Targeting autophagy to sensitive glioma to temozolomide treatment.
ABSTRACT: Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent, is widely used for treating primary and recurrent high-grade gliomas. However, the efficacy of TMZ is often limited by the development of resistance. Recently, studies have found that TMZ treatment could induce autophagy, which contributes to therapy resistance in glioma. To enhance the benefit of TMZ in the treatment of glioblastomas, effective combination strategies are needed to sensitize glioblastoma cells to TMZ. In this regard, as autophagy could promote cell survival or autophagic cell death, modulating autophagy using a pharmacological inhibitor, such as chloroquine, or an inducer, such as rapamycin, has received considerably more attention. To understand the effectiveness of regulating autophagy in glioblastoma treatment, this review summarizes reports on glioblastoma treatments with TMZ and autophagic modulators from in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as clinical trials. Additionally, we discuss the possibility of using autophagy regulatory compounds that can sensitive TMZ treatment as a chemotherapy for glioma treatment.
Project description:Glioblastoma is a unique model of non-metastasising disease that kills the vast majority of patients through local growth, despite surgery and local irradiation. Glioblastoma cells are resistant to apoptotic stimuli, and their death occurs through autophagy. This review aims to critically present our knowledge regarding the autophagic response of glioblastoma cells to radiation and temozolomide (TMZ) and to delineate eventual research directions to follow, in the quest of improving the curability of this incurable, as yet, disease. Radiation and TMZ interfere with the autophagic machinery, but whether cell response is driven to autophagy flux acceleration or blockage is disputable and may depend on both cell individuality and radiotherapy fractionation or TMZ schedules. Potent agents that block autophagy at an early phase of initiation or at a late phase of autolysosomal fusion are available aside to agents that induce functional autophagy, or even demethylating agents that may unblock the function of autophagy-initiating genes in a subset of tumours. All these create a maze, which if properly investigated can open new insights for the application of novel radio- and chemosensitising policies, exploiting the autophagic pathways that glioblastomas use to escape death.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent used to treat glioblastoma (GBM), which causes significant DNA damage to highly proliferative cells. Our observations have added to accumulating evidence that TMZ induces stress-responsive cellular programs known to promote cell survival, including autophagy. As such, targeting these survival pathways may represent new vulnerabilities of GBM after treatment with TMZ. METHODS:Using the T98G human glioma cell line, we assessed the molecular signaling associated with TMZ treatment, the cellular consequences of using the pan-PI3K inhibitor PX-866, and performed clonogenic assays to determine the effect sequential treatment of TMZ and PX-866 had on colony formation. Additionally, we also use subcutaneous GBM patient derived xenograft (PDX) tumors to show relative LC3 protein expression and correlations between survival pathways and molecular markers which dictate clinical responsiveness to TMZ. RESULTS:Here, we report that TMZ can induce autophagic flux in T98G glioma cells. GBM patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors treated with TMZ also display an increase in the autophagosome marker LC3 II. Additionally, O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) expression correlates with PI3K/AKT activity, suggesting that patients with inherent resistance to TMZ (MGMT-high) would benefit from PI3K/AKT inhibitors in addition to TMZ. Accordingly, we have identified that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetrant pan-PI3K inhibitor, PX-866, is an early-stage inhibitor of autophagic flux, while maintaining its ability to inhibit PI3K/AKT signaling in glioma cells. Lastly, due to the induction of autophagic flux by TMZ, we provide evidence for sequential treatment of TMZ followed by PX-866, rather than combined co-treatment, as a means to shut down autophagy-induced survival in GBM cells and to enhance apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS:The understanding of how TMZ induces survival pathways, such as autophagy, may offer new therapeutic vulnerabilities and opportunities to use sequential inhibition of alternate pro-survival pathways that regulate autophagy. As such, identification of additional ways to inhibit TMZ-induced autophagy could enhance the efficacy of TMZ.
Project description:Over the past few years, the alkylating agent temozolomide has become the standard-of-care therapy for patients with glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor. Recently, large-scale cancer genome sequencing efforts have identified a hypermutation phenotype and inactivating MSH6 mismatch repair gene mutations in recurrent, post-temozolomide glioblastomas, particularly those growing more rapidly during temozolomide treatment. This study aimed to clarify the timing and role of MSH6 mutations in mediating glioblastoma temozolomide resistance.MSH6 sequence and microsatellite instability (MSI) status were determined in matched prechemotherapy and postchemotherapy glioblastomas identified by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) as having posttreatment MSH6 mutations. Temozolomide-resistant lines were derived in vitro through selective growth under temozolomide, and the MSH6 gene was sequenced in resistant clones. The role of MSH6 inactivation in mediating resistance was explored using lentiviral short hairpin RNA knockdown and MSH6 reconstitution.MSH6 mutations were confirmed in posttreatment TCGA glioblastomas but absent in matched pretreatment tumors. The posttreatment hypermutation phenotype displayed a signature bias toward CpC transitions and was not associated with MSI. In vitro modeling through exposure of an MSH6 wild-type glioblastoma line to temozolomide resulted in resistant clones; one clone showed an MSH6 mutation, Thr(1219)Ile, that had been independently noted in two treated TCGA glioblastomas. Knockdown of MSH6 in the glioblastoma line U251 increased resistance to temozolomide cytotoxicity and reconstitution restored cytotoxicity in MSH6-null glioma cells.MSH6 mutations are selected in glioblastomas during temozolomide therapy both in vitro and in vivo and are causally associated with temozolomide resistance.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most widely used drug to treat glioblastoma (GBM), which is the most common and aggressive primary tumor of the Central Nervous System and one of the hardest challenges in oncotherapy. TMZ is an alkylating agent that induces autophagy, apoptosis and senescence in GBM cells. However, therapy with TMZ increases survival after diagnosis only from 12 to 14.4 months, making the development of combined therapies to treat GBM fundamental. One candidate for GBM therapy is Resveratrol (Rsv), which has additive toxicity with TMZ in several glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of Rsv and TMZ additive toxicity, which is the aim of the present work, is not clear, especially concerning cell cycle dynamics and long term effects.Glioma cell lines were treated with Rsv and TMZ, alone or in combinations, and the induction and the role of autophagy, apoptosis, cell cycle dynamics, protein expression and phosphorylation status were measured. We further evaluated the long term senescence induction and clonogenic capacity.As expected, temozolomide caused a G2 cell cycle arrest and extensive DNA damage response. Rsv did not reduced this response, even increasing pATM, pChk2 and gammaH2Ax levels, but abrogated the temozolomide-induced G2 arrest, increasing levels of cyclin B and pRb(S807/811) and reducing levels of pWee1(S642) and pCdk1(Y15). This suggests a cellular state of forced passage through G2 checkpoint despite large DNA damage, a scenario that may produce mitotic catastrophe. Indeed, the proportion of cells with high nuclear irregularity increased from 6 to 26% in 48 h after cotreatment. At a long term, a reduction in clonogenic capacity was observed, accompanied by a large induction of senescence.The presence of Rsv forces cells treated with TMZ through mitosis leading to mitotic catastrophe and senescence, reducing the clonogenic capacity of glioma cells and increasing the chronic effects of temozolomide.
Project description:We previously found that BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex subunit 3 (BRCC3) was highly expressed in tumorigenic rat glioma cells. However, the functional role of BRCC3 in human glioma cells remains to be characterized. This study indicated that the upregulation of BRCC3 expression was induced in two human malignant glioblastoma U251 and A172 cell lines following exposure to the alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ). Homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DNA repair-associated genes (i.e. BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51 and FANCD2) were also increased in U251 and A172 cells after treatment with TMZ. BRCC3 gene knockdown through lentivirus-mediated gene knockdown approach not only significantly reduced the clonogenic and migratory abilities of U251 and A172 cells, but also enhanced their sensitization to TMZ. The increase in phosphorylated H2AX foci (?H2AX) formation, an indicator of DNA damage, persisted in TMZ-treated glioma cells with stable knockdown BRCC3 expression, suggesting that BRCC3 gene deficiency is associated with DNA repair impairment. In summary, we demonstrate that by inducing DNA repair, BRCC3 renders glioma cells resistant to TMZ. The findings point to BRCC3 as a potential target for treatment of alkylating drug-resistant glioma.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the clinical treatment of glioblastomas. However, it has been reported that treatment with TMZ can induce autophagy, which leads to tumor resistance and increases the survival of tumor cells. MicroRNA-30a (miR-30a) has been found to have inhibitory effects on autophagy by directly targeting beclin 1. However, the exact role of miR-30a in TMZ-treated glioblastoma cells has not been studied previously. The present study aimed to investigate whether miR-30a increased the cytotoxicity of TMZ to glioblastoma U251 cells, as well as the underlying mechanism. MTT and flow cytometry assay results showed that treatment with TMZ inhibited the proliferation of U251 cells while inducing cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting data showed that the expression levels of LC3-II and beclin 1 as well as the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I were markedly increased in TMZ-treated U251 cells compared with the untreated control cells, indicating that treatment with TMZ induced autophagy. Moreover, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction data showed that treatment with TMZ led to a significant reduction in miR-30a levels in a dose-dependent manner in U251 cells. Elevation of the miR-30a level significantly inhibited TMZ-induced autophagy, demonstrated by the decreased LC3-II and beclin 1 levels and ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I, accompanied by the reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in TMZ-treated U251 cells. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay data indicated that beclin 1 was a direct target of miR-30a in U251 cells. In summary, this study demonstrated that miR-30a increases the chemosensitivity of glioblastoma U251 cells to temozolomide by directly targeting beclin 1 and inhibiting autophagy. Therefore, autophagy may be a promising target for the treatment of TMZ-resistant tumors.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent of the imidazotetrazine series, is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinical therapy of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and high-grade primary glioma in adults. Micro (mi)RNAs, which are small noncoding RNAs, post-transcriptionally regulate gene expressions and are involved in gliomagenesis. However, no studies have reported relationships between TMZ and miRNA gene regulation. We investigated TMZ-mediated miRNA profiles and its molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of glioma cell death. By performing miRNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses, we observed that expression of 248 miRNAs was altered, including five significantly upregulated and 17 significantly downregulated miRNAs, in TMZ-treated U87MG cells. miR-128 expression levels were lower in different glioma cells and strongly associated with poor survival. TMZ treatment significantly upregulated miR-128 expression. TMZ significantly enhanced miR-128-1 promoter activity and transcriptionally regulated miR-128 levels through c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2/c-Jun pathways. The overexpression and knockdown of miR-128 expression significantly affected TMZ-mediated cell viability and apoptosis-related protein expression. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-128 alone enhanced apoptotic death of glioma cells through caspase-3/9 activation, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase degradation, reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and non-protective autophagy formation. Finally, we identified that key members in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling including mTOR, rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR, insulin-like growth factor 1, and PIK3R1, but not PDK1, were direct target genes of miR-128. TMZ inhibited mTOR signaling through miR-128 regulation. These results indicate that miR-128-inhibited mTOR signaling is involved in TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings may provide a better understanding of cytotoxic mechanisms of TMZ involved in glioblastoma development.
Project description:Glioma are the most common type of malignant brain tumor, with glioblastoma (GBM) representing the most common and most lethal type of glioma. Surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy using the alkylating agent Temozolomide (TMZ) remain the mainstay of treatment for glioma. While this multimodal regimen is sufficient to temporarily eliminate the bulk of the tumor mass, recurrence is inevitable and often poses major challenges for clinical management due to treatment resistance and failure to respond to targeted therapies. Improved tumor profiling capacity has enabled characterization of the genomic landscape of gliomas with the overarching goal to identify clinically relevant subtypes and inform treatment decisions. Increased tumor mutational load has been shown to correlate with higher levels of neoantigens and is indicative of the potential to induce a durable response to immunotherapy. Following treatment with TMZ, a subset of glioma has been identified to recur with increased tumor mutational load. These hypermutant recurrent glioma represent a subtype of recurrence with unique molecular vulnerabilities. In this review, we will elaborate on the current knowledge regarding the evolution of hypermutation in gliomas and the potential therapeutic opportunities that arise with TMZ-induced hypermutation in gliomas.
Project description:Drug resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) contributes to the majority of tumor recurrence and treatment failure in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Autophagy has been reported to play a role in chemoresistance in various types of cancer, including GBM. The anticancer effect of statins is arousing great research interests and has been demonstrated to modulate autophagic function. In this study, we investigated the combinational effects of lovastatin and TMZ on treating U87 and U251 GBM cell lines. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and colony formation assays; apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry; the cellular autophagic function was detected by the EGFP-mRFP-LC3 reporter and western blot assay. The results showed that lovastatin might enhance the cytotoxicity of TMZ, increase the TMZ-induced cellular apoptosis, and impair the autophagic flux in GBM cells. Lovastatin triggered autophagy initiation possibly by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Moreover, lovastatin might impair the autophagosome-lysosome fusion machinery by suppressing LAMP2 and dynein. These results suggested that lovastatin could enhance the chemotherapy efficacy of TMZ in treating GBM cells. The mechanism may be associated with impaired autophagic flux and thereby the enhancement of cellular apoptosis. Combining TMZ with lovastatin could be a promising strategy for GBM treatment.
Project description:We evaluated the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) or lomustine (CCNU) in combination with 6-thioguanine, capecitabine, and celecoxib for the treatment of recurrent high-grade glioma. Forty-three patients with recurrent glioblastoma and 31 patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma (AG) were enrolled in this open-label, non-comparative study. Patients previously treated with TMZ received CCNU while all others received TMZ; all patients received 6-thioguanine, capecitabine, and celecoxib. Endpoints were 12-month progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with AG, 6-month PFS for patients with glioblastoma, duration of PFS, and MRI-based objective response rates. Results from the TMZ and CCNU treatment arms were combined in the final analysis because there was no statistically significant difference between them. Thirty-eight patients with glioblastoma were treated with the lomustine-based regimen, and five received the TMZ-based regimen. For the 43 glioblastoma patients, the objective response rate was 12 and 33% had stable disease; the 6-month PFS was 14% and median overall survival 32 weeks. For the 31 AG patients, the combined objective response rate was 26 and 42% had stable disease; the 12 month PFS was 44%. Treatment was reasonably well tolerated with hematological toxicity common and more frequent with CCNU than TMZ. The combination therapy with 6-thioguanine, capecitabine and celecoxib plus CCNU or TMZ does not appear to be more effective than other alkylating agent schedules for patients with recurrent glioblastoma. The combination, however, is promising for patients with recurrent high-grade AG.