Icaritin requires Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading.
ABSTRACT: Counteracting muscle atrophy induced by mechanical unloading/inactivity is of great clinical need and challenge. A therapeutic agent that could counteract muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading in safety is desired. This study showed that natural product Icaritin (ICT) could increase the phosphorylation level of Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) at p110 catalytic subunit and promote PI3K/Akt signaling markers in C2C12 cells. This study further showed that the high dose ICT treatment could significantly attenuate the decreases in the phosphorylation level of PI3K at p110 catalytic subunit and its downstream markers related to protein synthesis, and inhibit the increases in protein degradation markers at mRNA and protein levels in rat soleus muscle following 28-day hindlimb unloading. In addition, the decreases in soleus muscle mass, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, twitch force, specific force, contraction time and half relaxation time could be significantly attenuated by the high dose ICT treatment. The low dose ICT treatment could moderately attenuate the above changes induced by unloading. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K at p110 catalytic subunit, could abolish the above effects of ICT in vitro and in vivo, indicating that PI3K/Akt signaling could be required by ICT to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading.
Project description:Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation and altered mitochondrial function are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes. To determine the relationship between these abnormalities, we created mice with muscle-specific knockout of the p110? or p110? catalytic subunits of PI3K. We find that mice with muscle-specific knockout of p110?, but not p110?, display impaired insulin signaling and reduced muscle size due to enhanced proteasomal and autophagic activity. Despite insulin resistance and muscle atrophy, M-p110?KO mice show decreased serum myostatin, increased mitochondrial mass, increased mitochondrial fusion, and increased PGC1? expression, especially PCG1?2 and PCG1?3. This leads to enhanced mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increased muscle NADH content, and higher muscle free radical release measured in vivo using pMitoTimer reporter. Thus, p110? is the dominant catalytic isoform of PI3K in muscle in control of insulin sensitivity and muscle mass, and has a unique role in mitochondrial homeostasis in skeletal muscle.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO), produced by NO-synthases via L-arginine oxidation, is an essential trigger for signaling processes involved in structural and metabolic changes in muscle fibers. Recently, it was shown that L-arginine administration prevented the decrease in levels of the muscle cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and dystrophin, in rat soleus muscle after 14 days of hindlimb unloading. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of L-arginine administration on the degree of atrophy changes in the rat soleus muscles under unloading conditions, and on the content, gene expression, and phosphorylation level of titin, the giant protein of striated muscles, able to form a third type of myofilaments-elastic filaments. A 7-day gravitational unloading [hindlimb suspension (HS) group] resulted in a decrease in the soleus weight:body weight ratio (by 31.8%, p < 0.05), indicating muscle atrophy development. The content of intact titin (T1) decreased (by 22.4%, p < 0.05) and the content of proteolytic fragments of titin (T2) increased (by 66.7%, p < 0.05) in the soleus muscle of HS rats, compared to control rats. The titin gene expression and phosphorylation level of titin between these two groups were not significantly different. L-Arginine administration under 7-day gravitational unloading decreased the degree of atrophy changes and also prevented the decrease in levels of T1 in the soleus muscle as compared to HS group. Furthermore, L-arginine administration under unloading resulted in increased titin mRNA level (by 76%, p < 0.05) and decreased phosphorylation level of T2 (by 28%, p < 0.05), compared to those in the HS group. These results suggest that administration of L-arginine, the NO precursor, under unloading decreased the degree of atrophy changes, increased gene expression of titin and prevented the decrease in levels of T1 in the rat soleus muscle. The results can be used to search for approaches to reduce the development of negative changes caused by gravitational unloading in the muscle.
Project description:Exposure to reduced activity induces skeletal muscle atrophy. Oxidative stress might contribute to muscle wasting via proteolysis activation. This study aimed to test two hypotheses in rats. First, supplementation of the antioxidant vitamin E, prior and during the phase of unloading, would partly counteract unloading-induced soleus muscle atrophy. Secondly, vitamin E supplementation would decrease the rate of muscle proteolysis by reducing expression of calpains, caspases-3, -9, and -12, and E3 ubiquitin ligases (MuRF1 and MAFbx). Soleus muscle atrophy (-49%) induced by 14 days of hindlimb unloading was reduced to only 32% under vitamin E. Vitamin E partly prevented the decrease in type I and IIa fiber size. Supplementation increased HSP72 content and suppressed the rise in muscle level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance caused by unloading but failed to modify the lower ratio of reduced vs oxidized glutathione, the higher uncoupling proteins mRNA, and the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) observed after unloading. Vitamin E treatment abolished the large upregulation of caspases-9 and -12 and MuRF1 transcripts in unloaded muscle and greatly decreased the upregulation of mu-calpain, caspase-3, and MAFbx mRNA. In conclusion, the protective effect of vitamin E might be due to modulation of muscle proteolysis-related genes rather than to its antioxidant function.
Project description:Muscle atrophy is a widespread ill condition occurring in many diseases, which can reduce quality of life and increase morbidity and mortality. We developed a new method using non-invasive ultrasonography to measure soleus and gastrocnemius lateralis muscle atrophy in the hindlimb-unloaded rat, a well-accepted model of muscle disuse. Soleus and gastrocnemius volumes were calculated using the conventional truncated-cone method and a newly-designed sinusoidal method. For Soleus muscle, the ultrasonographic volume determined in vivo with either method was linearly correlated to the volume determined ex-vivo from excised muscles as muscle weight-to-density ratio. For both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, a strong linear correlation was obtained between the ultrasonographic volume and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area determined ex-vivo on muscle cryosections. Thus ultrasonography allowed the longitudinal in vivo evaluation of muscle atrophy progression during hindlimb unloading. This study validates ultrasonography as a powerful method for the evaluation of rodent muscle atrophy in vivo, which would prove useful in disease models and therapeutic trials.
Project description:Reversing established muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading is of great clinical challenge. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to play important roles in myogenesis. Here we identified a lncRNA (mechanical unloading-induced muscle atrophy-related lncRNA [lncMUMA]) enriched in muscle, which was the most downregulated lncRNA during muscle atrophy development in hindlimb suspension (HLS) mice. The in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that the decreased expression levels of lncMUMA closely associated with a reduction of myogenesis during mechanical unloading. Mechanistically, lncMUMA promoted myogenic differentiation by functioning as a miR-762 sponge to regulate the core myogenic regulator MyoD in vitro. The enforced expression of lncMUMA relieved the decreases in MyoD protein and muscle mass in miR-762 knockin mice. Therapeutically, the enforced expression of lncMUMA improved the in vitro myogenic differentiation of myoblasts under microgravity simulation, prevented the muscle atrophy development, and reversed the established muscle atrophy in HLS mice. These findings identify lncMUMA as an anabolic regulator to reverse established muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading.
Project description:Expression of the regulatory subunit p85? of PI3K induces oncogenic transformation of primary avian fibroblasts. The transformed cells proliferate at an increased rate compared with nontransformed controls and show elevated levels of PI3K signaling. The oncogenic activity of p85? requires an active PI3K-TOR signaling cascade and is mediated by the p110? and p110? isoforms of the PI3K catalytic subunit. The data suggest that p85? is a less effective inhibitor of the PI3K catalytic subunit than p85? and that this reduced level of p110 inhibition accounts for the oncogenic activity of p85?.
Project description:The signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5, trisphosphate (PIP3) is an essential mediator of many vital cellular processes, including growth, survival, and metabolism. PIP3 is generated through the action of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K), and their activity is tightly controlled through interactions with regulatory proteins and activating stimuli. The class IA PI3Ks are composed of three distinct p110 catalytic subunits (p110?, p110?, and p110?), and they play different roles in specific tissues due to disparities in both expression and engagement downstream of cell-surface receptors. Disruption of PI3K regulation is a frequent driver of numerous human diseases. Activating mutations in the PIK3CA gene encoding the p110? catalytic subunit of class IA PI3K are frequently mutated in several cancer types, and mutations in the PIK3CD gene encoding the p110? catalytic subunit have been identified in primary immunodeficiency patients. All class IA p110 subunits interact with p85 regulatory subunits, and mutations/deletions in different p85 regulatory subunits have been identified in both cancer and primary immunodeficiencies. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding for the molecular basis of how class IA PI3K catalytic activity is regulated by p85 regulatory subunits, and how activating mutations in the PI3K catalytic subunits PIK3CA and PIK3CD (p110?, p110?) and regulatory subunits PIK3R1 (p85?) mediate PI3K activation and human disease.
Project description:Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production and mitochondrial dysfunction can activate protein degradation in disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. However, the increase in NO production in atrophied muscles remains controversial. In addition, although several studies have investigated the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin pathway, a mitophagy pathway, in atrophied muscle, the involvement of this pathway in soleus muscle atrophy is unclear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the PINK1/Parkin pathway in soleus muscle atrophy induced by 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HU) in adult rats. HU lowered the weight of the soleus muscles. nNOS expression showed an increase in atrophied soleus muscles. Although HU increased malondialdehyde as oxidative modification of the protein, it decreased 6-nitrotryptophan, a marker of protein nitration. Additionally, the nitrosocysteine content and S-nitrosylated Parkin were not altered, suggesting the absence of excessive nitrosative stress after HU. The expression of PINK1 and Parkin was also unchanged, whereas the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which is required for Parkin activity, was reduced in atrophied soleus muscles. Moreover, we observed accumulation and reduced ubiquitination of high molecular weight mitofusin 2, which is a target of Parkin, in atrophied soleus muscles. These results indicate that excessive NO is not produced in atrophied soleus muscles despite nNOS accumulation, suggesting that excessive NO dose not mediate in soleus muscle atrophy at least after 14 days of HU. Furthermore, the PINK1/Parkin pathway may not play a role in mitophagy at this time point. In contrast, the activity of Parkin may be downregulated because of reduced HSP70 expression, which may contribute to attenuated degradation of target proteins in the atrophied soleus muscles after 14 days of HU. The present study provides new insights into the roles of nNOS and a protein degradation pathway in soleus muscle atrophy.
Project description:All class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) associate tightly with regulatory subunits through interactions that have been thought to be constitutive. PI3K? is key to the regulation of immune cell responses activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Remarkably we find that PKC? phosphorylates Ser582 in the helical domain of the PI3K? catalytic subunit p110? in response to clustering of the high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI) and/or store-operated Ca²?- influx in mast cells. Phosphorylation of p110? correlates with the release of the p84 PI3K? adapter subunit from the p84-p110? complex. Ser582 phospho-mimicking mutants show increased p110? activity and a reduced binding to the p84 adapter subunit. As functional p84-p110? is key to GPCR-mediated p110? signaling, this suggests that PKC?-mediated p110? phosphorylation disconnects PI3K? from its canonical inputs from trimeric G proteins, and enables p110? to operate downstream of Ca²? and PKC?. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry shows that the p84 adaptor subunit interacts with the p110? helical domain, and reveals an unexpected mechanism of PI3K? regulation. Our data show that the interaction of p110? with its adapter subunit is vulnerable to phosphorylation, and outline a novel level of PI3K control.
Project description:Adult mouse muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) are quiescent in uninjured muscles. Upon injury, MuSCs exit quiescence in vivo to become activated, re-enter the cell cycle to proliferate, and differentiate to repair the damaged muscles. It remains unclear which extrinsic cues and intrinsic signaling pathways regulate quiescence exit during MuSC activation. Here, we demonstrated that inducible MuSC-specific deletion of p110?, a catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), rendered MuSCs unable to exit quiescence, resulting in severely impaired MuSC proliferation and muscle regeneration. Genetic reactivation of mTORC1, or knockdown of FoxOs, in p110?-null MuSCs partially rescued the above defects, making them key effectors downstream of PI3K in regulating quiescence exit. c-Jun was found to be a key transcriptional target of the PI3K/mTORC1 signaling axis essential for MuSC quiescence exit. Moreover, induction of a constitutively active PI3K in quiescent MuSCs resulted in spontaneous MuSC activation in uninjured muscles and subsequent depletion of the MuSC pool. Thus, PI3K-p110? is both necessary and sufficient for MuSCs to exit quiescence in response to activating signals.