Inhibiting the immunoproteasome exacerbates the pathogenesis of systemic Candida albicans infection in mice.
ABSTRACT: Apart from its role in MHC class I antigen processing, the immunoproteasome has recently been implicated in the modulation of T helper cell differentiation under polarizing conditions in vitro and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases in vivo. In this study, we investigated the influence of LMP7 on T helper cell differentiation in response to the fungus Candida albicans. We observed a strong effect of ONX 0914, an LMP7-selective inhibitor of the immunoproteasome, on IFN-? and IL-17A production by murine splenocytes and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with C. albicans in vitro. Using a murine model of systemic candidiasis, we could confirm reduced generation of IFN-?- and IL-17A-producing cells in ONX 0914 treated mice in vivo. Interestingly, ONX 0914 treatment resulted in increased susceptibility to systemic candidiasis, which manifested at very early stages of infection. Mice treated with ONX 0914 showed markedly increased kidney and brain fungal burden which resulted in enhanced neutrophil recruitment and immunopathology. Together, these results strongly suggest a role of the immunoproteasome in promoting proinflammatory T helper cells in response to C. albicans but also in affecting the innate antifungal immunity in a T helper cell-independent manner.
Project description:Cells of hematopoietic origin express high levels of the immunoproteasome, a cytokine-inducible proteasome variant comprising the proteolytic subunits LMP2 (?1i), MECL-1 (?2i), and LMP7 (?5i). Targeting the immunoproteasome in pre-clinical models of autoimmune diseases with the epoxyketone inhibitor ONX 0914 has proven to be effective. ONX 0914 was previously described as a selective LMP7 inhibitor. Here, we show that PRN1126, developed as an exclusively LMP7-specific inhibitor, has limited effects on IL-6 secretion, experimental colitis, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We demonstrate that prolonged exposure of cells with ONX 0914 leads to inhibition of both LMP7 and LMP2. Co-inhibition of LMP7 and LMP2 with PRN1126 and LMP2 inhibitors LU-001i or ML604440 impairs MHC class I cell surface expression, IL-6 secretion, and differentiation of naïve T helper cells to T helper 17 cells, and strongly ameliorates disease in experimental colitis and EAE. Hence, co-inhibition of LMP2 and LMP7 appears to be synergistic and advantageous for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Cells of hematopoietic origin express high levels of the immunoproteasome, a cytokine-inducible proteasome variant comprising the proteolytic subunits LMP2 (?1i), MECL-1 (?2i), and LMP7 (?5i). Targeting the immunoproteasome in pre-clinical models of autoimmune diseases with the epoxyketone inhibitor ONX 0914 has proven to be effective. ONX 0914 was described as a selective LMP7 inhibitor. Here we show that PRN1126, developed as an exclusively LMP7-specific inhibitor, has limited effects on IL-6 secretion, experimental colitis, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We demonstrate that prolonged exposure of cells with ONX 0914 leads to inhibition of both, LMP7 and LMP2. Co-inhibition of LMP7 and LMP2 with PRN1126 and LMP2 inhibitors LU-001i or ML604440 impairs MHC class I cell surface expression, IL-6 secretion, differentiation of naïve T helper cells to T helper 17 cells, and strongly ameliorates disease in experimental colitis and EAE. Hence, co-inhibition of LMP2 and LMP7 appears to be synergistic and advantageous for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Project description:: Inhibition of proteasome function by small molecules is highly efficacious in cancer treatment. Other than non-selective proteasome inhibitors, immunoproteasome-specific inhibitors allow for specific targeting of the proteasome in immune cells and the profound anti-inflammatory potential of such compounds revealed implications for inflammatory scenarios. For pathogen-triggered inflammation, however, the efficacy of immunoproteasome inhibitors is controversial. In this study, we investigated how ONX 0914, an immunoproteasome-selective inhibitor, influences CoxsackievirusB3 infection in NMRI mice, resulting in the development of acute and chronic myocarditis, which is accompanied by formation of the immunoproteasome in heart tissue. In groups in which ONX 0914 treatment was initiated once viral cytotoxicity had emerged in the heart, ONX 0914 had no anti-inflammatory effect in the acute or chronic stages. ONX 0914 treatment initiated prior to infection, however, increased viral cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes, promoting infiltration of myeloid immune cells into the heart. At this stage, ONX 0914 completely inhibited the ?5 subunit of the standard cardiac proteasome and less efficiently blocked its immunoproteasome counterpart LMP7. In conclusion, ONX 0914 unselectively perturbs cardiac proteasome function in viral myocarditis of NMRI mice, reduces the capacity of the host to control the viral burden and promotes cardiac inflammation.
Project description:The immunoproteasome, a special isoform of the 20S proteasome, is expressed when the cells receive an inflammatory signal. Immunoproteasome inhibition proved efficacy in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of the immunoproteasome in the pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains unknown. We found that the expression of the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit, large multifunctional protease 2 (LMP2), was significantly upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of active ITP patients compared to those of healthy controls. No significant differences in LMP7 expression were observed between patients and controls. ML604440, an specific LMP2 inhibitor, had no significant impact on the platelet count of ITP mice, while ONX-0914 (an inhibitor of both LMP2 and LMP7) increased the number of platelets. <i>In vitro</i> assays revealed that ONX-0914 decreased the expression of Fc?RI in ITP mice and decreased that of Fc?RIII in ITP patients, inhibited the activation of CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells, and affected the differentiation of Th1 cells in patients with ITP. These results suggest that the inhibition of immunoproteasome is a potential therapeutic approach for ITP patients.
Project description:Proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib are approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma and have demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The t(4;11)(q21;q23) chromosomal translocation that leads to the expression of MLL-AF4 fusion protein and confers a poor prognosis, is the major cause of infant ALL. This translocation sensitizes tumor cells to proteasome inhibitors, but toxicities of bortezomib and carfilzomib may limit their use in pediatric patients. Many of these toxicities are caused by on-target inhibition of proteasomes in non-lymphoid tissues (e.g., heart muscle, gut, testicles). We found that MLL-AF4 cells express high levels of lymphoid tissue-specific immunoproteasomes and are sensitive to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of specific immunoproteasome inhibitor ONX-0914, even in the presence of stromal cells. Inhibition of multiple active sites of the immunoproteasomes was required to achieve cytotoxicity against ALL. ONX-0914, an inhibitor of LMP7 (ß5i) and LMP2 (ß1i) sites of the immunoproteasome, and LU-102, inhibitor of proteasome ß2 sites, exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity. Treatment with ONX-0914 significantly delayed the growth of orthotopic ALL xenograft tumors in mice. T-cell ALL lines were also sensitive to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ONX-0914. This study provides a strong rationale for testing clinical stage immunoproteasome inhibitors KZ-616 and M3258 in ALL.
Project description:Chronic inflammation is a well-known risk factor in development of intestinal tumorigenesis, although the exact mechanisms underlying development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) still remain obscure. The activity and function of immunoproteasome has been extensively analyzed in the context of inflammation and infectious diseases. Here, we show that the proteasomal immunosubunit LMP7 plays an essential role in development of CAC. Mice devoid of LMP7 were resistant to chronic inflammation and formation of neoplasia, and developed virtually no tumors after AOM/DSS treatment. Our data reveal that LMP7 deficiency resulted in reduced expression of pro-tumorigenic chemokines CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL3 as well as adhesion molecule VCAM-1. As a consequence, an impaired recruitment and activity of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes resulting in decreased secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? was observed. Further, the deletion or pharmacological inhibition of LMP7 and consequent blockade of NF-?B abrogated the production of IL-17A, which possesses a strong carcinogenic activity in the gut. Moreover, <i>in vivo</i> administration of the selective LMP7 inhibitor ONX-0914 led to a marked reduction of tumor numbers in wild-type (WT) mice. Collectively, we identified the immunoproteasome as a crucial mediator of inflammation-driven neoplasia highlighting a novel potential therapeutic approach to limit colonic tumorigenesis.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating immune mediated disease of the central nervous system. The immunoproteasome is a distinct class of proteasomes found predominantly in monocytes and lymphocytes. Recently, we demonstrated a novel function of immunoproteasomes in cytokine production and T cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of an inhibitor of the immunoproteasome (ONX 0914) in two different mouse models of MS. ONX 0914 attenuated disease progression after active and passive induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), both in MOG₃₅-₅₅ and PLP₁₃₉₋₁₅₁-induced EAE. Isolation of lymphocytes from the brain or spinal cord revealed a strong reduction of cytokine-producing CD4(+) cells in ONX 0914 treated mice. Additionally, ONX 0914 treatment prevented disease exacerbation in a relapsing-remitting model. An analysis of draining lymph nodes after induction of EAE revealed that the differentiation to Th17 or Th1 cells was strongly impaired in ONX 0914 treated mice. These results implicate the immunoproteasome in the development of EAE and suggest that immunoproteasome inhibitors are promising drugs for the treatment of MS.
Project description:Proteasome inhibitors bortezomib, carfilzomib and ixazomib (approved by the US Food and Drug Administration [FDA]) induce remissions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), but most patients eventually become resistant. MM and other hematologic malignancies express ubiquitous constitutive proteasomes and lymphoid tissue-specific immunoproteasomes; immunoproteasome expression is increased in resistant patients. Immunoproteasomes contain 3 distinct pairs of active sites, ?5i, ?1i, and ?2i, which are different from their constitutive ?5c, ?1c, and ?2c counterparts. Bortezomib and carfilzomib block ?5c and ?5i sites. We report here that pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ?5i-specific inhibitor ONX-0914 show cytotoxicity in MM cell lines similar to that of carfilzomib and bortezomib. In addition, increasing immunoproteasome expression by interferon-? increases sensitivity to ONX-0914 but not to carfilzomib. LU-102, an inhibitor of ?2 sites, dramatically sensitizes MM cell lines and primary cells to ONX-0914. ONX-0914 synergizes with all FDA-approved proteasome inhibitors in MM in vitro and in vivo. Thus, immunoproteasome inhibitors, currently in clinical trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, should also be considered for the treatment of MM.
Project description:Severe heart pathology upon virus infection is closely associated with the immunological equipment of the host. Since there is no specific treatment available, current research focuses on identifying new drug targets to positively modulate predisposing immune factors. Utilizing a murine model with high susceptibility to coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis, this study describes ONX 0914-an immunoproteasome-specific inhibitor-as highly protective during severe heart disease. Represented by reduced heart infiltration of monocytes/macrophages and diminished organ damage, ONX 0914 treatment reversed fulminant pathology. Virus-induced immune response features like overwhelming pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production as well as a progressive loss of lymphocytes all being reminiscent of a sepsis-like disease course were prevented by ONX 0914. Although the viral burden was only minimally affected in highly susceptible mice, resulting maintenance of immune homeostasis improved the cardiac output, and saved animals from severe illness as well as high mortality. Altogether, this could make ONX 0914 a potent drug for the treatment of severe virus-mediated inflammation of the heart and might rank immunoproteasome inhibitors among drugs for preventing pathogen-induced immunopathology.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-wasting disease. Although the lack of dystrophin protein is the primary defect responsible for the development of DMD, secondary disease complications such as persistent inflammation contribute greatly to the pathogenesis and the time-dependent progression of muscle destruction. The immunoproteasome is a potential therapeutic target for conditions or diseases mechanistically linked to inflammation. In this study, we explored the possible effects of ONX-0914 administration, an inhibitor specific for the immunoproteasome subunit LMP7 (ß5i), on motor performance, muscular pathology and protein degradation in 7-week old MDX mice, an age when the dystrophic muscles show extensive degeneration and regeneration. ONX-0914 (10 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously on Day 2, 4, and 6. The mice were evaluated for physical performance (walking speed and strength) on Day 1 and 8. We show that this short-term treatment of ONX-0914 in MDX mice did not alter strength nor walking speed. The physical performance findings were consistent with no change in muscle inflammatory infiltration, percentage of central nuclei and proteasome content. Taken together, muscle structure and function in the young adult MDX mouse model are not altered with ONX-0914 treatment, indicating the administration of ONX-0914 during this critical time period does not exhibit any detrimental effects and may be an effective treatment of secondary complications of muscular dystrophy after further investigations.