the replication of their small viral genomic RNAs during infection. One of these host proteins is a cellular DNA repair enzyme known as 5' tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2). TDP2 was previously demonstrated to mediate the cleavage of a unique covalent linkage between a viral protein (VPg) and the 5' end of picornavirus RNAs. Although VPg is absent from actively translating poliovirus mRNAs, the removal of VPg is not required for the in vitro translation and replication of the RNA. However, TDP2 appears to be excluded from replication and encapsidation sites during peak times of poliovirus infection of HeLa cells, suggesting a role for TDP2 during the viral replication cycle. Using a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line lacking TDP2, we found that TDP2 is differentially required among enteroviruses. Our single-cycle viral growth analysis shows that CVB3 replication has a greater dependency on TDP2 than does poliovirus or human rhinovirus replication. During infection, CVB3 protein accumulation is undetectable (by Western blot analysis) in the absence of TDP2, whereas poliovirus protein accumulation is reduced but still detectable. Using an infectious CVB3 RNA with a reporter, CVB3 RNA could still be replicated in the absence of TDP2 following transfection, albeit at reduced levels. Overall, these results indicate that TDP2 potentiates viral replication during enterovirus infections of cultured cells, making TDP2 a potential target for antiviral development for picornavirus infections.Picornaviruses are one of the most prevalent groups of viruses that infect humans and livestock worldwide. These viruses include the human pathogens belonging to the Enterovirus genus, such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and human rhinovirus. Diseases caused by enteroviruses pose a major problem for public health and have significant economic impact. Poliovirus can cause paralytic poliomyelitis. CVB3 can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease and myocarditis. Human rhinovirus is the causative agent of the common cold, which has a severe economic impact due to lost productivity and severe health consequences in individuals with respiratory dysfunction, such as asthma. By gaining a better understanding of the enterovirus replication cycle, antiviral drugs against enteroviruses may be developed. Here, we report that the absence of the cellular enzyme TDP2 can significantly decrease viral yields of poliovirus, CVB3, and human rhinovirus, making TDP2 a potential target for an antiviral against enterovirus infections.
Project description:Cardioviruses cause diseases in many animals including, in rare cases, humans. Although they share common features with all picornaviruses, cardioviruses have unique properties that distinguish them from other family members, including enteroviruses. One feature shared by all picornaviruses is the covalent attachment of VPg to the 5' end of genomic RNA via a phosphotyrosyl linkage. For enteroviruses, this linkage is cleaved by a host cell protein, TDP2. Since TDP2 is divergently required during enterovirus infections, we determined if TDP2 is necessary during infection by the prototype cardiovirus, EMCV. We found that EMCV yields are reduced in the absence of TDP2. We observed a decrease in viral protein accumulation and viral RNA replication in the absence of TDP2. In contrast to enterovirus infections, we found that TDP2 is modified at peak times of EMCV infection. This finding suggests a unique mechanism for cardioviruses to regulate TDP2 activity during infection.
Project description:The genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae contains many important human pathogens (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and enterovirus 71) for which no antiviral drugs are available. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. Nucleoside-based inhibitors have broad-spectrum activity but often exhibit off-target effects. Most non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) target surface cavities, which are structurally more flexible than the nucleotide-binding pocket, and hence have a more narrow spectrum of activity and are more prone to resistance development. Here, we report a novel NNI, GPC-N114 (2,2'-[(4-chloro-1,2-phenylene)bis(oxy)]bis(5-nitro-benzonitrile)) with broad-spectrum activity against enteroviruses and cardioviruses (another genus in the picornavirus family). Surprisingly, coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and poliovirus displayed a high genetic barrier to resistance against GPC-N114. By contrast, EMCV, a cardiovirus, rapidly acquired resistance due to mutations in 3Dpol. In vitro polymerase activity assays showed that GPC-N114 i) inhibited the elongation activity of recombinant CVB3 and EMCV 3Dpol, (ii) had reduced activity against EMCV 3Dpol with the resistance mutations, and (iii) was most efficient in inhibiting 3Dpol when added before the RNA template-primer duplex. Elucidation of a crystal structure of the inhibitor bound to CVB3 3Dpol confirmed the RNA-binding channel as the target for GPC-N114. Docking studies of the compound into the crystal structures of the compound-resistant EMCV 3Dpol mutants suggested that the resistant phenotype is due to subtle changes that interfere with the binding of GPC-N114 but not of the RNA template-primer. In conclusion, this study presents the first NNI that targets the RNA template channel of the picornavirus polymerase and identifies a new pocket that can be used for the design of broad-spectrum inhibitors. Moreover, this study provides important new insight into the plasticity of picornavirus polymerases at the template binding site.
Project description:Enteroviruses, members of the family of picornaviruses, are the most common viral infectious agents in humans causing a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from mild respiratory illnesses to life-threatening infections. To efficiently replicate within the host cell, enteroviruses hijack several host factors, such as ACBD3. ACBD3 facilitates replication of various enterovirus species, however, structural determinants of ACBD3 recruitment to the viral replication sites are poorly understood. Here, we present a structural characterization of the interaction between ACBD3 and the non-structural 3A proteins of four representative enteroviruses (poliovirus, enterovirus A71, enterovirus D68, and rhinovirus B14). In addition, we describe the details of the 3A-3A interaction causing the assembly of the ACBD3-3A heterotetramers and the interaction between the ACBD3-3A complex and the lipid bilayer. Using structure-guided identification of the point mutations disrupting these interactions, we demonstrate their roles in the intracellular localization of these proteins, recruitment of downstream effectors of ACBD3, and facilitation of enterovirus replication. These structures uncovered a striking convergence in the mechanisms of how enteroviruses and kobuviruses, members of a distinct group of picornaviruses that also rely on ACBD3, recruit ACBD3 and its downstream effectors to the sites of viral replication.
Project description:Picornavirus infection involves a dynamic interplay of host and viral protein interactions that modulates cellular processes to facilitate virus infection and evade host antiviral defenses. Here, using a proteomics-based approach known as TAILS to identify protease-generated neo-N-terminal peptides, we identify a novel target of the poliovirus 3C proteinase, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteinM(hnRNP M), a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein that is primarily known for its role in pre-mRNA splicing. hnRNPMis cleaved in vitro by poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) 3C proteinases and is targeted in poliovirus- and CVB3-infected HeLa cells and in the hearts of CVB3-infected mice. hnRNPMrelocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during poliovirus infection. Finally, depletion of hnRNPMusing small interfering RNA knockdown approaches decreases poliovirus and CVB3 infections in HeLa cells and does not affect poliovirus internal ribosome entry site translation and viral RNA stability. We propose that cleavage of and subverting the function of hnRNPMis a general strategy utilized by picornaviruses to facilitate viral infection.Enteroviruses, a member of the picornavirus family, are RNA viruses that cause a range of diseases, including respiratory ailments, dilated cardiomyopathy, and paralysis. Although enteroviruses have been studied for several decades, the molecular basis of infection and the pathogenic mechanisms leading to disease are still poorly understood. Here, we identify hnRNPMas a novel target of a viral proteinase. We demonstrate that the virus subverts the function of hnRNPMand redirects it to a step in the viral life cycle. We propose that cleavage of hnRNPMis a general strategy that picornaviruses use to facilitate infection.
Project description:Enteroviruses infect gastrointestinal epithelium cells, cause multiple human diseases, and present public health risks worldwide. However, the mechanisms underlying host immune responses in intestinal mucosa against the early enterovirus infections remain elusive. Here, we showed that human enteroviruses including enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and poliovirus 1 (PV1) predominantly induce type III interferons (IFN-?1 and IFN-?2/3), rather than type I interferons (IFN-? and IFN-?), in cultured human normal and cancerous intestine epithelial cells (IECs), mouse intestine tissues, and human clinical intestine specimens. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that IFN-? production is induced upon enterovirus infection through the Toll-like receptor 3/interferon regulatory factor 1 (TLR3/IRF1) signaling pathway in IECs. In turn, the supplementation of IFN-? subsequently induces intrinsically antiviral responses against enterovirus replication. Notably, intraperitoneal injection in neonatal C57BL/6J mice with mouse recombinant IFN-?2 protein represses EV71 replication and protects mice from viral lethal effects. Altogether, these results revealed a distinct mechanism by which the host elicited immune responses against enterovirus infections in intestine through activating the TLR3/IRF1/type III IFN axis. The new findings would provide an antiviral strategy for the prevention and treatment of enterovirus infections and associated diseases.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Enterovirus infections are significant sources of human diseases and public health risks worldwide, but little is known about the mechanism of innate immune response in host intestine epithelial surface during the viral replication. We reported the epithelial immune response in cultured human normal and cancerous cells (IECs), mouse tissues, and human clinical intestine specimens following infection with enterovirus 71. The results mechanistically revealed type III interferons (IFN-?1 and IFN-?2/3), rather than type I interferons (IFN-? and IFN-?), as the dominant production through TLR3/IRF1 signaling upon multiple human enterovirus infection, including enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and poliovirus 1 (PV1). IFN-? subsequently induced antiviral activity against enterovirus replication <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo.</i> These studies uncovered the role of the novel process of type III IFN production involved in the TLR3/IRF1 pathway in host intestine upon enterovirus infection, which highlighted a regulatory manner of antiviral defense in intestine during enterovirus infection.
Project description:A previously described mammalian cell activity, called VPg unlinkase, specifically cleaves a unique protein-RNA covalent linkage generated during the viral genomic RNA replication steps of a picornavirus infection. For over three decades, the identity of this cellular activity and its normal role in the uninfected cell had remained elusive. Here we report the purification and identification of VPg unlinkase as the DNA repair enzyme, 5'-tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase-2 (TDP2). Our data show that VPg unlinkase activity in different mammalian cell lines correlates with their differential expression of TDP2. Furthermore, we show that recombinant TDP2 can cleave the protein-RNA linkage generated by different picornaviruses without impairing the integrity of viral RNA. Our results reveal a unique RNA repair-like function for TDP2 and suggest an unusual role in host-pathogen interactions for this cellular enzyme. On the basis of the identification of TDP2 as a potential antiviral target, our findings may lead to the development of universal therapeutics to treat the millions of individuals afflicted annually with diseases caused by picornaviruses, including myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, hepatitis, and the common cold.
Project description:Enteroviruses (e.g., poliovirus, enterovirus-A71, coxsackievirus, enterovirus-D68, rhinovirus) include many human pathogens causative of various mild and more severe diseases, especially in young children. Unfortunately, antiviral drugs to treat enterovirus infections have not been approved yet. Over the past decades, several direct-acting inhibitors have been developed, including capsid binders, which block virus entry, and inhibitors of viral enzymes required for genome replication. Capsid binders and protease inhibitors have been clinically evaluated, but failed due to limited efficacy or toxicity issues. As an alternative approach, host-targeting inhibitors with potential broad-spectrum activity have been identified. Furthermore, drug repurposing screens have recently uncovered promising new inhibitors with disparate viral and host targets. Together, these findings raise hope for the development of (broad-range) anti-enteroviral drugs.
Project description:The mechanism of amiloride inhibition of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and poliovirus type 1 (PV1) RNA replication was investigated using membrane-associated RNA replication complexes. Amiloride was shown to inhibit viral RNA replication and VPgpUpU synthesis. However, the drug had no effect on polymerase elongation activity during either (-) strand or (+) strand synthesis. These findings indicated that amiloride inhibited the initiation of RNA synthesis by inhibiting VPg uridylylation. In addition, in silico binding studies showed that amiloride docks in the VPg binding site on the back of the viral RNA polymerase, 3D(pol). Since VPg binding at this site on PV1 3D(pol) was previously shown to be required for VPg uridylylation, our results suggest that amiloride inhibits VPg binding to 3D(pol). In summary, our findings are consistent with a model in which amiloride inhibits VPgpUpU synthesis and viral RNA replication by competing with VPg for binding to 3D(pol).
Project description:RNA viruses can rapidly mutate and acquire resistance to drugs that directly target viral enzymes, which poses serious problems in a clinical context. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the development of antiviral drugs that target host factors critical for viral replication, since they are unlikely to mutate in response to therapy. We recently demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III? (PI4KIII?) and its product phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) are essential for replication of enteroviruses, a group of medically important RNA viruses including poliovirus (PV), coxsackievirus, rhinovirus, and enterovirus 71. Here, we show that enviroxime and GW5074 decreased PI4P levels at the Golgi complex by directly inhibiting PI4KIII?. Coxsackievirus mutants resistant to these inhibitors harbor single point mutations in the non-structural protein 3A. These 3A mutations did not confer compound-resistance by restoring the activity of PI4KIII? in the presence of the compounds. Instead, replication of the mutant viruses no longer depended on PI4KIII?, since their replication was insensitive to siRNA-mediated depletion of PI4KIII?. The mutant viruses also did not rely on other isoforms of PI4K. Consistently, no high level of PI4P could be detected at the replication sites induced by the mutant viruses in the presence of the compounds. Collectively, these findings indicate that through specific single point mutations in 3A, CVB3 can bypass an essential host factor and lipid for its propagation, which is a new example of RNA viruses acquiring resistance against antiviral compounds, even when they directly target host factors.
Project description:Itraconazole (ITZ) is a well-known antifungal agent that also has anticancer activity. In this study, we identify ITZ as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses (e.g., poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus-71, rhinovirus). We demonstrate that ITZ inhibits viral RNA replication by targeting oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related protein 4 (ORP4). Consistently, OSW-1, a specific OSBP/ORP4 antagonist, also inhibits enterovirus replication. Knockdown of OSBP inhibits virus replication, whereas overexpression of OSBP or ORP4 counteracts the antiviral effects of ITZ and OSW-1. ITZ binds OSBP and inhibits its function, i.e., shuttling of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate between membranes, thereby likely perturbing the virus-induced membrane alterations essential for viral replication organelle formation. ITZ also inhibits hepatitis C virus replication, which also relies on OSBP. Together, these data implicate OSBP/ORP4 as molecular targets of ITZ and point to an essential role of OSBP/ORP4-mediated lipid exchange in virus replication that can be targeted by antiviral drugs.