Genomic and secretomic insight into lignocellulolytic system of an endophytic bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Exploring microorganisms especially bacteria associated with the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass shows great potentials in biofuels production. The rice endophytic bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 with strong lignocellulose degradation capacity has been reported in our previous study. However, a comprehensive analysis of its corresponding degradative system has not yet been conducted. The aim of this work is to identify and characterize the lignocellulolytic enzymes of the bacterium to understand its mechanism of lignocellulose degradation and facilitate its application in sustainable energy production. RESULTS:The genomic analysis revealed that there are 154 genes encoding putative carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) in P. ananatis Sd-1. This number is higher than that of compared cellulolytic and ligninolytic bacteria as well as other eight P. ananatis strains. The CAZy in P. ananatis Sd-1 contains a complete repertoire of enzymes required for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. In addition, P. ananatis Sd-1 also possesses plenty of genes encoding potential ligninolytic relevant enzymes, such as multicopper oxidase, catalase/hydroperoxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and quinone oxidoreductase. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of parts of genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes revealed that they were significantly up-regulated (at least P < 0.05) in presence of rice straw. Further identification of secretome of P. ananatis Sd-1 by nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that considerable amounts of proteins involved in lignocellulose degradation were only detected in rice straw cultures. Rice straw saccharification levels by the secretome of P. ananatis Sd-1 reached 129.11 ± 2.7 mg/gds. Correspondingly, the assay of several lignocellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, ?-glucosidase, xylanase-like, lignin peroxidase-like, and laccase-like activities showed that these enzymes were more active in rice straw relative to glucose substrates. The high enzymes activities were not attributed to bacterial cell densities but to the difference of secreted protein contents. CONCLUSION:Our results indicate that P. ananatis Sd-1 can produce considerable lignocellulolytic enzymes including cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninolytic relevant enzymes. The high activities of those enzymes could be efficiently induced by lignocellulosic biomass. This identified degradative system is valuable for the lignocellulosic bioenergy industry.
Project description:Rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw, an agricultural waste of high yield, is a sustainable source of fermentable sugars for biofuel and other chemicals. However, it shows recalcitrance to microbial catalysed depolymerization. We herein describe development of thermotolerant microbial consortium (RSV) from vermicompost with ability to degrade rice straw and analysis of its metagenome for bacterial diversity, and lignocellulolytic carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) and their phylogenetic affiliations. RSV secretome exhibited cellulases and hemicellulases with higher activity at 60 °C. It catalysed depolymerization of chemical pretreated rice straw as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and saccharification yield of 460 mg g<sup>-1</sup> rice straw. Microbial diversity of RSV was distinct from other compost habitats, with predominance of members of phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes; and Pseudoclostridium, Thermoanaerobacterium, Chelatococcus and Algoriphagus being most abundant genera. RSV harboured 1389 CAZyme encoding ORFs of glycoside hydrolase, carbohydrate esterase, glycosyl transferase, carbohydrate binding module and auxiliary activity functions. Microorganisms of Firmicutes showed central role in lignocellulose deconstruction with importance in hemicellulose degradation; whereas representatives of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes contributed to cellulose and lignin degradation, respectively. RSV consortium could be a resource for mining thermotolerant cellulolytic bacteria or enzymes and studying their synergism in deconstruction of chemically pretreated rice straw.
Project description:Background:Efficient deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass into simple sugars in an economically viable manner is a prerequisite for its global acceptance as a feedstock in bioethanol production. This is achieved in nature by suites of enzymes with the capability of efficiently depolymerizing all the components of lignocellulose. Here, we provide detailed insight into the repertoire of enzymes produced by microorganisms enriched from the gut of the crop pathogen rice yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas). Results:A microbial community was enriched from the gut of the rice yellow stem borer for enhanced rice straw degradation by sub-culturing every 10 days, for 1 year, in minimal medium with rice straw as the main carbon source. The enriched culture demonstrated high cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity in the culture supernatant. Metatranscriptomic and metaexoproteomic analysis revealed a large array of enzymes potentially involved in rice straw deconstruction. The consortium was found to encode genes ascribed to all five classes of carbohydrate-active enzymes (GHs, GTs, CEs, PLs, and AAs), including carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), categorized in the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) database. The GHs were the most abundant class of CAZymes. Predicted enzymes from these CAZy classes have the potential to digest each cell-wall components of rice straw, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, callose, and lignin. Several identified CAZy proteins appeared novel, having an unknown or hypothetical catalytic counterpart with a known class of CBM. To validate the findings, one of the identified enzymes that belong to the GH10 family was functionally characterized. The enzyme expressed in E. coli efficiently hydrolyzed beechwood xylan, and pretreated and untreated rice straw. Conclusions:This is the first report describing the enrichment of lignocellulose degrading bacteria from the gut of the rice yellow stem borer to deconstruct rice straw, identifying a plethora of enzymes secreted by the microbial community when growing on rice straw as a carbon source. These enzymes could be important candidates for biorefineries to overcome the current bottlenecks in biomass processing.
Project description:Wheat straw is the major crop residue in European countries which makes it the most promising material for bioconversion into biofuels. However, cellulose and hemicellulose are protected with lignin, so delignification is an inevitable phase in lignocellulose processing. The organisms predominantly responsible for its degradation are white-rot fungi and among them Trametes species represent promising degraders due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. Although numerous studies have confirmed that low molecular weight compounds can induce the production and activity of ligninolytic enzymes it is not clear how this reflects on the extent of delignification. The aim of the study was to assess the capacity of p-anisidine and veratryl alcohol to induce the production and activity of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases and laccases, and wheat straw delignification by six Trametes species. Significant inter- and intraspecific variations in activity and features of these enzymes were found, as well as differences in the potential of lignocellulose degradation in the presence or absence of inducers. Differences in the catalytic properties of synthesized enzyme isoforms strongly affected lignin degradation. Apart from enhanced lignin degradation, the addition of p-anisidine could significantly improve the selectivity of wheat straw ligninolysis, which was especially evident for T. hirsuta strains.
Project description:Background:As an important biomass raw material, the lignocellulose in bamboo is of significant value in energy conversion. The conversion of bamboo lignocellulose into fermentable reducing sugar, i.e. the degradation of bamboo lignocellulose, is an important step in lignocellulose conversion. However, little research has focussed on excavating the enzymes and microbes that are related to the degradation of bamboo lignocellulose, which is important for its utilisation. This study used Cyrtotrachelus buqueti (bamboo snout beetle) to evaluate the efficiency of bamboo lignocellulose degradation. Results:RNA sequencing was conducted to sequence the transcriptome of the insect before and after feeding on bamboo shoots. The expression levels of genes encoding several carbohydrate-active enzymes, such as endoglucanase (evgtrinloc27093t1 and evgtrinloc16407t0) and laccase (evgtrinloc15173t0 and evgtrinloc11252t0), were found to be upregulated after feeding. Faecal component analysis showed that the degradation efficiencies of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin were 61.82%, 87.65% and 69.05%, respectively. After 6 days of co-culture with crude enzymes in vitro, the degradation efficiencies of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in bamboo shoot particles (BSPs) were 24.98%, 37.52% and 26.67%, respectively. These results indicated that lignocellulosic enzymes and related enzymes within the insect itself co-degraded bamboo lignocellulose. These finding can potentially be used for the pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo lignocellulose. Conclusion:Our results showed that intestinal digestive enzymes from C. buqueti degraded bamboo shoot lignocellulose both in vivo and in vitro. In addition, the expression levels of many carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) genes were upregulated in the transcriptome, including those for cellulase, xylanase and ligninase genes. Therefore, we proposed a scheme for applying the lignocellulolytic enzymes from C. buqueti to degrade bamboo lignocellulose using genetic, enzymatic and fermentation engineering techniques to overexpress the lignocellulolytic enzymes genes in vitro and obtain large quantities of enzymes that could efficiently degrade bamboo lignocellulose and be used for lignocellulose bioconversion.
Project description:Compost habitats sustain a vast ensemble of microbes specializing in the degradation of lignocellulosic plant materials and are thus important both for their roles in the global carbon cycle and as potential sources of biochemical catalysts for advanced biofuels production. Studies have revealed substantial diversity in compost microbiomes, yet how this diversity relates to functions and even to the genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes remains obscure. Here, we used a metagenomic analysis of the rice straw-adapted (RSA) microbial consortia enriched from compost ecosystems to decipher the systematic and functional contexts within such a distinctive microbiome.Analyses of the 16S pyrotag library and 5 Gbp of metagenomic sequence showed that the phylum Actinobacteria was the predominant group among the Bacteria in the RSA consortia, followed by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes. The CAZymes profile revealed that CAZyme genes in the RSA consortia were also widely distributed within these bacterial phyla. Strikingly, about 46.1 % of CAZyme genes were from actinomycetal communities, which harbored a substantially expanded catalog of the cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, acetyl xylan esterase, arabinofuranosidase, pectin lyase, and ligninase genes. Among these communities, a variety of previously unrecognized species was found, which reveals a greater ecological functional diversity of thermophilic Actinobacteria than previously assumed.These data underline the pivotal role of thermophilic Actinobacteria in lignocellulose biodegradation processes in the compost habitat. Besides revealing a new benchmark for microbial enzymatic deconstruction of lignocelluloses, the results suggest that actinomycetes found in compost ecosystems are potential candidates for mining efficient lignocellulosic enzymes in the biofuel industry.
Project description:Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an "ECOMICS" web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation.
Project description:Background:Lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable carbon resource that can be used for biofuels and commodity chemicals production. The ability of complex microbial communities present in natural environments that are specialized in biomass deconstruction can be exploited to develop lignocellulose bioconversion processes. Termites are among the most abundant insects on earth and play an important role in lignocellulose decomposition. Although their digestive microbiome is recognized as a potential reservoir of microorganisms producing lignocellulolytic enzymes, the potential to enrich and maintain the lignocellulolytic activity of microbial consortia derived from termite gut useful for lignocellulose biorefinery has not been assessed. Here, we assessed the possibility of enriching a microbial consortium from termite gut and maintaining its lignocellulose degradation ability in controlled anaerobic bioreactors. Results:We enriched a termite gut-derived consortium able to transform lignocellulose into carboxylates under anaerobic conditions. To assess the impact of substrate natural microbiome on the enrichment and the maintenance of termite gut microbiome, the enrichment process was performed using both sterilized and non-sterilized straw. The enrichment process was carried out in bioreactors operating under industrially relevant aseptic conditions. Two termite gut-derived microbial consortia were obtained from Nasutitermes ephratae by sequential batch culture on raw wheat straw as the sole carbon source. Analysis of substrate loss, carboxylate production and microbial diversity showed that regardless of the substrate sterility, the diversity of communities selected by the enrichment process strongly changed compared to that observed in the termite gut. Nevertheless, the community obtained on sterile straw displayed higher lignocellulose degradation capacity; it showed a high xylanase activity and an initial preference for hemicellulose. Conclusions:This study demonstrates that it is possible to enrich and maintain a microbial consortium derived from termite gut microbiome in controlled anaerobic bioreactors, producing useful carboxylates from raw biomass. Our results suggest that the microbial community is shaped both by the substrate and the conditions that prevail during enrichment. However, when aseptic conditions are applied, it is also affected by the biotic pressure exerted by microorganisms naturally present in the substrate and in the surrounding environment. Besides the efficient lignocellulolytic consortium enriched in this study, our results revealed high levels of xylanase activity that can now be further explored for enzyme identification and overexpression for biorefinery purposes.
Project description:Microbial communities metabolize plant biomass using secreted enzymes; however, identifying extracellular proteins tightly bound to insoluble lignocellulose in these microbiomes presents a challenge, as the rigorous extraction required to elute these proteins also lyses the microbes associated with the plant biomass releasing intracellular proteins that contaminate the metasecretome. Here we describe a technique for targeting the extracellular proteome, which was used to compare the metasecretome and meta-surface-proteome of two lignocellulose-degrading communities grown on wheat straw and rice straw. A combination of mass spectrometry-based proteomics coupled with metatranscriptomics enabled the identification of a unique secretome pool from these lignocellulose-degrading communities. This method enabled us to efficiently discriminate the extracellular proteins from the intracellular proteins by improving detection of actively secreted and transmembrane proteins. In addition to the expected carbohydrate active enzymes, our new method reveals a large number of unknown proteins, supporting the notion that there are major gaps in our understanding of how microbial communities degrade lignocellulosic substrates.
Project description:Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, isolated from the rumen of herbivores, is capable of robust lignocellulose degradation. However, the mechanism by which it achieves this is not fully elucidated. In this study, we have undertaken the most comprehensive quantitative proteomic analysis, to date, of the changes in the cell envelope protein profile of F. succinogenes S85 in response to growth on cellulose. Our results indicate that the cell envelope proteome undergoes extensive rearrangements to accommodate the cellulolytic degradation machinery, as well as associated proteins involved in adhesion to cellulose and transport and metabolism of cellulolytic products. Molecular features of the lignocellulolytic enzymes suggest that the Type IX secretion system is involved in the translocation of these enzymes to the cell envelope. Finally, we demonstrate, for the first time, that cyclic-di-GMP may play a role in mediating catabolite repression, thereby facilitating the expression of proteins involved in the adhesion to lignocellulose and subsequent lignocellulose degradation and utilisation. Understanding the fundamental aspects of lignocellulose degradation in F. succinogenes will aid the development of advanced lignocellulosic biofuels.
Project description:Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced by Aspergillus flavus is known to have carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on animal health. Accidental feeding of AFB1-contaminated rice straw may be detrimental to dairy cattle. White-rot basidiomycetous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus can grow on different agronomic wastes by synthesizing different ligninolytic enzymes. These extracellular enzymes are capable of degrading many environmentally hazardous compounds including AFB1. The present study examines the ability of different strains of P. ostreatus to degrade AFB1 in contaminated rice straw. Different strains of A. flavus were inoculated on rice straw for AFB1 production. The moldy straw was then subjected to co-cultivation by different strains of P. ostreatus. The extent of AFB1 degradation was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated the presence of AFB1 in the moldy straw samples at levels of 27.95 ± 0.23 and 21.26 ± 0.55 µg/g of dry substrate for A. flavus MTCC 2798 and A. flavus GHBF09, respectively. Co-cultivation of P. ostreatus strains on AFB1-contaminated rice straw revealed their ability to rapidly colonize the substrate by profuse hyphal ramification. Highest degradation of AFB1 (89.41 %) was recorded in the straw containing co-cultures of A. flavus MTCC 2798 and P. ostreatus GHBBF10. Natural isolate P. ostreatus GHBBF10 demonstrated higher AFB1-degradation potential than P.ostreatus MTCC 142. This basidiomycete strain can be further exploited to effectively degrade moderate concentrations of AFB1 in contaminated moldy rice straw.