Bone alterations are associated with ankle osteoarthritis joint pain.
ABSTRACT: The etiology of ankle osteoarthritis (OA) is largely unknown. We analyzed 24 ankle OA of 21 patients diagnosed by plain radiographs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ankle joint pain disappeared in 22 out of 24 joints by conservative treatment. MRI bone signal changes in and around the ankle joints were observed in 22 of 24 joints. Bone signal changes along the joint line were seen in 10 of 11 joints as a Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade of II to IV. Such signal changes were witnessed in only 4 of 13 joints with KL grade 0 or I. In the talocrural joint, bone alterations occurred in both tibia and talus bones through the joint line in cases of KL grade III or IV, while focal bone alterations were present in the talus only in KL grade I or II cases. Sixteen of 24 joints exhibited intraosseous bone signal changes, which tended to correspond to joint pain of any ankle OA stage. Our results suggest that bone alterations around the ankle joint might be one of the etiologies of OA and associated with ankle joint pain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Excessive cartilage degradation is a known characteristic of osteoarthritis (OA). Biochemical markers, such as uCTX-II, have been shown to be associated with disease severity, yet the tissue origin of CTX-II has been disputed. This analysis investigates the association between OA knee joints at different radiographic stages and pain categories with levels of uCTX-II and biomarkers of bone resorption and formation. METHODS:Baseline data of two randomised clinical trials (NCT00486434 and NCT00704847) in patients with radiographic OA and presence of pain were analysed post hoc. A subgroup with available urine samples and evaluable radiographs for both knees (N?=?1241) was analysed. Urine CTX-I, urine CTX-II and serum osteocalcin were analysed for associations with combined Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scores, gender and pain for both knees to assess the contribution of joints at different stages. RESULTS:Pain, BMI, age, gender and KL grade were all significantly associated with uCTX-II. The association between pain and CTX-II appeared to be driven by weight-bearing pain. The level of uCTX-II incrementally increased with higher radiographic severity of each knee. Levels of bone markers CTX-I and osteocalcin were both significantly associated with BMI and gender, but neither were associated with radiographic severity. Biomarker levels between male or female groups of identical KL scores were found to be higher in females compared to males in some but not all KL score groups. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that levels of uCTX-II are independently associated with radiographic severity of OA and pain intensity. CTX-II was associated with weight-bearing pain, but not non-weight-bearing pain, independent of co-variates. Bilateral OA knee joints appear to contribute to uCTX-II levels in an incremental manner according to radiographic severity of single joints. The data suggest that biomarker differences between genders should be taken into account when evaluating these markers in the context of structural features of OA.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Knee osteoarthritis (OA) onset and progression has been defined with transitions in Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade or Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) Joint Space Narrowing (JSN) grade. We quantitatively describe one-year transitions in KL grade and JSN, using fixed joint space width (fJSW), among knees with or at risk of OA. METHODS:Radiographic assessments from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) were used to identify transitions in KLG and JSN grade between consecutive annual visits. The fJSW was measured in the medial and lateral compartments. The distribution of change in fJSW for KLG and JSN transitions were described, and mean change in fJSW was estimated using mixed models. RESULTS:KL grade and JSN scores were available for about 20,000 annual transitions from 6047 knees contributed by 3389 participants. Knees that remained stable in KL or OARSI-JSN over 1 year had mean medial fJSW loss between -0.06 and -0.19 mm/year. Transition from KL grade 0 to 1, 0 to 2, and KL 1 to 2 were similar with respect to mean medial fJSW loss (0.18-0.28 mm). Greatest annual changes in medial fJSW corresponded to KL 0 to 3 (1.62 mm), KL 2 to 4 (1.23 mm) and JSN 0 to 2 (1.85 mm). CONCLUSIONS:Anchoring quantitatively measured loss of joint space width to transitions in KL grade and JSN provides reference values based on traditional definitions of knee OA onset and progression.
Project description:The etiology of degenerative meniscus tear is unclear but could be related to a generalized osteoarthritic disease process. We studied whether radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with meniscus damage.We examined 974 persons aged 50-90 years drawn via census tract data and random-digit dialing from Framingham, Massachusetts, United States. One reader assessed bilateral hand radiographs (30 joints) and another read frontal knee radiographs, all according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. A third reader assessed right knee 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for meniscus damage. We calculated the prevalence of medial and/or lateral meniscus damage in those with one to two and three or more finger joints with radiographic OA (KL grade ?2) compared to those without radiographic hand OA with adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. We also evaluated the above association in persons without evidence of radiographic OA (KL grade 0) in their knee (n = 748).The prevalence of meniscus damage in the knee of subjects with no, one to two, and three or more finger joints with OA was 24.9%, 31.7%, and 47.2%, respectively. The adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of having meniscus damage was significantly increased in those who had three or more finger joints with OA (1.40 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.77]). The estimate remained similar in persons without evidence of radiographic OA in their knee (PR, 1.42 [95% CI 1.03-1.97]). The association was more robust for medial meniscus damage.Results suggest a common non-age related etiologic pathway for both radiographic hand OA and meniscus damage.
Project description:Background:The lateral ankle ligament complex consisting of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) and the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) is known to provide stability against ankle joint inversion. As injuries of the ankle joint have been reported at a wide range of plantarflexion/dorsiflexion angles, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the stabilizing function of these ligaments depending on the sagittal plane positioning of the ankle joint. Methods:Eight fresh-frozen specimens were tested on a custom-built ankle deflection tester allowing the application of inversion torques in various plantarflexion/dorsiflexion positions. A motion capture system recorded kinematic data from the talus, calcaneus and fibula with bone-pin markers during inversion movements at 10° of dorsiflexion, at neutral position and at plantarflexion 10°. ATFL, CFL and PTFL were separately but sequentially sectioned in order to assess the contribution of the individual ligament with regard to ankle joint stability. Results:Joint- and position-specific modulations could be observed when the ligaments were cut. Cutting the ATFL did not lead to any observable alterations in ankle inversion angle at a given torque. But subsequently cutting the CFL increased the inversion angle of the talocrural joint in the 10° plantarflexed position, and significantly increased the inversion angle of the subtalar joint in the 10° dorsiflexed position. Sectioning of the PTFL led to minor increases of inversion angles in both joints. Conclusions:The CFL is the primary ligamentous stabilizer of the ankle joint against a forced inversion. Its functioning depends greatly on the plantar-/dorsiflexion position of the ankle joint complex, as it provides the stability of the talocrural joint primarily during plantarflexion and the stability of the subtalar joint primarily during dorsiflexion.
Project description:To explore the association of baseline trabecular bone structure with incident tibiofemoral (TF) osteoarthritis (OA) and with increase in joint space narrowing (JSN) score.The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) includes subjects with or at risk for knee OA. Knee radiographs were scored for Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade and JSN at baseline, 30, 60 and 84 months. Knees (KL ? 1) at baseline were assessed for incident OA (KL ? 2) and increases in JSN score. For each knee image at baseline, a variance orientation transform method (VOT) was applied to subchondral tibial bone regions of medial and lateral compartments. Seventeen fractal parameters were calculated per region. Associations of each parameter with OA incidence and with medial and lateral JSN increases were explored using logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by digitized film (DF) vs computer radiography (CR) and adjusted for confounders.Of 894 knees with CR and 1158 knees with DF, 195 (22%) and 303 (26%) developed incident OA. Higher medial bone roughness was associated with increased odds of OA incidence at 60 and 84 months and also, medial and lateral JSN increases (primarily vertical). Lower medial and lateral anisotropy was associated with increased odds of medial and lateral JSN increase. Compared to DF, CR had more associations and also, similar results at overlapping scales.Baseline trabecular bone texture was associated with incident radiographic OA and increase of JSN scores independently of risk factors for knee OA. Higher roughness and lower anisotropy were associated with increased odds for radiographic OA change.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee causes changes in knee alignment. A detailed knowledge of knee alignment is needed for correct assessment of the extent of disease progression, determination of treatment strategy, and confirmation of treatment effectiveness. However, deterioration of knee alignment during progression of OA has not been adequately characterized. The aims of this study were to clarify the changes in three-dimensional static knee alignment as knee OA stage progressed and to lay a foundation for an optimal treatment strategy to prevent knee malalignment.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 106 knees of 81 patients ((men/women) 45/36; mean age 48.4?±?19.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 25.7?±?4.4?kg/m<sup>2</sup>) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, comprising 34 (33/1) in Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade 0, 17 (8/9) in KL grade 1, 26 (5/21) in KL grade 2, 19 (4/15) in KL grade 3, and 10 (1/9) in KL grade 4. In all cases, computed tomography images were obtained with the subject in a reclined and relaxed position with the knee straight. Three-dimensional bone models were created from the images and knee alignment was calculated with six degrees-of-freedom. Then, 40 knees were selected consisting of 10 sex- and BMI-matched knees from each KL grade group: KL grade 1 (mean age 54.6?±?8.4 years; BMI 23.3?±?3.5?kg/m<sup>2</sup>), grade 2 (64.7?±?10.9 years; 27.3?±?3.2?kg/m<sup>2</sup>), grade 3 (69.2?±?11.4 years; 27.1?±?4.3?kg/m<sup>2</sup>), and grade 4 (71.9?±?9.2 years; 27.2?±?3.6?kg/m<sup>2</sup>). The Mann-Whitney <i>U</i> test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was used to analyze static alignment (??<?0.05/6).<h4>Results</h4>Alignment of the knee in flexion was -4.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): -6.4, -1.5] degrees, -3.4 [-8.0, 1.3] degrees, -0.1 [-3.7, 3.5] degrees, and 0.4 [-0.9, 1.6] degrees in the order of KL grade 1 to 4. There were significant differences between KL grade 1 and 4 (p?=?0.0081). Anterior tibial translation was 6.6 [4.6, 8.6] mm, 5.8 [1.9, 9.7] mm, 1.0 [-2.5, 4.5] mm, and 1.3 [-2.4, 5.1] mm in the order of grade 1 to 4. There were significant differences between KL grade 1 and 4 (p?=?0.0081). There were no significant differences in lateral tibial translation nor tibial rotation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The severely osteoarthritic knee joint was flexed and the tibia was displaced posteriorly with respect to the femur. Preventing these changes in alignment would assist in the prevention and treatment of knee OA.
Project description:High Bone Mass (HBM) is associated with (a) radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), partly mediated by increased BMI, and (b) pelvic enthesophytes and hip osteophytes, suggestive of a bone-forming phenotype. We aimed to establish whether HBM is associated with radiographic features of OA in non-weight-bearing (hand) joints, and whether such OA demonstrates a bone-forming phenotype.HBM cases (BMD Z-scores?+3.2) were compared with family controls. A blinded assessor graded all PA hand radiographs for: osteophytes (0-3), joint space narrowing (JSN) (0-3), subchondral sclerosis (0-1), at the index Distal Interphalangeal Joint (DIPJ) and 1st Carpometacarpal Joint (CMCJ), using an established atlas. Analyses used a random effects logistic regression model, adjusting a priori for age and gender. Mediating roles of BMI and bone turnover markers (BTMs) were explored by further adjustment.314 HBM cases (mean age 61.1years, 74% female) and 183 controls (54.3years, 46% female) were included. Osteophytes (grade?1) were more common in HBM (DIPJ: 67% vs. 45%, CMCJ: 69% vs. 50%), with adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.82 [1.11, 2.97], p=0.017 and 1.89 [1.19, 3.01], p=0.007 respectively; no differences were seen in JSN. Further adjustment for BMI failed to attenuate ORs for osteophytes in HBM cases vs. controls; DIPJ 1.72 [1.05, 2.83], p=0.032, CMCJ 1.76 [1.00, 3.06], p=0.049. Adjustment for BTMs (concentrations lower amongst HBM cases) did not attenuate ORs.HBM is positively associated with OA in non-weight-bearing joints, independent of BMI. HBM-associated OA is characterised by osteophytes, consistent with a bone-forming phenotype, rather than JSN reflecting cartilage loss. Systemic factors (e.g. genetic architecture) which govern HBM may also increase bone-forming OA risk.
Project description:Background To investigate the frequency of pain among subjects with advanced radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA) defined as Kellgren–Lawrence (KL) grade 4 and clinical features associated with pain. Methods Subjects from the Hallym Aging Study (HAS), the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), and the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) were included. Participants were asked knee-specific questions regarding the presence of knee pain. Clinical characteristics associated with the presence of pain were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The study population consisted of 504, 10,152 and 4796 subjects from HAS, KNHANES, and OAI, respectively. KL grade 4 OA was identified in 9.3, 7.6, and 11.5% of subjects, while pain was absent in 23.5, 31.2, and 5.9% of subjects in KL grade 4 knee OA, respectively. After multivariable analysis, female gender showed a significant association with pain in the KNHANES group, while in the OAI group, younger age did. Advanced knee OA patients without pain did not differ from non-OA subjects in most items of SF-12 in both Korean and OAI subjects. Total WOMAC score was not significantly different between non-OA and advanced knee OA subjects without pain in the OAI. Conclusions Our study showed that a considerable number of subjects with KL grade 4 OA did not report pain. In patients whose pain arises from causes other than structural damage of the joint, therapeutic decision based on knee X-ray would lead to suboptimal result. In addition, treatment options focusing solely on cartilage engineering, should be viewed with caution.
Project description:Bone is an integral part of the osteoarthritis (OA) process. We conducted a systematic literature review in order to understand the relationship between non-conventional radiographic imaging of subchondral bone, pain, structural pathology and joint replacement in peripheral joint OA.A search of the Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases was performed for original articles reporting association between non-conventional radiographic imaging-assessed subchondral bone pathologies and joint replacement, pain or structural progression in knee, hip, hand, ankle and foot OA. Each association was qualitatively characterised by a synthesis of the data from each analysis based upon study design, adequacy of covariate adjustment and quality scoring.In total 2456 abstracts were screened and 139 papers were included (70 cross-sectional, 71 longitudinal analyses; 116 knee, 15 hip, six hand, two ankle and involved 113 MRI, eight DXA, four CT, eight scintigraphic and eight 2D shape analyses). BMLs, osteophytes and bone shape were independently associated with structural progression or joint replacement. BMLs and bone shape were independently associated with longitudinal change in pain and incident frequent knee pain respectively.Subchondral bone features have independent associations with structural progression, pain and joint replacement in peripheral OA in the hip and hand but especially in the knee. For peripheral OA sites other than the knee, there are fewer associations and independent associations of bone pathologies with these important OA outcomes which may reflect fewer studies; for example the foot and ankle were poorly studied. Subchondral OA bone appears to be a relevant therapeutic target.PROSPERO registration number: CRD 42013005009.