Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection.
ABSTRACT: Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor ? (TCR?), TCR?, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon ? (IFN?), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3(+) T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8(+) T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections.
Project description:Among the essential metabolic functions of the liver, in mammals, a role as mediator of systemic and local innate immunity has also been reported. Although the presence of an important leukocyte population in mammalian liver is well documented, the characterization of leukocyte populations in the teleost liver has been only scarcely addressed. In the current work, we have confirmed the presence of IgM+, IgD+, IgT+, CD8?+, CD3+ cells, and cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver by flow cytometry and/or immunohistochemistry analysis. Additionally, the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on the liver immune response was assessed. First, we studied the effect of viral intraperitoneal injection on the transcription of a wide selection of immune genes at days 1, 2 and 5 post-infection. These included a group of leukocyte markers genes, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), chemokines, chemokine receptor genes, and other genes involved in the early immune response and in acute phase reaction. Our results indicate that T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial response to VHSV in the liver, since CD3, CD8, CD4, perforin, Mx and interferon (IFN) transcription levels were up-regulated in response to VHSV. Consequently, flow cytometry analysis of CD8?+ cells in liver and spleen at day 5 post-infection revealed a decrease in the number of CD8?+ cells in the spleen and an increased population in the liver. No differences were found however in the percentages of B lymphocyte (IgM+ or IgD+) populations. In addition, a strong up-regulation in the transcription levels of several PRRs and chemokines was observed from the second day of infection, indicating an important role of these factors in the response of the liver to viral infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a major threat for salmonid farming and for wild fish populations worldwide. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of innate factors regulated by a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the natural resistance to waterborne VHSV infection in rainbow trout. The aim of this study was to analyze the early transcriptomic response to VHSV inoculation in cell lines derived from previously described resistant and susceptible homozygous isogenic lines of rainbow trout to obtain insights into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance to the viral infection. RESULTS:We first confirmed the presence of the major QTL in a backcross involving a highly resistant fish isogenic line (B57) and a highly susceptible one (A22), and were able to define the confidence interval of the QTL and to identify its precise position. We extended the definition of the QTL since it controls not only resistance to waterborne infection but also the kinetics of mortality after intra-peritoneal injection. Deep sequencing of the transcriptome of B57 and A22 derived cell lines exposed to inactivated VHSV showed a stronger response to virus inoculation in the resistant background. In line with our previous observations, an early and strong induction of interferon and interferon-stimulated genes was correlated with the resistance to VHSV, highlighting the major role of innate immune factors in natural trout resistance to the virus. Interestingly, major factors of the antiviral innate immunity were much more expressed in naive B57 cells compared to naive A22 cells, which likely contributes to the ability of B57 to mount a fast antiviral response after viral infection. These observations were further extended by the identification of several innate immune-related genes localized close to the QTL area on the rainbow trout genome. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our results improve our knowledge in virus-host interactions in vertebrates and provide novel insights in the molecular mechanisms explaining the resistance to VHSV in rainbow trout. Our data also provide a collection of potential markers for resistance and susceptibility of rainbow trout to VHSV infection.
Project description:Nucleated teleost red blood cells (RBCs) are known to express molecules from the major histocompatibility complex and peptide-generating processes such as autophagy and proteasomes, but the role of RBCs in antigen presentation of viruses have not been studied yet. In this study, RBCs exposed ex vivo to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were evaluated by means of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Genes and proteins related to antigen presentation molecules, proteasome degradation, and autophagy were up-regulated. VHSV induced accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in ex vivo VHSV-exposed RBCs and showed at the same time a decrease of proteasome activity. Furthermore, induction of autophagy was detected by evaluating LC3 protein levels. Sequestosome-1/p62 underwent degradation early after VHSV exposure, and it may be a link between ubiquitination and autophagy activation. Inhibition of autophagosome degradation with niclosamide resulted in intracellular detection of N protein of VHSV (NVHSV) and p62 accumulation. In addition, antigen presentation cell markers, such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I & II, CD83, and CD86, increased at the transcriptional and translational level in rainbow trout RBCs exposed to VHSV. In summary, we show that nucleated rainbow trout RBCs can degrade VHSV while displaying an antigen-presenting cell (APC)-like profile.
Project description:TCR/CD3 complex is composed of the disulfide-linked TCR-?? heterodimer that recognizes the antigen as a peptide presented by the MHC, and non-covalently paired CD3??- and ??-chains together with disulfide-linked ?-chain homodimers. The CD3 chains play key roles in T cell development and T cell activation. In the present study, we found nor or extremely lower expression of CD3? in head- and trunk-kidney lymphocytes by flow cytometric analysis, while CD3? was expressed at the normal level in lymphocytes from thymus, spleen, intestine, gill, and peripheral blood. Furthermore, CD4-1+ and CD8?+ T cells from kidney express Zap-70, but not CD3?, while the T cells from other tissues express both Zap-70 and CD3?, although expression of CD3? was low. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression revealed that the expression level of T cell-related genes including tcrb, cd3?, zap-70, and lck in CD4-1+ and CD8?+ T cells was not different between kidney and spleen. Western blot analysis showed that CD3? band was detected in the cell lysates of spleen but not kidney. To be interested, CD3?-positive cells greatly increased after 24?h in in vitro culture of kidney leukocytes. Furthermore, expression of CD3? in both transferred kidney and spleen leukocytes was not detected or very low in kidney, while both leukocytes expressed CD3? at normal level in spleen when kidney and spleen leukocytes were injected into the isogeneic recipient. Lower expression of CD3? was also found in kidney T lymphocytes of goldfish and carp. These results indicate that kidney lymphocytes express no or lower level of CD3? protein in the kidney, although the mRNA of the gene was expressed. Here, we discuss this phenomenon from the point of function of kidney as reservoir for T lymphocytes in teleost, which lacks lymph node and bone marrow.
Project description:Teleost red blood cells (RBCs) are nucleated and therefore can propagate cellular responses to exogenous stimuli. RBCs can mount an immune response against a variety of fish viruses, including the viral septicemia hemorrhagic virus (VHSV), which is one of the most prevalent fish viruses resulting in aquaculture losses. In this work, RBCs from blood and head kidney samples of rainbow trout challenged with VHSV were analyzed via transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. We detected an overrepresentation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the type I interferon response and signaling in RBCs from the head kidney and related to complement activation in RBCs from blood. Antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen was overrepresented in RBCs from both tissues. DEGs shared by both tissues showed an opposite expression profile. In summary, this work has demonstrated that teleost RBCs can modulate the immune response during an in vivo viral infection, thus implicating RBCs as cell targets for the development of novel immunomodulants.
Project description:The fin bases constitute the main portal of rhabdovirus entry into rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and replication in this first site strongly conditions the outcome of the infection. In this context, we studied the chemokine response elicited in this area in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a rhabdovirus. Among all the rainbow trout chemokine genes studied, only the transcription levels of CK10 and CK12 were significantly upregulated in response to VHSV. As the virus had previously been shown to elicit a much stronger chemokine response in internal organs, we compared the effect of VHSV on the gills, another mucosal site which does not constitute the main site of viral entry or rhabdoviral replication. In this case, a significantly stronger chemokine response was triggered, with CK1, CK3, CK9, and CK11 being upregulated in response to VHSV and CK10 and CK12 being down-modulated by the virus. We then conducted further experiments to understand how these different chemokine responses of mucosal tissues could correlate with their capacity to support VHSV replication. No viral replication was detected in the gills, while at the fin bases, only the skin and the muscle were actively supporting viral replication. Within the skin, viral replication took place in the dermis, while viral replication was blocked within epidermal cells at some point before protein translation. The different susceptibilities of the different skin layers to VHSV correlated with the effect that VHSV has on their capacity to secrete chemotactic factors. Altogether, these results suggest a VHSV interference mechanism on the early chemokine response at its active replication sites within mucosal tissues, a possible key process that may facilitate viral entry.
Project description:Nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma (nodal PTCL) has an unfavorable prognosis, and specific pathogenic alterations have not been fully identified. The biological and clinical relevance of the expression of CD30/T-cell receptor (TCR) genes is a topic under active investigation. One-hundred and ninety-three consecutive nodal PTCLs (89 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas (AITL) and 104 PTCL-unspecified (PTCL-not otherwise specified (NOS)) cases) were analyzed for the immunohistochemical expression of 19 molecules, involving TCR/CD30 pathways and the associations with standard prognostic indices. Mutually exclusive expression was found between CD3 and TCR-beta F1 with CD30 expression. Taking all PTCL cases together, logistic regression identified a biological score (BS) including TCR molecules (TCR-beta F1 and EZRIN) that separates two subgroups of patients with a median survival of 34.57 and 5.20 months (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified BS and the prognostic index for PTCL (PIT) score as independent prognostic factors. This BS maintained its significance in multivariate analysis only for the PTCL-NOS subgroup of tumors. In AITL cases, only a high level of ki67 expression was related to prognosis. A BS including molecules involved in the TCR signaling pathway proved to be an independent prognostic factor of poor outcome in a multivariate analysis, specifically in PTCL-NOS patients. Nevertheless, validation in an independent series of homogeneously treated PTCL patients is required to confirm these data.
Project description:?? T-cell receptor (TCR) activation plays a crucial role for T-cell function. However, the TCR itself does not possess signaling domains. Instead, the TCR is noncovalently coupled to a conserved multisubunit signaling apparatus, the CD3 complex, that comprises the CD3??, CD3??, and CD3?? dimers. How antigen ligation by the TCR triggers CD3 activation and what structural role the CD3 extracellular domains (ECDs) play in the assembled TCR-CD3 complex remain unclear. Here, we use two complementary structural approaches to gain insight into the overall organization of the TCR-CD3 complex. Small-angle X-ray scattering of the soluble TCR-CD3?? complex reveals the CD3?? ECDs to sit underneath the TCR ?-chain. The observed arrangement is consistent with EM images of the entire TCR-CD3 integral membrane complex, in which the CD3?? and CD3?? subunits were situated underneath the TCR ?-chain and TCR ?-chain, respectively. Interestingly, the TCR-CD3 transmembrane complex bound to peptide-MHC is a dimer in which two TCRs project outward from a central core composed of the CD3 ECDs and the TCR and CD3 transmembrane domains. This arrangement suggests a potential ligand-dependent dimerization mechanism for TCR signaling. Collectively, our data advance our understanding of the molecular organization of the TCR-CD3 complex, and provides a conceptual framework for the TCR activation mechanism.
Project description:Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have enormous potential for the treatment of inherited and acquired disorders. Recently, antigen-specific T lymphocytes derived from hiPSCs have been reported. However, T lymphocyte populations with broad T cell receptor (TCR) diversity have not been generated. We report that hiPSCs derived from skin biopsy are capable of producing T lymphocyte populations with a broad TCR repertoire. In vitro T cell differentiation follows a similar developmental program as observed in vivo, indicated by sequential expression of CD7, intracellular CD3 and surface CD3. The ?? TCR locus is rearranged first and is followed by rearrangement of the ?? locus. Both ?? and ?? T cells display a diverse TCR repertoire. Upon activation, the cells express CD25, CD69, cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-2) and cytolytic proteins (Perforin and Granzyme-B). These results suggest that most, if not all, mechanisms required to generate functional T cells with a broad TCR repertoire are intact in our in vitro differentiation protocol. These data provide a foundation for production of patient-specific T cells for the treatment of acquired or inherited immune disorders and for cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:The T cell receptor (TCR)-cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) signaling complex plays an important role in initiation of adaptive immune responses, but weak interactions have obstructed delineation of the individual TCR-CD3 subunit interactions during T cell signaling. Here, we demonstrate that unnatural amino acids (UAA) can be used to photo-cross-link subunits of TCR-CD3 on the cell surface. Incorporating UAA in mammalian cells is usually a low efficiency process. In addition, TCR-CD3 is composed of eight subunits and both TCR and CD3 chains are required for expression on the cell surface. Photo-cross-linking of UAAs for studying protein complexes such as TCR-CD3 is challenging due to the difficulty of transfecting and expressing multisubunit protein complexes in cells combined with the low efficiency of UAA incorporation. Here, we demonstrate that by systematic optimization, we can incorporate UAA in TCR-CD3 with high efficiency. Accordingly, the incorporated UAA can be used for site-specific photo-cross-linking experiments to pinpoint protein interaction sites, as well as to confirm interaction sites identified by X-ray crystallography. We systemically compared two different photo-cross-linkers--p-azido-phenylalanine (pAzpa) and H-p-Bz-Phe-OH (pBpa)--for their ability to map protein subunit interactions in the 2B4 TCR. pAzpa was found to have higher cross-linking efficiency, indicating that optimization of the selection of the most optimal cross-linker is important for correct identification of protein-protein interactions. This method is therefore suitable for studying interaction sites of large, dynamic heteromeric protein complexes associated with various cellular membrane systems.