Whole-Genome Sequence of Duck Tembusu Virus Strain DTMUV/CH/2014, Isolated in China.
ABSTRACT: The whole-complete genome sequence of a strain of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), DTMUV/CH/2014, affecting layer ducks in China, was determined and characterized. Compared with DTMUV sequences available in GenBank, DTMUV/CH/2014 has 3 amino acid mutations located in the capsid, prM, and NS3 genes of DTMUV/CH/2014.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. In the current study, a virulent strain of DTMUV, designated Du/CH/LSD/110128, was isolated from the livers of diseased ducks and attenuated by serial passage in embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was partially attenuated after 50 and 70 passages and was fully attenuated after 90 passages, based on mortality and morbidity rates and viral loads in inoculated ducklings. Fourteen amino acid substitutions were observed in the capsid, prM, envelope, NS1, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, and NS5 proteins of the fully attenuated strain of Du/CH/LSD/110128, which might be responsible for the observed changes in replication and pathogenicity. A 72-nucleotide deletion was also observed in the 3' untranslated region of the virus after 30 passages. The fully attenuated virus retained the immunogenicity of the parental strain, providing effective protection to challenge with virulent Du/CH/LSD/110128, and may represent a suitable candidate as a vaccine strain against DTMUV infection in ducks. Our results also lay the foundation for future studies on the replication and pathogenic mechanisms of DTMUV.
Project description:Duck enteritis virus (DEV), duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 are the most important viral pathogens in ducks, as they cause significant economic losses in the duck industry. Development of a novel vaccine simultaneously effective against these three viruses is the most economical method for reducing losses. In the present study, by utilizing a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/associated 9 (Cas9)-mediated gene editing strategy, we efficiently generated DEV recombinants (C-KCE-HA/PrM-E) that simultaneously encode the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of HPAIV H5N1 and pre-membrane proteins (PrM), as well as the envelope glycoprotein (E) gene of DTMUV, and its potential as a trivalent vaccine was also evaluated. Ducks immunized with C-KCE-HA/PrM-E enhanced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to H5N1 and DTMUV. Importantly, a single-dose of C-KCE-HA/PrM-E conferred solid protection against virulent H5N1, DTMUV, and DEV challenges. In conclusion, these results demonstrated for the first time that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be applied for modification of the DEV genome rapidly and efficiently, and that recombinant C-KCE-HA/PrM-E can serve as a potential candidate trivalent vaccine to prevent H5N1, DTMUV, and DEV infections in ducks.
Project description:The newly emerged Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is responsible for considerable economic loss in waterfowl-raising areas in China since 2010. Meanwhile, the virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has also caused sporadic outbreaks in waterfowl. The individual vaccines against both diseases are available, however, there is no bivalent or combined vaccine for either disease. Here, we constructed a recombinant NDV-vectored vaccine candidate that expresses the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes from DTMUV, designated as aGM/prM?+?E. The foreign prM and E proteins were stably expressed in aGM/prM?+?E and exhibited similar pathogenicity but higher growth kinetics than those of the parental virus. The aGM/prM?+?E carries a fusion cleavage site in accordance with avirulent viruses that have been frequently isolated from waterfowl, and induced remarkably (p?<?0.001) higher NDV-specific hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers than commercially available live NDV vaccines (LaSota strain). The aGM/prM?+?E also elicited significantly higher (p?<?0.05) virus neutralization (VN) titers than commercially available DTMUV inactivated vaccines (HB strain). The aGM/prM?+?E not only provided complete protection against NDV challenge but also reduced the gross lesions on ovarian folliculi and provided 80% protection against DTMUV in ducks. We note that the aGM/prM?+?E vaccine can prevent challenged ducks from shedding of NDV and DTMUV. Our results suggest that the candidate vaccine aGM/prM?+?E would help decrease NDV and DTMUV transmissions in waterfowl raising areas in China.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus disease, caused by the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), can lead to a severe reduction in egg production and growth retardation in laying ducks and ducklings, respectively. In this study, we engineered a novel recombinant adenovirus expressing the E protein of DTMUV (rAd-E) in AAV-293 cells (analyzed by western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays). Intramuscular immunization of Cherry Valley ducks with rAd-E was performed to evaluate host cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the phosphate-buffered saline administered group and the negative control wild-type adenovirus (wtAd) group, the rAd-E vaccinated group showed increased cellular and humoral responses. The results from the cytokine release and lymphocyte proliferation assays showed that rAd-E induced a stronger cellular immune response than the control group (P<0.01), 4 weeks after primary immunization. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and virus neutralization assays showed that rAd-E induced higher titers of specific neutralizing antibodies, 2 weeks after primary immunization. The DTMUV challenge experiment showed a higher survival rate (80%) of ducks in the rAd-E group, when challenged with 0.5 ml (ELD50=10-2.67/0.2 ml) of the DTMUV strain AH-F10. These results indicate that rAd-E effectively protects ducks against DTMUV infection. Therefore, rAd-E could be a vaccine candidate to provide an effective and safe method for prevention and control of DTMUV infection.
Project description:Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging agent that causes a severe disease in ducks. We report herein the first complete genome sequences of duck tembusu virus strains YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2, isolated from Shaoxing ducks, breeder ducks, and geese, respectively, in China. The genomes of YY5, ZJ-407, and GH-2 are all 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and encode a putative polyprotein of 3,426 amino acids. It is flanked by a 5' and a 3' noncoding region (NCR) of 94 and 618 nt, respectively. Knowledge of the whole sequence of DTMUV will be useful for further studies of the mechanisms of virus replication and pathogenesis.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus responsible for massive economic losses in the duck industry. However, commercially inactivated DTMUV vaccines have been ineffective at inducing protective immunity in ducks. The widely used adjuvant cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) reportedly improve humoral and cellular immunities in animal models. However, its effectiveness in DTMUV vaccines requires validation. Here, we assessed the protective efficacy of pUC18-CpG as an adjuvant in an inactivated live DTMUV vaccine in ducks. Our results revealed that the serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers, positive rates of anti-DTMUV antibodies, the concentration of serum cytokines, and protection efficacy were significantly increased in ducks immunized with pUC18-CpG compared to that in the control group. Moreover, ducks immunized with a full vaccine dose containing a half dose of antigen supplemented with 40 ?g of pUC18-CpG exhibited the most potent responses. This study suggests that pUC18-CpG is a promising adjuvant against DTMUV, which might prove effective in treating other viral diseases in waterfowl.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1?, -2, -6, Cxcl8) and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc.) are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.
Project description:We report here the complete genomic sequence of the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) WJ-1 strain, isolated from Muscovy ducks. This is the first complete genome sequence of DTMUV reported in southern China. Compared with the other strains (TA, GH-2, YY5, and ZJ-407) that were previously found in eastern China, WJ-1 bears a few differences in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences. We found that there are 47 mutations of amino acids encoded by the whole open reading frame (ORF) among these five strains. The whole-genome sequence of DTMUV will help in understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of duck Tembusu virus in southern China.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although several studies have revealed that the sensitivity of ducklings to duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) was related to age, however, DTMUV was originally isolated from egg-laying ducks, and the ovary was the target organ of this virus. Cherry Valley breeding ducks aged 15- and 55-week-old (they are reserve breeding ducks and the normal egg-laying breeding ducks, respectively) were infected with DTMUV, using intramuscular injection, to study the effect of age-related difference on the pathogenicity of DTMUV in breeding ducks. RESULTS:Examinations of clinical symptoms, gross and microscopic lesions, viral loads, cytokines and serum neutralizing antibodies were performed. Results showed that obvious clinical symptoms, such as depression, ruffled feathers, ataxia and egg-laying drop were observed in the 55-week-old laying ducks, with five ducks dying at 5-7?days post infection (dpi). The 15-week-old ducks showed slight symptoms during infection. Gross lesions were severe and characterized by the congestion, hemorrhage and swelling of some organs in the 55-week-old ducks, including the hemorrhage of endocardium, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, oviduct hemorrhage, hyperemia and deformation of the ovary. Mild endocardial hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly were observed in the 15-week-old ducks. Similarly, there was a significant difference in microscopic lesions between the two groups. The older ducks displayed severe microscopic lesions, specifically in the hemorrhage, interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the endocardium, typical viral encephalitis and hemorrhage in the ovary. But on the whole, the 15-week-old ducks showed milder lesions. Viral loads in tissues of the older group were significantly higher than those of the younger group. The levels of interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-2 and neutralizing antibody in the 15-week-old ducks were higher than in the 55-week-old ducks at the early stage of the DTMUV infection, suggesting the immune response in the younger ducks to DTMUV was stronger than in the older ducks. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrated that age-related differences in susceptibility to DTMUV in breeding ducks was significant, with 55-week-old egg-laying ducks being more susceptible to DTMUV than 15-week-old reserve breeding ducks.
Project description:We report here the complete genomic sequence of the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) SH001 strain, isolated from Pekin ducks in Shanghai, China, in 2013. The genome of SH001 is 10,990 nucleotides (nt) in length and contains a single open reading frame encoding a putative polyprotein of 3,425 amino acids.