Crystal structure of a lipoxygenase from Cyanothece sp. may reveal novel features for substrate acquisition.
ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes, oxidized PUFAs, so-called oxylipins, are vital signaling molecules. The first step in their biosynthesis may be catalyzed by a lipoxygenase (LOX), which forms hydroperoxides by introducing dioxygen into PUFAs. Here we characterized CspLOX1, a phylogenetically distant LOX family member from Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 and determined its crystal structure. In addition to the classical two domains found in plant, animal, and coral LOXs, we identified an N-terminal helical extension, reminiscent of the long ?-helical insertion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa LOX. In liposome flotation studies, this helical extension, rather than the ?-barrel domain, was crucial for a membrane binding function. Additionally, CspLOX1 could oxygenate 1,2-diarachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, suggesting that the enzyme may act directly on membranes and that fatty acids bind to the active site in a tail-first orientation. This binding mode is further supported by the fact that CspLOX1 catalyzed oxygenation at the n-10 position of both linoleic and arachidonic acid, resulting in 9R- and 11R-hydroperoxides, respectively. Together these results reveal unifying structural features of LOXs and their function. While the core of the active site is important for lipoxygenation and thus highly conserved, peripheral domains functioning in membrane and substrate binding are more variable.
Project description:Animal lipoxygenases (LOXs) are classified according to their specificity of arachidonic acid oxygenation, and previous sequence alignments suggested that S-LOXs contain a conserved Ala at a critical position at the active site but R-LOXs carry a Gly instead. Here we cloned, expressed, and characterized a novel LOX isoform from the model vertebrate Danio rerio (zebrafish) that carries a Gly at this critical position, classifying this enzyme as putative arachidonic acid R-LOX. Surprisingly, the almost exclusive arachidonic acid oxygenation product was 12S-H(p)ETE (hydro(pero)xyeicosatetraenoic acid), and extensive mutation around Gly-410 failed to induce R-lipoxygenation. This finding prompted us to explore the importance of the corresponding amino acids in other vertebrate S-LOXs. We found that Ala-to-Gly exchange in human 15-LOX2 and human platelet 12-LOX induced major alterations in the reaction specificity with an increase of specific R-oxygenation products. For mouse 5-LOX and 12/15-LOX from rabbits, men, rhesus monkeys, orangutans, and mice, only minor alterations in the reaction specificity were observed. For these enzymes, S-HETE (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) isomers remained the major oxygenation products, whereas chiral R-HETEs contributed only 10-30% to the total product mixture. Taken together these data indicate that the Ala-versus-Gly concept may not always predict the reaction specificity of vertebrate LOX isoforms.
Project description:KEY MESSAGE:Lipoxygenases mediate important biological processes. Through comparative genomics, domain-scan analysis, sequence analysis, phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling and transcriptional analysis the lipoxygenase gene family of pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been identified. Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-heme, iron-containing dioxygenases playing a pivotal role in diverse biological processes in plants, including defence and development. Here, we exploited the recent sequencing of the pepper genome to investigate the LOX gene family in pepper. Two LOX classes are recognized, the 9- and 13-LOXs that oxygenate lipids at the 9th and 13th carbon atom, respectively. Using two main in-silico approaches, we identified a total of eight LOXs in pepper. Phylogenetic analysis classified four LOXs (CaLOX1, CaLOX3, CaLOX4 and CaLOX5) as 9-LOXs and four (CaLOX2, CaLOX6, CaLOX7 and CaLOX8) as 13-LOXs. Furthermore, sequence similarity/identity and subcellular localization analysis strengthen the classification predicted by phylogenetic analysis. Pivotal amino acids together with all domains and motifs are highly conserved in all pepper LOXs. Expression of 13-LOXs appeared to be more dynamic compared to 9-LOXs both in response to exogenous JA application and to thrips feeding. Bioinformatic and expression analyses predict the putative functions of two 13-LOXs, CaLOX6 and CaLOX7, in the biosynthesis of Green Leaf Volatiles, involved in indirect defence. The data are discussed in the context of LOX families in solanaceous plants and plants of other families.
Project description:Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze the dioxygenation of PUFAs to produce regio- and stereospecific oxygenated fatty acids. The identification of regio- and stereospecific LOXs is important because their specific products are involved in different physiological activities in various organisms. Bacterial LOXs are found only in some proteobacteria and cyanobacteria, and they are not stable in vitro. Here, we used C20 and C22 PUFAs such as arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid to identify an 11S-specific LOX from the proteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus and explore its in vitro stability and activity. The activity and stability of M. xanthus ARA 11S-LOX as well as the production of 11S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from ARA were significantly increased by the addition of phosphatidylcholine, Ca2+, and coactosin-like protein (newly identified in the yeast Rhodosporidium toluroides) as stimulatory factors; in fact, LOX activity in the presence of all three factors increased approximately 3-fold. Our results indicate that these stimulatory factors can be used to increase the activity and stability of bacterial LOX and the production of bioactive hydroxy fatty acids, which can contribute to new academic research.
Project description:Lipoxygenases (LOXs) have been implicated as central players in ferroptosis, a recently characterized cell death modality associated with the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides: the products of LOX catalysis. To provide insight on their role, human embryonic kidney cells were transfected to overexpress each of the human isoforms associated with disease, 5-LOX, p12-LOX, and 15-LOX-1, which yielded stable cell lines that were demonstrably sensitized to ferroptosis. Interestingly, the cells could be rescued by less than half of a diverse collection of known LOX inhibitors. Furthermore, the cytoprotective compounds were similarly potent in each of the cell lines even though some were clearly isoform-selective LOX inhibitors. The cytoprotective compounds were subsequently demonstrated to be effective radical-trapping antioxidants, which protect lipids from autoxidation, the autocatalytic radical chain reaction that produces lipid hydroperoxides. From these data (and others reported herein), a picture emerges wherein LOX activity may contribute to the cellular pool of lipid hydroperoxides that initiate ferroptosis, but lipid autoxidation drives the cell death process.
Project description:The green microalga Lobosphaera incisa is an oleaginous eukaryotic alga that is rich in arachidonic acid (20:4). Being rich in this polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), however, makes it sensitive to oxidation. In plants, lipoxygenases (LOXs) are the major enzymes that oxidise these molecules. Here, we describe, to our best knowledge, the first characterisation of a cDNA encoding a LOX (LiLOX) from a green alga. To obtain first insights into its function, we expressed it in E. coli, purified the recombinant enzyme and analysed its enzyme activity. The protein sequence suggests that LiLOX and plastidic LOXs from bryophytes and flowering plants may share a common ancestor. The fact that LiLOX oxidises all PUFAs tested with a consistent oxidation on the carbon n-6, suggests that PUFAs enter the substrate channel through their methyl group first (tail first). Additionally, LiLOX form the fatty acid hydroperoxide in strict S configuration. LiLOX may represent a good model to study plastid LOX, because it is stable after heterologous expression in E. coli and highly active in vitro. Moreover, as the first characterised LOX from green microalgae, it opens the possibility to study endogenous LOX pathways in these organisms.
Project description:Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-heme iron containing dioxygenases involved in the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (AA). Depending on the position of insertion of oxygen, LOXs are classified into 5-, 8-, 9-, 12- and 15-LOX. Among these, 5-LOX is the most predominant isoform associated with the formation of 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5- HpETE), the precursor of non-peptido (LTB4) and peptido (LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) leukotrienes. LTs are involved in inflammatory and allergic diseases like asthma, ulcerative colitis, rhinitis and also in cancer. Consequently 5-LOX has become target for the development of therapeutic molecules for treatment of various inflammatory disorders. Zileuton is one such inhibitor of 5-LOX approved for the treatment of asthma. In the recent times, computer aided drug design (CADD) strategies have been applied successfully in drug development processes. A comprehensive review on structure based drug design strategies in the development of novel 5-LOX inhibitors is presented in this article. Since the crystal structure of 5-LOX has been recently solved, efforts to develop 5-LOX inhibitors have mostly relied on ligand based rational approaches. The present review provides a comprehensive survey on these strategies in the development of 5-LOX inhibitors.
Project description:Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.
Project description:Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are key enzymes to regulate the production of hormones and defensive metabolites in plants, animals and algae. In this research, a full length LOX gene has been cloned and expressed from the red alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) gametophyte (PhLOX2). Subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that such LOX enzymes are separated at the early stage of evolution, establishing an independent branch. The LOX activity was investigated at the optimal pH of 8.0. It appears that PhLOX2 is a multifunctional enzyme featuring both lipoxygenase and hydroperoxidase activities. Additionally, PhLOX2 exhibits remarkable substrate and position flexibility, and it can catalyze an array of chemical reactions involving various polyunsaturated fatty acids, ranging from C18 to C22. As a matter of fact, mono-hydroperoxy, di-hydroperoxy and hydroxyl products have been obtained from such transformations, and eicosapentaenoic acid seem to be the most preferred substrate. It was found that at least triple ethylenic bonds are required for PhLOX2 to function as a LOX, and the resulting hydroxy products should be originated from the PhLOX2 mediated reduction of mono-hydroperoxides, in which the hydrogen abstraction occurs on the carbon atom between the second and third double bond. Most of the di-hydroperoxides observed seem to be missing their mono-position precursors. The substrate and position flexibility, as well as the function versatility of PhLOXs represent the ancient enzymatic pathway for organisms to control intracellular oxylipins.
Project description:The regio- and stereo-specific oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids is catalyzed by lipoxygenases (LOX); both Fe and Mn forms of the enzyme have been described. Structural elements of the Fe and Mn coordination spheres and the helical catalytic domain in which the metal center resides are highly conserved. However, animal, plant, and microbial LOX each have distinct features. We report five crystal structures of a LOX from the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum. This LOX displays a novel amino terminal extension that provides a wrapping domain for dimerization. Moreover, this extension appears to interfere with the iron coordination sphere, as the typical LOX configuration is not observed at the catalytic metal when the enzyme is dimeric. Instead novel tetra-, penta-, and hexa-coordinate Fe2+ ligations are apparent. In contrast, a monomeric structure indicates that with repositioning of the amino terminal segment, the enzyme can assume a productive conformation with the canonical Fe2+ coordination sphere.
Project description:Lipoxygenase (LOX) plays important roles in fatty acid oxidation and lipid mediator biosynthesis. In this study, we give first insights into brown algal LOX evolution. Whole genome searches revealed four, three, and eleven LOXs in Ectocarpus siliculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, and Saccharina japonica, respectively. In phylogenetic analyses, LOXs from brown algae form a robust clade with those from prokaryotes, suggesting an ancestral origin and slow evolution. Brown algal LOXs were divided into two clades, C1 and C2 in a phylogenetic tree. Compared to the two species of Ectocarpales, LOX gene expansion occurred in the kelp S. japonica through tandem duplication and segmental duplication. Selection pressure analysis showed that LOX genes in brown algae have undergone strong purifying selection, while the selective constraint in the C2 clade was more relaxed than that in the C1 clade. Furthermore, within each clade, LOXs of S. japonica evolved under more relaxed selection constraints than E. siliculosus and C. okamuranus. Structural modeling showed that unlike LOXs of plants and animals, which contain a ? barrel in the N-terminal part of the protein, LOXs in brown algae fold into a single domain. Analysis of previously published transcriptomic data showed that LOXs in E. siliculosus are responsive to hyposaline, hypersaline, oxidative, and copper stresses. Moreover, clear divergence of expression patterns was observed among different life stages, as well as between duplicate gene pairs. In E. siliculosus, all four LOXs are male-biased in immature gametophytes, and mature gametophytes showed significantly higher LOX mRNA levels than immature gametophytes and sporophytes. In S. japonica, however, our RNA-Seq data showed that most LOXs are highly expressed in sporophytes. Even the most recently duplicated gene pairs showed divergent expression patterns, suggesting that functional divergence has likely occurred since LOX genes duplicated, which potentially contributes to the production of various oxylipins in brown algae.