Project description:Bone has the potential for spontaneous healing. However, this process often fails in patients with co-morbidities requiring clinical intervention. Numerous studies have revealed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) hold great potential for regenerative therapies. Common problems include poor cell engraftment, which can be addressed by irradiation prior to transplantation. Increasing evidence suggests that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is involved in bone formation. However, osteogenic contributions of the beta splice variant of SDF-1 (SDF-1?), which is highly expressed in bone, remain unclear. Using the tetracycline (Tet)-regulatory system we have shown that SDF-1? enhances BMSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Here we test the hypothesis that SDF-1? augments bone formation in vivo in a model of local BMSC transplantation following irradiation. We found that SDF-1?, expressed at high levels in Tet-Off-SDF-1? BMSCs, augments the cell-mediated therapeutic effects resulting in enhanced bone formation, as evidenced by ex vivo ?CT and bone histomorphometry. The data demonstrate the specific contribution of SDF-1? to BMSC-mediated bone formation, and validate the feasibility of the Tet-Off technology to regulate SDF-1? expression in vivo. In conclusion, SDF-1? provides potent synergistic effects supporting BMSC-mediated bone formation and appears a suitable candidate for optimization of bone augmentation in translational protocols.
Project description:Skeletal injuries are among the most prevalent clinical problems and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) have successfully been used for the treatment thereof. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12) is a member of the CXC chemokine family with multiple splice variants. The two most abundant variants, SDF-1? and SDF-1?, share identical amino acid sequences, except for four additional amino acids at the C-terminus of SDF-1?, which may mediate surface stabilization via glycosaminoglycans and protect SDF-1? from proteolytic cleavage, rendering it twice as potent as SDF-1?. Increasing evidence suggests that SDF-1 is involved in bone formation through regulation of recruitment, engraftment, proliferation, and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SDF-1? can potentiate bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-stimulated osteogenic differentiation and chemotaxis of BMSCs in vitro. Utilizing retrovirus-mediated gene transfer to generate novel Tet-Off-SDF-1? BMSCs, we found that conditional SDF-1? expression is tightly regulated by doxycycline in a dose-dependent and temporal fashion, leading to significantly increased SDF-1? mRNA and protein levels. In addition, SDF-1? was found to enhance BMP-2-stimulated mineralization, mRNA and protein expression of key osteogenic markers, and regulate BMP-2 signal transduction via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) phosphorylation in genetically engineered BMSCs in vitro. We also showed that SDF-1? promotes the migratory response of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-expressing BMSCs in vitro. Taken together, these data support that SDF-1? can play an important role in BMP-2-stimulated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and may exert its biological activity in both an autocrine and paracrine fashion.
Project description:Skeletal injury is a major clinical challenge accentuated by the decrease of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) with age or disease. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have revealed that BMSCs hold great promise for regenerative therapies due to their direct osteogenic potential and indirect trophic/paracrine actions. Increasing evidence suggests that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is involved in modulating the host response to the injury. Common problems with BMSC therapy include poor cell engraftment, which can be addressed by total body irradiation (TBI) prior to transplantation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that direct tibial transplantation of BMSCs drives endogenous bone formation in a dose-dependent manner, which is enhanced by TBI, and investigated the potential role of SDF-1 in facilitating these events. We found that TBI is permissive for transplanted BMSCs to engraft and contribute to new bone formation. Bone marrow (BM) interstitial fluid analysis revealed no differences of SDF-1 splice variants in irradiated animals compared to controls, despite the increased mRNA and protein levels expressed in whole BM cells. This correlated with increased dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and the failure to induce chemotaxis of BMSCs in vitro. We found increased mRNA expression levels of the major SDF-1-cleaving proteases in whole BM cells from irradiated animals suggesting distinct spatial differences within the BM in which SDF-1 may play different autocrine and paracrine signaling roles beyond the immediate cell surface microenvironment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Quercetin and H19 can promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). However, whether quercetin regulates H19 expression to promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs is unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>BMSC proliferation, matrix mineralization, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were assessed using the Cell Counting Kit-8, ALP assay kit, and alizarin red staining kit, respectively. Expression of H19, miR-625-5p, BMP-2, osteocalcin, and RUNX2 were measured by qRT-PCR; β-catenin protein level was measured by western blotting.<h4>Results</h4>Quercetin promoted BMSC proliferation, enhanced ALP activity, and upregulated the expression of BMP-2, osteocalcin, and RUNX2 mRNAs, suggesting that it promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Moreover, quercetin increased H19 expression, while the effect of quercetin on BMSCs was reversed by silencing H19 expression. Additionally, miR-625-5p, interacted with H19, was downregulated during quercetin-induced BMSC osteogenic differentiation, which negatively correlated with H19 expression. Silencing miR-625-5p expression promoted BMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, whereas miR-625-5p overexpression weakened the effect of quercetin on BMSCs. Finally, quercetin treatment or downregulation of miR-625-5p expression increased β-catenin protein level in BMSCs. Upregulation or downregulation of miR-625-5p or H19 expression, respectively, inhibited β-catenin protein level in quercetin treated-BMSCs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>H19 promotes, while miR-625-5p inhibits BMSC osteogenic differentiation. Quercetin activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and promotes BMSC osteogenic differentiation via the H19/miR-625-5p axis.
Project description:The role of neutrophils in bone regeneration remains elusive. In this study, it is shown that intramuscular implantation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) (commonly recognized as a chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils) at different levels lead to outcomes resembling those of fracture hematoma at various stages. Ectopic endochondral ossification is induced by certain levels of IL-8, during which neutrophils are recruited to the implanted site and are N2-polarized, which then secrete stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) for bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) chemotaxis via the SDF-1/CXCR4 (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4) axis and its downstream phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and β-catenin-mediated migration. Neutrophils are pivotal for recruiting and orchestrating innate and adaptive immunocytes, as well as BMSCs at the initial stage of bone healing and regeneration. The results in this study delineate the mechanism of neutrophil-initiated bone regeneration and interaction between neutrophils and BMSCs, and innate and adaptive immunities. This work lays the foundation for research in the fields of bone regenerative therapy and biomaterial development, and might inspire further research into novel therapeutic options.
Project description:Growing evidence suggests that the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is essential in regulating bone marrow (BM) derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (BMSC) survival, and differentiation to either a pro-osteogenic or pro-adipogenic fate. This study investigates the effects of caloric restriction (CR) and leptin on the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone and BM tissues in the context of age-associated bone loss. For in vivo studies, we collected bone, BM cells and BM interstitial fluid from 12 and 20 month-old C57Bl6 mice fed ad-libitum (AL), and 20-month-old mice on long-term CR with, or without, intraperitoneal injection of leptin for 10 days (10?mg/kg). To mimic conditions of CR in vitro, 18 month murine BMSCs were treated with (1) control (Ctrl): normal proliferation medium, (2) nutrient restriction (NR): low glucose, low serum medium, or (3) NR?+?leptin: NR medium?+?100?ng/ml leptin for 6-48?h. In BMSCs both protein and mRNA expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 were increased by CR and CR?+?leptin. In contrast, the alternate SDF-1 receptor CXCR7 was decreased, suggesting a nutrient signaling mediated change in SDF-1 axis signaling in BMSCs. However, in bone SDF-1, CXCR4 and 7 gene expression increase with age and this is reversed with CR, while addition of leptin returns this to the "aged" level. Histologically bone formation was lower in the calorically restricted mice and BM adipogenesis increased, both effects were reversed with the 10 day leptin treatment. This suggests that in bone CR and leptin alter the nutrient signaling pathways in different ways to affect the local action of the osteogenic cytokine SDF-1. Studies focusing on the molecular interaction between nutrient signaling by CR, leptin and SDF-1 axis may help to address age-related musculoskeletal changes.
Project description:Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been applied to treatment of skin wounds. In the current study, the effect of BMSCs on secretion of several cytokines during skin wound healing was investigated. In addition, the mechanism underlying the promoting effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) on BMSCs was also preliminarily explored. BMSCs were isolated from femur and tibia of rats and characterized by surface antibodies. Skin wounded rats was employed as the in vivo model for evaluating the effect of BMSCs on skin healing and secretion of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukin 1? (IL-1?), PDGF, SDF-1, and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). The promoting effect of SDF-1 and PDGF on the function of BMSCs was also assessed by focusing on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) signaling and deposition of collagens. Administration of BMSCs promoted skin wound healing and induced the production of bFGF, IL-1?, PDGF, SDF-1, and TNF-?. Moreover, PDGF treatment recruited BSMCs to injured sites and strengthened the effect of BMSCs on skin wound by suppressing activity of MMP-1. Similarly, SDF-1 treatment also increased the treating effect of BMSCs on skin injury, which was through the deposition of collagen I and collagen III. Both indicators exerted their effect on BMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Findings outlined in the current study indicated that administration of BMSCs accelerated wound healing and enhanced the production of PDGF and SDF-1, which would contribute to recruitment of BMSCs in injured area and deposition of collagens.
Project description:Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) is a cytokine secreted by cells including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). SDF-1 plays a vital role in BMSC migration, survival, and differentiation. Our group previously reported the role of SDF-1 in osteogenic differentiation in vitro and bone formation in vivo; however, our understanding of the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of SDF-1 remains poor. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of protein-coding genes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of miR-141-3p on SDF-1 expression in BMSCs and its importance in the aging bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Our data demonstrated that murine and human BMSCs expressed miR-141-3p that repressed SDF-1 gene expression at the functional level (luciferase reporter assay) by targeting the 3'-untranslated region of mRNA. We also found that transfection of miR-141-3p decreased osteogenic markers in human BMSCs. Our results demonstrate that miR-141-3p expression increases with age, while SDF-1 decreases in both the human and mouse BM niche. Taken together, these results support that miR-141-3p is a novel regulator of SDF-1 in bone cells and plays an important role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of murine and human BM niche.
Project description:Bone tissue healing is a dynamic, orchestrated process that relies on multiple growth factors and cell types. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is released from platelets at wound sites and induces cellular migration and proliferation necessary for bone regeneration in the early healing process. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), the most potent osteogenic differentiation inducer, directs new bone formation at the sites of bone defects. This study evaluated a combinatorial treatment protocol of PDGF-BB and BMP-2 on bone healing in a critical-sized defect model. To mimic the bone tissue healing process, a dual delivery approach was designed to deliver the rhPDGF-BB protein transiently during the early healing phase, whereas BMP-2 was supplied by rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transfected with an adenoviral vector containing the BMP2 gene (AdBMP2) for prolonged release throughout the healing process. In in vitro experiments, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and BMP2 significantly enhanced cell proliferation. However, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly suppressed even though the amount of BMP-2 secreted by the AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs was not significantly affected by the rhPDGF-BB treatment. In addition, dual delivery inhibited the mRNA expression of BMP receptor type II and Noggin in BMSCs. In in vivo experiments, critical-sized calvarial defects in rats showed enhanced bone regeneration by dual delivery of autologous AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs and rhPDGF-BB in both the amount of new bone formed and the bone mineral density. These enhancements in bone regeneration were greater than those observed in the group treated with AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs alone. In conclusion, the dual delivery of rhPDGF-BB and AdBMP2-transfected BMSCs improved the quality of the regenerated bone, possibly due to the modulation of PDGF-BB on BMP-2-induced osteogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy for wound healing. However, the poor migration capacity and low survival rate of transplanted BMSCs in wounds weaken their potential application. OBJECTIVE:To identify the optimal protocol for BMSCs preconditioned with H2O2 and improve the therapeutic efficacy using H2O2-preconditioned BMSCs in wound healing. METHODS:Mouse BMSCs were exposed to various concentrations of H2O2, and the key cellular functional properties were assessed to determine the optimal precondition with H2O2. The H2O2-preconditioned BMSCs were transplanted into mice with full-thickness excisional wounds to evaluate their healing capacity and tissue engraftment. RESULTS:Treatment BMSCs with 50??M H2O2 for 12?h could significantly enhance their proliferation, migration, and survival by maximizing the upregulation of cyclin D1, SDF-1, and its receptors CXCR4/7 expressions, and activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, but inhibiting the expression of p16 and GSK-3?. Meanwhile, oxidative stress-induced BMSC apoptosis was also significantly attenuated by the same protocol pretreatment with a decreased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-9/3 expression. Moreover, after the identification of the optimal protocol of H2O2 precondition in vitro, the migration and tissue engraftment of transfused BMSCs with H2O2 preconditioning were dramatically increased into the wound site as compared to the un-preconditioned BMSCs. The increased microvessel density and the speedy closure of the wounds were observed after the transfusion of H2O2-preconditioned BMSCs. CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggested that 50??M H2O2 pretreated for 12?h is the optimal precondition for the transplantation of BMSCs, which gives a considerable insight that this protocol may be served as a promising candidate for improving the therapeutic potential of BMSCs for wound healing.