Quantitative H2S-mediated protein sulfhydration reveals metabolic reprogramming during the integrated stress response.
ABSTRACT: The sulfhydration of cysteine residues in proteins is an important mechanism involved in diverse biological processes. We have developed a proteomics approach to quantitatively profile the changes of sulfhydrated cysteines in biological systems. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that sulfhydrated cysteines are part of a wide range of biological functions. In pancreatic ? cells exposed to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, elevated H2S promotes the sulfhydration of enzymes in energy metabolism and stimulates glycolytic flux. We propose that transcriptional and translational reprogramming by the integrated stress response (ISR) in pancreatic ? cells is coupled to metabolic alternations triggered by sulfhydration of key enzymes in intermediary metabolism.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a messenger molecule generated by cystathionine gamma-lyase, acts as a physiologic vasorelaxant. Mechanisms whereby H2S signals have been elusive. We now show that H2S physiologically modifies cysteines in a large number of proteins by S-sulfhydration. About 10 to 25% of many liver proteins, including actin, tubulin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are sulfhydrated under physiological conditions. Sulfhydration augments GAPDH activity and enhances actin polymerization. Sulfhydration thus appears to be a physiologic posttranslational modification for proteins.
Project description:S-sulfhydration is a signalling pathway of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is suggested as an anti-atherogenic molecule that may protect against atherosclerosis. The identification of S-sulfhydrated proteins by proteomic approach could be a major step towards understanding the mechanisms of H2S in response to atherosclerosis. The present study studied targeted S-sulfhydrated proteins using the modified biotin switch method followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight tandem mass spectrometry identification. The results showed that H2S can protect against atherosclerosis by reducing body weight gain and alleviating aortic plaque formation. In addition, H2S treatment can increase aortic protein S-sulfhydration. Seventy targeted S-sulfhydrated aortic proteins were identified, mainly involved in metabolism, stimulus response and biological regulation, as determined by gene ontology database analysis. H2S also induced S-sulfhydration of glutathione peroxidase 1 and further reduced lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant defence in the aorta by prompting glutathione synthesis. Our data suggest that H2S is a cardiovascular-protective molecule that S-sulfhydrates a subset of proteins that are mainly responsible for lipid metabolism and exerts its cytoprotective effects to clear free radicals and inhibit oxidative stress through cysteine S-sulfhydration.
Project description:Although originally considered toxic, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been implicated in mediating various biological processes. Nevertheless, its cellular targets and mode of action are not well understood. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which regulate numerous signal transduction pathways, use an essential cysteine residue at the active site, which is characterized by a low pK(a) and is susceptible to reversible oxidation. Here, we report that PTP1B was reversibly inactivated by H(2)S, in vitro and in cells, through sulfhydration of the active-site cysteine residue. Unlike oxidized PTP1B, the sulfhydrated enzyme was preferentially reduced in vitro by thioredoxin, compared to glutathione or dithiothreitol. Sulfhydration of PTP1B in cells required the presence of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), a critical enzyme in H(2)S production, and resulted in inhibition of phosphatase activity. Suppression of CSE decreased H(2)S production and decreased the phosphorylation of tyrosine-619 in PERK [protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase], thus reducing its activation in response to ER stress. PERK, which phosphorylates the eukaryotic translational initiation factor 2, leading to attenuation of protein translation, was a direct substrate of PTP1B. In addition, CSE knockdown led to activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase SRC, previously shown to be mediated by PTP1B. These effects of suppressing H(2)S production on the response to ER stress were abrogated by a small-molecule inhibitor of PTP1B. Together, these data define a signaling function for H(2)S in inhibiting PTP1B activity and thereby promoting PERK activity during the response to ER stress.
Project description:Protein S-sulfhydration (forming -S-SH adducts from cysteine residues) is a newly defined oxidative posttranslational modification and plays an important role in H2 S-mediated signaling pathways. In this study we report the first selective, "tag-switch" method which can directly label protein S-sulfhydrated residues by forming stable thioether conjugates. Furthermore we demonstrate that H2 S alone cannot lead to S-sulfhydration and that the two possible physiological mechanisms include reaction with protein sulfenic acids (P-SOH) or the involvement of metal centers which would facilitate the oxidation of H2 S to HS(.) .
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Hydrogen sulfide donors can block the cardiovascular injury of hyperhomocysteinemia. H2 S also lowers serum homocysteine in rats with mild hyperhomocysteinemia, but the pharmacological mechanism is unknown. The present study investigated the mechanism(s) involved. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:ApoE-knockout mice were fed a Paigen diet and L-methionine in drinking water for 16 weeks to create a mouse model of atherosclerosis with hyperhomocysteinemia. H2 S donors (NaHS and GYY4137) were administered by intraperitoneal injection. We also assayed the H2 S produced (by methylene blue assay and mito-HS [H2 S fluorescence probe]), cystathionine ? lyase (CSE) mRNA and protein expression, and CSE sulfhydration and nitrosylation and its activity. KEY RESULTS:H2 S donor treatment significantly lowered atherosclerotic plaque area, macrophage infiltration, and serum homocysteine level in the mouse model of atherosclerosis with co-existing hyperhomocysteinemia. mRNA and protein levels of CSE, a key enzyme catalyzing homocysteine trans-sulfuration, were down-regulated with hyperhomocysteinemia, and CSE catalytic activity was inhibited. All these effects were reversed with H2 S donor treatment. Hyperhomocysteinemia induced CSE nitrosylation, whereas H2 S sulfhydrated CSE at the same cysteine residues. Nitrosylated CSE decreased and sulfhydrated CSE increased its catalytic and binding activities towards L-homocysteine. Mutation of C252, C255, C307, and C310 residues in CSE abolished CSE nitrosylation or sulfhydration and prevented its binding to L-homocysteine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Sulfhydration or nitrosylation of CSE represents a yin/yang regulation of catalysis or binding to L-homocysteine. H2 S donor treatment enhanced CSE sulfhydration, thus lowering serum L-homocysteine, which contributed in part to the anti-atherosclerosis effects in ApoE-knockout mice with hyperhomocysteinemia.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an essential role in bone formation, in part, by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation, maintaining mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis ability, or reducing osteoblast injury. We aimed to investigate the role of H2S in osteoblast function and its possible molecular target.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we found that cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) majorly contributed to endogenous H2S production in the primary osteoblast. Overexpressed CSE increased osteoblast differentiation and maturation with higher bone morphogenetic protein 2 and osteopontin expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium nodule formation; in contrast, knockdown of CSE had opposite effects. Runt-related transcript factor 2 (RUNX2) is required for osteoblast biologic function. CSE-H2S increased nuclear RUNX2 accumulation, DNA binding activity, and target gene transcription. Protein sulfhydration is a common signal by H2S. We confirmed that RUNX2 was also sulfhydrated by H2S. This chemical modification enhanced RUNX2 transactivation, which was blocked by dithiothreitol (DTT, sulfhydration remover). Mutation of two cysteine sites in the runt domain of RUNX2 abolished H2S-induced RUNX2 sulfhydration and transactivation. In a bone -fracture rat model, overexpressed CSE promoted bone healing, which confirmed the effect of CSE-H2S on osteoblasts.<h4>Innovation</h4>CSE-H2S is a dominant H2S generation system in osteoblasts and promotes osteoblast activity by the RUNX2 pathway, with RUNX2 sulfhydration as a novel transactivation regulation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>CSE-H2S sulfhydrated RUNX2 enhanced its transactivation and increased osteoblast differentiation and maturation, thereby promoting bone healing. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 742-753.
Project description:In Alzheimer's disease (AD), human Tau is phosphorylated at S199 (hTau-S199-P) by the protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). HTau-S199-P mislocalizes to dendritic spines, which induces synaptic dysfunction at the early stage of AD. The AKT kinase, once phosphorylated, inhibits GSK3β by phosphorylating it at S9. In AD patients, the abundance of phosphorylated AKT with active GSK3β implies that phosphorylated AKT was unable to inactivate GSK3β. However, the underlying mechanism of the inability of phosphorylated AKT to phosphorylate GSK3β remains unknown. Here, we show that total AKT and phosphorylated AKT was sulfhydrated at C77 due to the induction of intracellular hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S). The increase in intracellular H<sub>2</sub>S levels resulted from the induction of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, which is a pathological hallmark of AD. Sulfhydrated AKT does not interact with GSK3β, and therefore does not phosphorylate GSK3β. Thus, active GSK3β phosphorylates Tau aberrantly. In a transgenic knockin mouse (AKT-KI<sup>+/+</sup>) that lacked sulfhydrated AKT, the interaction between AKT or phospho-AKT with GSK3β was restored, and GSK3β became phosphorylated. In AKT-KI<sup>+/+</sup> mice, expressing the pathogenic human Tau mutant (hTau-P301L), the hTau S199 phosphorylation was ameliorated as GSK3β phosphorylation was regained. This event leads to a decrease in dendritic spine loss by reducing dendritic localization of hTau-S199-P, which improves cognitive dysfunctions. Sulfhydration of AKT was detected in the postmortem brains from AD patients; thus, it represents a posttranslational modification of AKT, which primarily contributes to synaptic dysfunction in AD.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is thought to protect bacteria from oxidative stress, but a comprehensive understanding of its function in bacteria is largely unexplored. In this study, we show that the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) harbors significant effector molecules of H2S signaling, reactive sulfur species (RSS), as low molecular weight persulfides of bacillithiol, coenzyme A, and cysteine, and significant inorganic polysulfide species. We find that proteome S-sulfhydration, a post-translational modification (PTM) in H2S signaling, is widespread in S. aureus. RSS levels modulate the expression of secreted virulence factors and the cytotoxicity of the secretome, consistent with an S-sulfhydration-dependent inhibition of DNA binding by MgrA, a global virulence regulator. Two previously uncharacterized thioredoxin-like proteins, denoted TrxP and TrxQ, are S-sulfhydrated in sulfide-stressed cells and are capable of reducing protein hydrodisulfides, suggesting that this PTM is potentially regulatory in S. aureus. In conclusion, our results reveal that S. aureus harbors a pool of proteome- and metabolite-derived RSS capable of impacting protein activities and gene regulation and that H2S signaling can be sensed by global regulators to affect the expression of virulence factors.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an important gasotransmitter, regulates cardiovascular functions. Mitochondrial damage induced by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) results in myocardial injury with a diabetic state. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous H2S on mitophagy formation in diabetic cardiomyopathy. In this study, we found that exogenous H2S could improve cardiac functions, reduce mitochondrial fragments and ROS levels, enhance mitochondrial respiration chain activities and inhibit mitochondrial apoptosis in the hearts of db/db mice. Our results showed that exogenous H2S facilitated parkin translocation into mitochondria and promoted mitophagy formation in the hearts of db/db mice. Our studies further revealed that the ubiquitination level of cytosolic parkin was increased and the expression of USP8, a deubiquitinating enzyme, was decreased in db/db cardiac tissues. S-sulfhydration is a novel posttranslational modification of specific cysteine residues on target proteins by H2S. Our results showed that the S-sulfhydration level of USP8 was obviously decreased in vivo and in vitro under hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, however, exogenous H2S could reverse this effect and promote USP8/parkin interaction. Dithiothreitol, a reducing agent that reverses sulfhydration-mediated covalent modification, increased the ubiquitylation level of parkin, abolished the effects of exogenous H2S on USP8 deubiquitylation and suppressed the interaction of USP8 with parkin in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with high glucose, oleate and palmitate. Our findings suggested that H2S promoted mitophagy formation by increasing S-sulfhydration of USP8, which enhanced deubiquitination of parkin through the recruitment of parkin in mitochondria.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays physiological roles in vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection, and ATP synthesis. HMG-CoA reductase degradation protein (Hrd1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in protein trafficking. H2S may play a role in controlling fatty acid uptake in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in a manner correlated with modulation of Hrd1 S-sulfhydration; however, this role remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine whether H2S can attenuate lipid accumulation and to explain the possible mechanisms involved in the regulation of the H2S-Hrd1/VAMP3 pathway. Db/db mice and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes treated with high glucose, palmitate and oleate were used as animal and cellular models of type 2 diabetes, respectively. The expression of cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), Hrd1, CD36 and VAMP3 was detected by Western blot analysis. In addition, Hrd1 was mutated at Cys115, and Hrd1 S-sulfhydration was examined using an S-sulfhydration assay. VAMP3 ubiquitylation was investigated by immunoprecipitation. Lipid droplet formation was tested by TEM, BODIPY 493/503 staining and oil red O staining. The expression of CSE and Hrd1 was decreased in db/db mice compared to control mice, whereas CD36 and VAMP3 expression was increased. NaHS administration reduced droplet formation, and exogenous H2S restored Hrd1 expression, modified S-sulfhydration, and decreased VAMP3 expression in the plasma membrane. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified 85 proteins with decreased ubiquitylation, including 3 vesicle-associated membrane proteins, in the cardiac tissues of model db/db mice compared with NaHS-treated db/db mice. Overexpression of Hrd1 mutated at Cys115 diminished VAMP3 ubiquitylation, whereas it increased CD36 and VAMP3 expression and droplet formation. siRNA-mediated Hrd1 deletion increased the expression of CD36 in the cell membrane. These findings suggested that H2S regulates VAMP3 ubiquitylation via Hrd1 S-sulfhydration at Cys115 to prevent CD36 translocation in diabetes.