Burden of Hospital Acquired Infections and Antimicrobial Use in Vietnamese Adult Intensive Care Units.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Vietnam is a lower middle-income country with no national surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). We assessed the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections and antimicrobial use in adult intensive care units (ICUs) across Vietnam. METHODS:Monthly repeated point prevalence surveys were systematically conducted to assess HAI prevalence and antimicrobial use in 15 adult ICUs across Vietnam. Adults admitted to participating ICUs before 08:00 a.m. on the survey day were included. RESULTS:Among 3287 patients enrolled, the HAI prevalence was 29.5% (965/3266 patients, 21 missing). Pneumonia accounted for 79.4% (804/1012) of HAIs Most HAIs (84.5% [855/1012]) were acquired in the survey hospital with 42.5% (363/855) acquired prior to ICU admission and 57.5% (492/855) developed during ICU admission. In multivariate analysis, the strongest risk factors for HAI acquired in ICU were: intubation (OR 2.76), urinary catheter (OR 2.12), no involvement of a family member in patient care (OR 1.94), and surgery after admission (OR 1.66). 726 bacterial isolates were cultured from 622/1012 HAIs, most frequently Acinetobacter baumannii (177/726 [24.4%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100/726 [13.8%]), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (84/726 [11.6%]), with carbapenem resistance rates of 89.2%, 55.7%, and 14.9% respectively. Antimicrobials were prescribed for 84.8% (2787/3287) patients, with 73.7% of patients receiving two or more. The most common antimicrobial groups were third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems (20.1%, 19.4%, and 14.1% of total antimicrobials, respectively). CONCLUSION:A high prevalence of HAIs was observed, mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria with high carbapenem resistance rates. This in combination with a high rate of antimicrobial use illustrates the urgent need to improve rational antimicrobial use and infection control efforts.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Incidence rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) depend upon infection control policy and practices, and the effectiveness of the implementation of antibiotic stewardship. Amongst intensive care unit (ICU) patients with HAIs, a substantial number of pathogens were reported to be multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB). However, impacts of ICU HAIs due to MDRB (MDRB-HAIs) remain understudied. Our study aimed to evaluate the negative impacts of MRDB-HAIs versus HAIs due to non-MDRB (non-MRDB-HAIs). METHODS:Among 60,317 adult patients admitted at ICUs of a 2680-bed medical centre in Taiwan between January 2010 and December 2017, 279 pairs of propensity-score matched MRDB-HAI and non-MRDB-HAI were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Between the MDRB-HAI group and the non-MDRB-HAI group, significant differences were found in overall hospital costs, costs of medical and nursing services, medication, and rooms/beds, and in ICU length-of-stay (LOS). As compared with the non-MDRB-HAI group, the mean of the overall hospital costs of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 26%; for categorized expenditures, the mean of costs of medical and nursing services of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 8%, of medication by 26.9%, of rooms/beds by 10.3%. The mean ICU LOS in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 13%. Mortality rates in both groups did not significantly differ. CONCLUSIONS:These data clearly demonstrate more negative impacts of MDRB-HAIs in ICUs. The quantified financial burdens will be helpful for hospital/government policymakers in allocating resources to mitigate MDRB-HAIs in ICUs; in case of need for clarification/verification of the medico-economic burdens of MDRB-HAIs in different healthcare systems, this study provides a model to facilitate the evaluations.
Project description:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major worldwide public-health problem, but less data are available on the long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in Eastern China. This study describes the prevalence and long-term trends of HAIs and antimicrobial use in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hefei, Anhui, China from 2010 to 2017 based on annual point-prevalence surveys. A total of 12 505 inpatients were included; 600 HAIs were recorded in 533 patients, with an overall prevalence of 4.26% and a frequency of 4.80%. No evidence was found for an increasing or decreasing trend in prevalence of HAI over 8 years (trend ?2 = 2.15, P = 0.143). However, significant differences in prevalence of HAI were evident between the surveys (?2 = 21.14, P < 0.001). The intensive care unit had the highest frequency of HAIs (24.36%) and respiratory tract infections accounted for 62.50% of all cases; Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (16.67%). A 44.13% prevalence of antimicrobial use with a gradually decreasing trend over time was recorded. More attention should be paid to potential high-risk clinical departments and HAI types with further enhancement of rational antimicrobial use.
Project description:There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year.A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20.8%), and surgery/trauma (11.3%). Intubation rate was 47.8%, central venous catheter 29.4%, peripheral venous catheter 86.2%, urinary catheter 14.6%, and hemodialysis/filtration 1.7%. HAI was diagnosed in 33.1% of the cases: pneumonia (52.2%), septicemia (26.4%), surgical site infection (2%), and necrotizing enterocolitis (2%). Significant risk factors for HAI included age under 7 months, intubation and infection at admission. Microbiological findings were reported in 212 cases (43%) with 276 isolates: 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 46 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 39 Acinetobacter baumannii, with carbapenem resistance detected in 55%, 71%, and 65%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 18 cases, with 81% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most children (87.6%) received antibiotics, with an average of 1.6 antibiotics per case. Colistin was administered to 96 patients, 93% with HAI and 49% with culture confirmed carbapenem resistance.The high prevalence of HAI with carbapenem resistant gram-negative strains and common treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and colistin suggests that interventions are needed to prevent HAI and to optimize antibiotic use.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>During the intensive care units' (ICUs) reorganization that was forced by the COVID-19 emergency, attention to traditional infection control measures may have been reduced. Nevertheless, evidence on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is still limited and mixed. In this study, we estimated the pandemic impact on HAI incidence and investigated the HAI type occurring in COVID-19 patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients admitted to the main ICU of the Umberto I teaching hospital of Rome from March 1st and April 4th 2020 were compared with patients hospitalized in 2019. We assessed the association of risk factors and time-to-first event through multivariable Fine and Grey's regression models, that consider the competitive risk of death on the development of HAI (Model 1) or device related-HAI (dr-HAI, Model 2) and provide estimates of the sub-distribution hazard ratio (SHR) and its associated confidence interval (CI). A subgroup analysis was performed on the 2020 cohort.<h4>Results</h4>Data from 104 patients were retrieved. Overall, 59 HAIs were recorded, 32 of which occurred in the COVID-19 group. Patients admitted in 2020 were found to be positively associated with both HAI and dr-HAI onset (SHR: 2.66, 95% CI 1.31-5.38, and SHR: 10.0, 95% CI 1.84-54.41, respectively). Despite being not confirmed at the multivariable analysis, a greater proportion of dr-HAIs seemed to occur in COVID-19 patients, especially ventilator-associated pneumonia, and catheter-related urinary tract infections.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We observed an increase in the incidence of patients with HAIs, especially dr-HAIs, mainly sustained by COVID-19 patients. A greater susceptibility of these patients to device-related infections was hypothesized, but further studies are needed.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) among pediatric patients that occurred in 2015-2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).<h4>Methods</h4>Antimicrobial resistance data were analyzed for pathogens implicated in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs), and surgical site infections (SSIs). This analysis was restricted to device-associated HAIs reported from pediatric patient care locations and SSIs among patients <18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by HAI type, location type, and surgical category.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 2,545 facilities performed surveillance of pediatric HAIs in the NHSN during this period. Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Escherichia coli (12%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (12%) were the 3 most commonly reported pathogens associated with pediatric HAIs. Pathogens and the %NS varied by HAI type, location type, and/or surgical category. Among CLABSIs, the %NS was generally lowest in neonatal intensive care units and highest in pediatric oncology units. Staphylococcus spp were particularly common among orthopedic, neurosurgical, and cardiac SSIs; however, E. coli was more common in abdominal SSIs. Overall, antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was less prevalent in pediatric HAIs than in adult HAIs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance patterns among pediatric HAIs. These data highlight the need for continued antimicrobial resistance tracking among pediatric patients and should encourage the pediatric healthcare community to use such data when establishing policies for infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship.
Project description:Health-care-acquired infections (HAIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Prior work has identified several patient-related risk factors associated with HAIs. We hypothesized that rates of HAIs would differ across institutions, in part attributed to differences in case mix.We analyzed 20 896 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery at 33 medical centers in Michigan between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2012. Overall HAIs included pneumonia, sepsis/septicemia, and surgical site infections, including deep sternal wound, thoracotomy, and harvest/cannulation site infections. We excluded patients presenting with endocarditis. Predicted rates of HAIs were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Overall rate of HAI was 5.1% (1071 of 20 896; isolated pneumonia, 3.1% [n=644]; isolated sepsis/septicemia, 0.5% [n=99]; isolated deep sternal wound infection, 0.5% [n=96]; isolated harvest/cannulation site, 0.5% [n=97]; isolated thoracotomy, 0.02% [n=5]; multiple infections, 0.6% [n=130]). HAI subtypes differed across strata of center-level HAI rates. Although predicted risk of HAI differed in absolute terms by 2.8% across centers (3.9-6.7%; min:max), observed rates varied by 18.2% (0.9-19.1%).There was a 18.2% difference in observed HAI rates across medical centers among patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. This variability could not be explained by patient case mix. Future work should focus on the impact of other factors (eg, organizational and systems of clinical care) on risk of HAIs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use (AMU) are important drivers of antimicrobial resistance, yet there is minimal data from the Pacific region. We sought to determine the point prevalence of HAIs and AMU at Fiji's largest hospital, the Colonial War Memorial Hospital (CWMH) in Suva. A secondary aim was to evaluate the performance of European Centre for Diseases Prevention and Control (ECDC) HAI criteria in a resource-limited setting. METHODS:We conducted a point prevalence survey of HAIs and AMU at CWMH in October 2019. Survey methodology was adapted from the ECDC protocol. To evaluate the suitability of ECDC HAI criteria in our setting, we augmented the survey to identify patients with a clinician diagnosis of a HAI where diagnostic testing criteria were not met. We also assessed infection prevention and control (IPC) infrastructure on each ward. RESULTS:We surveyed 343 patients, with median (interquartile range) age 30?years (16-53), predominantly admitted under obstetrics/gynaecology (94, 27.4%) or paediatrics (83, 24.2%). Thirty patients had one or more HAIs, a point prevalence of 8.7% (95% CI 6.0% to 12.3%). The most common HAIs were surgical site infections (n =?13), skin and soft tissue infections (7) and neonatal clinical sepsis (6). Two additional patients were identified with physician-diagnosed HAIs that failed to meet ECDC criteria due to insufficient investigations. 206 (60.1%) patients were receiving at least one antimicrobial. Of the 325 antimicrobial prescriptions, the most common agents were ampicillin (58/325, 17.8%), cloxacillin (55/325, 16.9%) and metronidazole (53/325, 16.3%). Use of broad-spectrum agents such as piperacillin/tazobactam (n =?6) and meropenem (1) was low. The majority of prescriptions for surgical prophylaxis were for more than 1 day (45/76, 59.2%). Although the number of handwashing basins throughout the hospital exceeded World Health Organization recommendations, availability of alcohol-based handrub was limited and most concentrated within high-risk wards. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of HAIs in Fiji was similar to neighbouring high-income countries, but may have been reduced by the high proportion of paediatric and obstetrics patients, or by lower rates of inpatient investigations. AMU was very high, with duration of surgical prophylaxis an important target for future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred during 2015-2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).<h4>Methods</h4>Data from central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated events (VAEs), and surgical site infections (SSIs) were reported from acute-care hospitals, long-term acute-care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. This analysis included device-associated HAIs reported from adult location types, and SSIs among patients ≥18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated for each HAI type, location type, surgical category, and surgical wound closure technique.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 5,626 facilities performed adult HAI surveillance during this period, most of which were general acute-care hospitals with <200 beds. Escherichia coli (18%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), and Klebsiella spp (9%) were the 3 most frequently reported pathogens. Pathogens varied by HAI and location type, with oncology units having a distinct pathogen distribution compared to other settings. The %NS for most pathogens was significantly higher among device-associated HAIs than SSIs. In addition, pathogens from long-term acute-care hospitals had a significantly higher %NS than those from general hospital wards.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and pathogens, stratified by several factors. These data underscore the importance of tracking antimicrobial resistance, particularly in vulnerable populations such as long-term acute-care hospitals and intensive care units.
Project description:Health care-acquired infections (HAIs) kill tens of thousands of people each year and add significantly to health care costs. Multidrug-resistant and epidemic strains are a large proportion of HAI agents, and multidrug-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a leading HAI agent, have caused an urgent public health crisis. In the health care environment, patient colonization by K. pneumoniae precedes infection, and transmission via colonization leads to outbreaks. Periodic patient screening for K. pneumoniae colonization has the potential to curb the number of HAIs. In this report, we describe the design and validation of KlebSeq, a highly informative screening tool that detects Klebsiella species and identifies clinically important strains and characteristics by using highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing without a live-culturing step. We demonstrate the utility of this tool on several complex specimen types, including urine, wound swabs and tissue, and several types of respiratory and fecal specimens, showing K. pneumoniae species and clonal group identification and antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiling, including capsule typing. Use of this amplicon sequencing tool to screen patients for Klebsiella carriage could inform health care staff of the risk of infection and outbreak potential. KlebSeq also serves as a model for next-generation molecular tools for public health and health care, as expansion of this tool can be used for several other HAI agents or applications.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An estimated 4% of hospital admissions acquired healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and accounted for $9.8 (USD) billion in direct cost during 2011. In 2010, nearly 140 000 of the 3.5 million potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs) may have acquired an HAI. There is a knowledge gap regarding the co-occurrence of these events.<h4>Aims</h4>To estimate the period occurrences and likelihood of acquiring an HAI for the PPH population.<h4>Methods</h4>Retrospective, cross-sectional study using logistic regression analysis of 2011 Texas Inpatient Discharge Public Use Data File including 2.6 million admissions from 576 acute care hospitals. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Prevention Quality Indicator software identified PPH, and existing administrative data identification methodologies were refined for <i>Clostridium difficile</i> infection, central line-associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Odds of acquiring HAIs when admitted with PPH were adjusted for demographic, health status, hospital, and community characteristics.<h4>Findings</h4>We identified 272 923 PPH, 14 219 HAI, and 986 admissions with PPH and HAI. Odds of acquiring an HAI for diabetic patients admitted for lower extremity amputation demonstrated significantly increased odds ratio of 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 2.16-3.91) for <i>Clostridium difficile</i> infection. Other PPH patients had lower odds of acquiring HAI compared to non-PPH patients, and results were frequently significant.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Clinical implications include increased risk of HAI among diabetic patients admitted for lower extremity amputation. Methodological implications include identification of rare events for inpatient subpopulations and the need for improved codification of HAIs to improve cost and policy analyses regarding allocation of resources toward clinical improvements.