Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight) containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol.
Project description:Each heart was assigned to one of the following three conditions: phasic systolic overload (SO), phasic diastolic overload (DO), and no loading throughout the cardiac cycle (control; CN). We created SO by isovolumic contraction (peak systolic LVP > 170 mmHg) at a constant diastolic volume with end-diastolic pressure (EDP) equals 0 mmHg. For DO, we increased LVV in diastole so that EDP reached 40 mmHg, and unloaded quickly in systole to minimize LVP generation. At the end of 3 hours, the myocardium from each heart was collected for subsequent analyses. rat heart subjected to phasic systolic overload and diastolic overload
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypertension and diabetes have been associated with inefficient arsenic metabolism, primarily through studies undertaken in populations exposed through drinking water. Recently, rice has been recognized as a source of arsenic exposure, but it remains unclear whether populations with high rice consumption but no known water exposure are at risk for the health problems associated with inefficient arsenic metabolism. METHODS:The relationships between arsenic metabolism efficiency (% inorganic arsenic, % monomethylarsenate and % dimethylarsinate in urine) and three hypertension- and seven diabetes-related traits were estimated among 12 609 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). A two-sample Mendelian randomization approach incorporated genotype-arsenic metabolism relationships from literature, and genotype-trait relationships from HCHS/SOL, with a mixed-effect linear model. Analyses were stratified by rice consumption and smoking. RESULTS:Among never smokers with high rice consumption, each percentage point increase in was associated with increases of 1.96?mmHg systolic blood pressure (P?=?0.034) and 1.85?mmHg inorganic arsenic diastolic blood pressure (P?=?0.003). Monomethylarsenate was associated with increased systolic (1.64?mmHg/percentage point increase; P?=?0.021) and diastolic (1.33?mmHg/percentage point increase; P?=?0.005) blood pressure. Dimethylarsinate, a marker of efficient metabolism, was associated with lower systolic (-0.92?mmHg/percentage point increase; P?=?0.025) and diastolic (-0.79?mmHg/percentage point increase; P?=?0.004) blood pressure. Among low rice consumers and ever smokers, the results were consistent with no association. Evidence for a relationship with diabetes was equivocal. CONCLUSIONS:Less efficient arsenic metabolism was associated with increased blood pressure among never smokers with high rice consumption, suggesting that arsenic exposure through rice may contribute to high blood pressure in the Hispanic/Latino community.
Project description:Salt sensitivity, a trait characterized by a pressor blood pressure response to increased dietary salt intake, has been associated with higher rates of cardiovascular target organ damage and cardiovascular disease events. Recent experimental studies have highlighted the potential role of the natriuretic peptides and aldosterone in mediating salt sensitivity.Prospective cohort study.We evaluated 1575 non-hypertensive Framingham Offspring cohort participants (mean age 55?±?9 years, 58% women) who underwent routine measurements of circulating aldosterone and N-terminal proatrial natriuretic peptide (NT-ANP) and assessment of dietary sodium intake. Participants were categorized as potentially 'salt sensitive' if their serum aldosterone was >sex-specific median but plasma NT-ANP was ?sex-specific median value. Dietary sodium intake was categorized as lower versus higher (dichotomized at the sex-specific median). We used multivariable linear regression to relate presence of salt sensitivity (as defined above) to longitudinal changes (?) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure on follow-up (median four years).Participants who were 'salt sensitive' (N?=?437) experienced significantly greater increases in blood pressure (? systolic, +4.4 and +2.3?mmHg; ? diastolic, +1.9 and -0.3?mmHg; on a higher versus lower sodium diet, respectively) as compared to the other participants (? systolic, +2.8 and +1.0?mmHg; ? diastolic, +0.5 and -0.2?mmHg; on higher versus lower sodium diet, respectively; P?=?0.033 and P?=?0.0127 for differences between groups in ? systolic and ? diastolic blood pressure, respectively).Our observational data suggest that higher circulating aldosterone and lower NT-ANP concentrations may be markers of salt sensitivity in the community. Additional studies are warranted to confirm these observations.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nature and magnitude of relations of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in late adolescence to mortality. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: General community in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Swedish men (n = 1,207,141) who had military conscription examinations between 1969 and 1995 at a mean age of 18.4 years, followed up for a median of 24 (range 0-37) years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and non-cardiovascular mortality. RESULTS: During follow-up, 28,934 (2.4%) men died. The relation of systolic blood pressure to total mortality was U shaped, with the lowest risk at a systolic blood pressure of about 130 mm Hg. This pattern was driven by the relation to non-cardiovascular mortality, whereas the relation to cardiovascular mortality was monotonically increasing (higher risk with higher blood pressure). The relation of diastolic blood pressure to mortality risk was monotonically increasing and stronger than that of systolic blood pressure, in terms of both relative risk and population attributable fraction (deaths that could be avoided if blood pressure was in the optimal range). Relations to cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality were similar, with an apparent risk threshold at a diastolic blood pressure of about 90 mm Hg, below which diastolic blood pressure and mortality were unrelated, and above which risk increased steeply with higher diastolic blood pressures. CONCLUSIONS: In adolescent men, the relation of diastolic blood pressure to mortality was more consistent than that of systolic blood pressure. Considering current efforts for earlier detection and prevention of risk, these observations emphasise the risk associated with high diastolic blood pressure in young adulthood.
Project description:A variety of biologically active products have been isolated from Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis. In the present study, two novel angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, FQIN [M(O)] CILR, and TGAPCR, were screened and identified from G. lemaneiformis protein hydrolysates by LC-MS/MS. The IC50 values of FQIN [M(O)] CILR and TGAPCR were 9.64 ± 0.36 ?M and 23.94 ± 0.82 ?M, respectively. In the stability study, both peptides showed stabilities of pH, temperature, simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and ACE hydrolysis. The Lineweaver?Burk plot showed that the two peptides were noncompetitive inhibitors of ACE. Molecular docking simulated the intermolecular interactions of two peptides and ACE, and the two peptides formed hydrogen bonds with the active pockets of ACE. However, FQIN [M(O)] CILR was more closely linked to the active pockets of ACE, thereby exerting better ACE inhibition. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were studied with an oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Both peptides reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in SHRs, of which FQIN [M(O)] CILR was able to reduce the systolic blood pressure by 34 mmHg (SBP) (p < 0.05). Therefore, FQIN [M(O)] CILR was an excellent ACE inhibitory peptide.
Project description:We performed exome-wide association studies to identify genetic variants that influence systolic or diastolic blood pressure or confer susceptibility to hypertension in Japanese. The exome-wide association studies were performed with the use of Illumina HumanExome-12 DNA Analysis BeadChip or Infinium Exome-24 BeadChip arrays and with 14,678 subjects, including 8215 individuals with hypertension and 6463 controls. The relation of genotypes of 41,843 single nucleotide polymorphisms to systolic or diastolic blood pressure was examined by linear regression analysis. After Bonferroni's correction, 44 and eight polymorphisms were significantly (P < 1.19 × 10-6) associated with systolic or diastolic blood pressure, respectively, with six polymorphisms (rs12229654, rs671, rs11066015, rs2074356, rs3782886, rs11066280) being associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Examination of the relation of allele frequencies to hypertension with Fisher's exact test revealed that 100 of the 41,843 single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly (P < 1.19 × 10-6) associated with hypertension. Subsequent multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and sex showed that five polymorphisms (rs150854849, rs202069030, rs139012426, rs12229654, rs76974938) were significantly (P < 1.25 × 10-4) associated with hypertension. The polymorphism rs12229654 was thus associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and with hypertension. Six polymorphisms (rs12229654 at 12q24.1, rs671 of ALDH2, rs11066015 of ACAD10, rs2074356 and rs11066280 of HECTD4, and rs3782886 of BRAP) were found to be associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with those at 12q24.1 or in ACAD10 or BRAP being novel determinants of blood pressure in Japanese.
Project description:New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NYC HANES) was a population-based cross-sectional survey of NYC adults conducted twice, in 2004 and again in 2013-2014, to monitor the health of NYC adults 20 years or older. While blood pressure was measured in both surveys, an auscultatory mercury sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure in clinics in 2004, and an oscillometric LifeSource UA-789AC monitor was used in homes in 2013-2014. To assess comparability of blood pressure results across both surveys, we undertook a randomized study comparing blood pressure (BP) readings by the two devices. Blood pressure measuring protocols followed the 2013 Association for the Advancement in Medical instrumentation guidelines for non-invasive blood pressure device. Data from 167 volunteers were analyzed for this purpose.Paired t tests were used to test for significant difference in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure between devices for overall and by mid-arm circumference categories. To test for systematic differences between the two devices, we generated Bland-Altman graphs. Sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa statistics were calculated to assess between-device agreement for high (??130/80 mmHg) and not high (<?130/80 mmHg) blood pressure, with mercury set as the reference.Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured by LifeSource UA-789AC were on average 2.0 and 1.1 mmHg higher, respectively, than those of the mercury sphygmomanometer systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings (P?<?0.05). Sensitivity was 81%, specificity was 96%, and the Kappa coefficient was 75%. The Bland-Altman graphs showed that the between-device difference did not vary as a function of the average of the two devices for systolic blood pressure and was larger in the lower and upper ends for diastolic blood pressure. Given the observed differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings between the two blood pressure measurement approaches, we calibrated NYC HANES 2013-2014 blood pressure data by predicting mercury blood pressure values from LifeSource blood pressure values. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in NYC HANES 2013-2014 were lower when data were calibrated.
Project description:During aging, systolic blood pressure continuously increases over time, whereas diastolic pressure first increases and then slightly decreases after middle age. These pressure changes are usually explained by changes of the arterial system alone (increase in arterial stiffness and vascular resistance). However, we hypothesise that the heart contributes to the age-related blood pressure progression as well. In the present study we quantified the blood pressure changes in normal aging by using a Windkessel model for the arterial system and the time-varying elastance model for the heart, and compared the simulation results with data from the Framingham Heart Study. Parameters representing arterial changes (resistance and stiffness) during aging were based on literature values, whereas parameters representing cardiac changes were computed through physiological rules (compensated hypertrophy and preservation of end-diastolic volume). When taking into account arterial changes only, the systolic and diastolic pressure did not agree well with the population data. Between 20 and 80 years, systolic pressure increased from 100 to 122 mmHg, and diastolic pressure decreased from 76 to 55 mmHg. When taking cardiac adaptations into account as well, systolic and diastolic pressure increased from 100 to 151 mmHg and decreased from 76 to 69 mmHg, respectively. Our results show that not only the arterial system, but also the heart, contributes to the changes in blood pressure during aging. The changes in arterial properties initiate a systolic pressure increase, which in turn initiates a cardiac remodelling process that further augments systolic pressure and mitigates the decrease in diastolic pressure.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Current evidence suggests that aortic blood pressure has a superior prognostic value with respect to brachial pressure for cardiovascular events, but direct measurement is not feasible in daily clinical practice. AIM:The aim of the present study is the clinical validation of a multiscale mathematical model for non-invasive appraisal of central blood pressure from subject-specific characteristics. METHODS:A total of 51 young male were selected for the present study. Aortic systolic and diastolic pressure were estimated with a mathematical model and were compared to the most-used non-invasive validated technique (SphygmoCor device, AtCor Medical, Australia). SphygmoCor was calibrated through diastolic and systolic brachial pressure obtained with a sphygmomanometer, while model inputs consist of brachial pressure, height, weight, age, left-ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and data from a pulse wave velocity study. RESULTS:Model-estimated systolic and diastolic central blood pressures resulted to be significantly related to SphygmoCor-assessed central systolic (r = 0.65 p <0.0001) and diastolic (r = 0.84 p<0.0001) blood pressures. The model showed a significant overestimation of systolic pressure (+7.8 (-2.2;14) mmHg, p = 0.0003) and a significant underestimation of diastolic values (-3.2 (-7.5;1.6), p = 0.004), which imply a significant overestimation of central pulse pressure. Interestingly, model prediction errors mirror the mean errors reported in large meta-analysis characterizing the use of the SphygmoCor when non-invasive calibration is performed. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, multi-scale mathematical model predictions result to be significantly related to SphygmoCor ones. Model-predicted systolic and diastolic aortic pressure resulted in difference of less than 10 mmHg in the 51% and 84% of the subjects, respectively, when compared with SphygmoCor-obtained pressures.
Project description:Several studies have suggested an association between ambient air temperature and blood pressure. However, this has not been reliably confirmed by longitudinal studies. Also, whether the reaction to temperature stimulation is modified by other factors such as antihypertensive medication is rarely investigated. The present study explores the relationship between ambient temperature and blood pressure, without and with antihypertensive medication, in a study of 1,831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years, in two or four weekly check ups, accumulating 62,452 follow-up records. Both baseline and follow-up blood pressure showed an inverse association with ambient temperature, which explained 32.4% and 65.6% of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05) respectively. The amplitude of individual blood pressure fluctuation with temperature throughout a year (a 29 degrees centigrade range) was 9.4/7.3 mmHg. Medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril attenuated the blood pressure fluctuation by 2.4/1.3 mmHg each year, though the inverse association of temperature and blood pressure remained. Gender, drinking behavior and body mass index were also found to modify the association between temperature and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate that ambient temperature may negatively regulate blood pressure. Hypertensive patients should monitor and treat blood pressure more carefully in cold days, and it could be especially important for the males, thinner people and drinkers.