Potential Factors for the Differentiation of ESCs/iPSCs Into Insulin-Producing Cells.
ABSTRACT: The low efficiency of in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into insulin-producing cells thus creates a crucial hurdle for the clinical implementation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). In this study, we investigated the key factors for the differentiation of PSCs into insulin-producing cells. We obtained microarray data of HUES8 and HUES6 from two GeneChips (GPL3921: Affymetrix HT Human Genome U133A Array, GPL570: Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array) in a database of GEO (NCBI), since HUES8 can differentiate into pancreatic cells, while HUES6 hardly demonstrates any differentiation at all. The genes with more than fourfold higher expressions in HUES8 compared to HUES6 included RPS4Y1, DDX3Y, EIF1AY, GREM1, GATA6, and NLGN4Y. Since there were four genes, RPS4Y1, DDX3Y, EIF1AY, and NLGN4Y, on the Y chromosome and HUES8 was a male cell line and HUES6 was a female cell line, we excluded these genes in this study. On the other hand, genes with more than fourfold higher expressions in HUES6 compared to HUES8 included NLRP2, EGR1, and SMC3. We next compared iPSCs derived from pancreatic cells (PiPSCs) and iPSCs derived from fibroblasts (FiPSCs). PiPSCs differentiated into insulin-producing cells more easily than FiPSCs because of their epigenetic memory. The gene expressions of GREM1, GATA6, NLRP2, EGR1, and SMC3 in PiPSCs and FiPSCs were also investigated. The expression level of GREM1 and GATA6 in PiPSCs were higher than in FiPSCs. On the other hand, EGR1, which was lower in HUES8 than in HUES6, was predictably lower in PiPSCs than FiPSCs, while NLRP2 and SMC3 were higher in PiPSCs than FiPSCs. These data suggest that the expression of GATA6 and GREM1 and the inhibition of EGR1 may be important factors for the differentiation of PSCs into insulin-producing cells.
Project description:The ability to generate germ cells from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) is valuable for human regenerative medicine and animal breeding. Germ cell-like cells (GCLCs) have been differentiated from mouse and human PSCs, but not from porcine PSCs, which are considered an ideal model for stem cell applications. Here, we developed a defined culture system for the induction of primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) from porcine induced PSCs (piPSCs). The identity of the PGCLCs was characterized by observing cell morphology, detecting germ cell marker gene expression and evaluating epigenetic properties. PGCLCs could further differentiate into spermatogonial stem cell-like cells (SSCLCs) in vitro. Importantly, meiosis occurred during SSCLC induction. Xenotransplantation of GCLCs into seminiferous tubules of infertile immunodeficient mice resulted in immunohistochemically identifiable germ cells in vivo. Overall, our study provides a feasible strategy for directing piPSCs to the germ cell fate and lays a foundation for exploring germ cell development mechanisms.
Project description:Pluripotent stem cell (PSC) variations can cause significant differences in the efficiency of cardiac differentiation. This process is unpredictable, as there is not an adequate indicator at the undifferentiated stage of the PSCs. We compared global gene expression profiles of two PSCs showing significant differences in cardiac differentiation potential. We identified 12 up-regulated genes related to heart development, and we found that 4 genes interacted with multiple genes. Among these genes, Gata6 is the only gene that was significantly induced at the early stage of differentiation of PSCs to cardiomyocytes. Gata6 knock-down in PSCs decreased the efficiency of cardiomyocyte production. In addition, we analyzed 6 mESC lines and 3 iPSC lines and confirmed that a positive correlation exists between Gata6 levels and efficiency of differentiation into cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, Gata6 could be utilized as a biomarker to select the best PSC lines to produce PSC-derived cardiomyocytes for therapeutic purposes. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(2): 85-91].
Project description:We sought to test the hypothesis that inherent biological factors contribute to gender differences in disease pathophysiology of new-onset heart failure (HF), which can be detected from the transcriptome of a single endomyocardial biopsy (EMB).We analysed samples from male (n = 29) and female patients (n = 14) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) and new-onset HF with U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix) and significance analysis of microarrays (SAM). There were 35 overexpressed and 16 downregulated transcripts in men vs. women [q < 5%, fold change (FC) > 1.2]. In addition to overexpression of Y-chromosome-related transcripts (n = 18), such as USP9Y (FC > 13.1), DDX3Y (FC > 11.3), RPS4Y1 (FC > 9.9), and EIF1AY (FC > 11.8) in males, there was overexpression of CD24 (FC > 5.6) and KCNK1 (FC > 1.5). In females, XIST was highly overexpressed (FC > 28.9), together with X-linked zinc finger proteins (FC > 1.9) and autosomal genes GATAD1 (FC > 1.6), SLC2A12 (FC > 2.9), and PDE6B (FC > 1.5). Analysis of a public data set of end-stage IDCM (n = 15) resulted in approximately 85% overlap with our findings.This is the first study that identified gender-specific transcriptomic differences in new-onset HF. Our findings may offer novel insights into fundamental biological differences in the pathophysiology of HF between sexes and provide a platform for personalized medicine.
Project description:Regenerative therapy holds great promise in the development of cures of some untreatable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) including induced PSCs (iPSCs) are the most important regenerative seed cells. Recently, differentiation of human PSCs into functional tissues and cells in vitro has been widely reported. However, although porcine reports are rare they are quite essential, as the pig is an important animal model for the in vitro generation of human organs. In this study, we reprogramed porcine embryonic fibroblasts into porcine iPSCs (piPSCs), and differentiated them into cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31)-positive endothelial cells (ECs) (piPSC-derived ECs, piPS-ECs) using an optimized single-layer culture method. During differentiation, we observed that a combination of GSK3? inhibitor (CHIR99021) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) promoted mesodermal differentiation, resulting in higher proportions of CD31-positive cells than those from separate CHIR99021 or BMP4 treatment. Importantly, the piPS-ECs showed comparable morphological and functional properties to immortalized porcine aortic ECs, which are capable of taking up low-density lipoprotein and forming network structures on Matrigel. Our study, which is the first trial on a species other than human and mouse, has provided an optimized single-layer culture method for obtaining ECs from porcine PSCs. Our approach can be beneficial when evaluating autologous EC transplantation in pig models.
Project description:Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are well-known for their key roles in the immune system. Ectopically expressed NLRP2 in immortalized cell lines assembles an inflammasome and inhibits activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-?B, but the physiological roles of NLRP2 are unknown. Here, we show that Nlrp2-deficient mice were born with expected Mendelian ratios and that Nlrp2 was dispensable for innate and adaptive immunity. The observation that Nlrp2 was exclusively expressed in oocytes led us to explore the role of Nlrp2 in parthenogenetic activation of oocytes. Remarkably, unlike oocytes of young adult Nlrp2-deficient mice, activated oocytes of mature adult mice developed slower and largely failed to reach the blastocyst stage. In agreement, we noted strikingly declining reproductive rates in vivo with progressing age of female Nlrp2-deficient mice. This work identifies Nlrp2 as a critical regulator of oocyte quality and suggests that NLRP2 variants with reduced activity may contribute to maternal age-associated fertility loss in humans.
Project description:Nod-like Receptor Pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRPs) expressed by resident renal cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple renal diseases. Cystinosis is a genetic disorder that affects kidney and particularly proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC). Here, we investigated the expression of NLRP family members in human control and cystinotic conditionally immortalized PTEC. Among all the NLRPs tested, we found that NLRP2 is highly expressed in cystinostic PTEC, but not in PTEC from healthy subjects. The NLRP2 overexpression was confirmed in primary PTEC and in kidney biopsies from cystinotic patients. In order to elucidate the role of NLRP2 in PTEC, we stably transfected control PTEC with an NLRP2-containing plasmid. We showed that NLRP2 markedly increases the production of several NF-?B regulated cytokines and chemokines. Accordingly, we demonstrated that NLRP2 interacts with IKKa and positively regulates the DNA-binding activity of p50 and p65 NF-?B, by modulating the p65 NF-?B phosphorylation status in Serine 536. Transcriptome analysis revealed that NLRP2 also upregulates the expression of profibrotic mediators and reduces that of several interferon-inducible genes. Finally, NLRP2 overexpression decreased the apoptotic cell rate. Consistently, silencing of NLRP2 by small-interfering RNA in cystinotic PTEC resulted in a significant decrease in cytokine and chemokine production as well as in an increase in the apoptosis rate. Altogether, our data reveals a previously unrecognized role for NLRP2 in regulating proinflammatory, profibrotic and antiapoptotic responses in PTEC, through NF-?B activation. Moreover, our findings unveil a novel potential mechanism involving NLRP2 overexpression in the pathogenesis of cystinosis.
Project description:We conducted a direct test of an immunological explanation of the finding that gay men have a greater number of older brothers than do heterosexual men. This explanation posits that some mothers develop antibodies against a Y-linked protein important in male brain development, and that this effect becomes increasingly likely with each male gestation, altering brain structures underlying sexual orientation in their later-born sons. Immune assays targeting two Y-linked proteins important in brain development-protocadherin 11 Y-linked (PCDH11Y) and neuroligin 4 Y-linked (NLGN4Y; isoforms 1 and 2)-were developed. Plasma from mothers of sons, about half of whom had a gay son, along with additional controls (women with no sons, men) was analyzed for male protein-specific antibodies. Results indicated women had significantly higher anti-NLGN4Y levels than men. In addition, after statistically controlling for number of pregnancies, mothers of gay sons, particularly those with older brothers, had significantly higher anti-NLGN4Y levels than did the control samples of women, including mothers of heterosexual sons. The results suggest an association between a maternal immune response to NLGN4Y and subsequent sexual orientation in male offspring.
Project description:Inadequate silencing of exogenous genes represents a major obstacle to complete epigenetic reprogramming of porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) by conventional pluripotency transcription factors (OSKM). We tested the hypothesis that epigenetic modification by active DNA or histone demethylation or by inhibition of histone deacetylase would enhance reprogramming and exogenous gene silencing in piPSCs. piPSCs induced by OSKM in combination with epigenetic factors, specifically Ten-Eleven Translocation (Tet1 or Tet3) or lysine (K)-specific demethylase 3A (Kdm3a), expressed higher levels of Rex1 and other genes representing naive state and exhibited more open chromatin status, compared with those of OSKM controls. Tet1 also improved differentiation capacity. Conversion with inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACi), NaB, TSA, or VPA, further increased Rex1 expression, while decreasing expression of exogenous genes. piPSCs induced by Tet1+OSKM followed by conversion with HDACi show high pluripotency. Together, epigenetic modifiers enhance generation of piPSCs and reduce their reliance on exogenous genes.
Project description:Physiologically and anatomically, humans and pigs share many similarities, which make porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs) very attractive for modeling human cell therapy as well as for testing safety of iPSC based cell replacement therapies. To date, several integrative and non-integrative strategies have been reported to successfully generate piPSCs, but all resulting piPSCs had integration of transgenes. The use of integrative methods has the disadvantage of potential lack of silencing or inappropriate re-activation of these genes during differentiation, as well as uncertainty regarding disruption of important genomic regions caused by integration. In our study, we performed a non-integrative vector based reprogramming approach using porcine fetal fibroblasts. The resulting four piPSC lines were positive for pluripotency marker and when subjected to in vitro and in vivo differentiation assays, all four lines formed embryoid bodies, capable to differentiate into all three germ layers, and three out of the four cell lines formed teratomas. PCR analysis on genomic and plasmid DNA revealed that the episomal vectors were undetectable in six out of eight subclones derived from one of the piPSC lines (piPSC1) above passage 20. These piPSCs could potentially be ideal cell lines for the generation of porcine in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, subsequent analyses of our new transgene independent piPSCs could provide novel insights on the genetic and epigenetic necessities to achieve and maintain piPSCs.