Structural role of two histidines in the (6-4) photolyase reaction.
ABSTRACT: Photolyases (PHRs) are DNA repair enzymes that revert UV-induced photoproducts, either cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) or (6-4) photoproducts (PPs), into normal bases to maintain genetic integrity. (6-4) PHR must catalyze not only covalent bond cleavage, but also hydroxyl or amino group transfer, yielding a more complex mechanism than that postulated for CPD PHR. Previous mutation analysis revealed the importance of two histidines in the active center, H354 and H358 for Xenopus (6-4) PHR, whose mutations significantly lowered the enzymatic activity. Based upon highly sensitive FTIR analysis of the repair function, here we report that both H354A and H358A mutants of Xenopus (6-4) PHR still maintain their repair activity, although the efficiency is much lower than that of the wild type. Similar difference FTIR spectra between the wild type and mutant proteins suggest a common mechanism of repair in which (6-4) PP binds to the active center of each mutant, and is released after repair, as occurs in the wild type. Similar FTIR spectra also suggest that a decrease in volume by the H-to-A mutation is possibly compensated by the addition of water molecule( s). Such a modified environment is sufficient for the repair function that is probably controlled by proton-coupled electron transfer between the enzyme and substrate. On the other hand, two histidines must work in a concerted manner in the active center of the wild-type enzyme, which significantly raises the repair efficiency.
Project description:Photolyases (PHRs) utilize near UV/blue light to specifically repair the major photoproducts (PPs) of UV-induced damaged DNA. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-PHR binds flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor and repairs CPD lesions in double-stranded DNA. To understand the activation and repair mechanism of CPD-PHR, we applied light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to CPD-PHR, whose signals were identified by use of isotope-labeling. To further investigate the enzymatic function, here we study the activation and repair mechanism of CPD-PHR with the substrate in single strand DNA, and the obtained FTIR spectra are compared with those in double-stranded DNA, the natural substrate. The difference spectra of photoactivation, the fully-reduced (FADH(-)) minus semiquinone (FADH(•)) spectra, are almost identical in the presence of single strand and double-stranded DNA, except for slight spectral modification in the amide-I region. On the other hand, the difference spectra of photorepair were highly substrate dependent. Strong bands of the C=O stretch (1,720-1,690 cm(-1)) and phosphate vibrations (1,090-1,060 cm(-1)) of double-stranded DNA may have disappeared in the case of single strand DNA. However, an isotope-labeled enzyme study revealed that spectral features upon DNA repair are similar between both substrates, and the main reason for the apparent spectral difference originates from structural flexibility of DNA after repair.
Project description:Photolyases (PHRs) are blue light-activated DNA repair enzymes that maintain genetic integrity by reverting UV-induced photoproducts into normal bases. The flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) chromophore of PHRs has four different redox states: oxidized (FAD(ox)), anion radical (FAD(•-)), neutral radical (FADH(•)), and fully reduced (FADH(-)). We combined difference Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with UV-visible spectroscopy to study the detailed photoactivation process of Xenopus (6-4) PHR. Two photons produce the enzymatically active, fully reduced PHR from oxidized FAD: FAD(ox) is converted to semiquinone via light-induced one-electron and one-proton transfers and then to FADH(-) by light-induced one-electron transfer. We successfully trapped FAD(•-) at 200 K, where electron transfer occurs but proton transfer does not. UV-visible spectroscopy following 450 nm illumination of FAD(ox) at 277 K defined the FADH(•)/FADH(-) mixture and allowed calculation of difference FTIR spectra among the four redox states. The absence of a characteristic C=O stretching vibration indicated that the proton donor is not a protonated carboxylic acid. Structural changes in Trp and Tyr are suggested by UV-visible and FTIR analysis of FAD(•-) at 200 K. Spectral analysis of amide I vibrations revealed structural perturbation of the protein's ?-sheet during initial electron transfer (FAD(•-) formation), a transient increase in ?-helicity during proton transfer (FADH(•) formation), and reversion to the initial amide I signal following subsequent electron transfer (FADH(-) formation). Consequently, in (6-4) PHR, unlike cryptochrome-DASH, formation of enzymatically active FADH(-) did not perturb ?-helicity. Protein structural changes in the photoactivation of (6-4) PHR are discussed on the basis of these FTIR observations.
Project description:Ozone depletion increases terrestrial solar ultraviolet B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation, intensifying the risks plants face from DNA damage, especially covalent cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Without efficient repair, UV-B destroys genetic integrity, but plant breeding creates rice cultivars with more robust photolyase (PHR) DNA repair activity as an environmental adaptation. So improved strains of Oryza sativa (rice), the staple food for Asia, have expanded rice cultivation worldwide. Efficient light-driven PHR enzymes restore normal pyrimidines to UV-damaged DNA by using blue light via flavin adenine dinucleotide to break pyrimidine dimers. Eukaryotes duplicated the photolyase gene, producing PHRs that gained functions and adopted activities that are distinct from those of prokaryotic PHRs yet are incompletely understood. Many multicellular organisms have two types of PHR: (6-4) PHR, which structurally resembles bacterial CPD PHRs but recognizes different substrates, and Class II CPD PHR, which is remarkably dissimilar in sequence from bacterial PHRs despite their common substrate. To understand the enigmatic DNA repair mechanisms of PHRs in eukaryotic cells, we determined the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic Class II CPD PHR from the rice cultivar Sasanishiki. Our 1.7 Å resolution PHR structure reveals structure-activity relationships in Class II PHRs and tuning for enhanced UV tolerance in plants. Structural comparisons with prokaryotic Class I CPD PHRs identified differences in the binding site for UV-damaged DNA substrate. Convergent evolution of both flavin hydrogen bonding and a Trp electron transfer pathway establish these as critical functional features for PHRs. These results provide a paradigm for light-dependent DNA repair in higher organisms.
Project description:UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyes cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosphila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system.
Project description:Photolyases (PHRs) and cryptochromes (CRYs) belong to the same family known as blue-light photoreceptors. Although their amino acid sequences and corresponding structures are similar to each other, they exert different functions. PHRs function as an enzyme to repair UV-induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) lesions such as a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and a (6-4) photoproduct ((6-4)pp), whereas CRYs are a circadian photoreceptor in plants and animals and at the same time they control the photoperiodic induction of flowering in plants. When a new type cryptochrome was identified, it was assumed that another type of CRYs, cryptochrome-DASH (CRY-DASH), which is categorized as a subfamily of photolyase/cryptochrome family, would possess the DNA photolyase activity. However, CRY-DASH had a weak DNA photolyase activity, but the reason for this is still unclear. To clarify the reason, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a complex of CPD-PHR or CRY-DASH with damaged double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and estimated the binding free energy, ?Gbind, between the protein and the damaged dsDNA by using a molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method. ?Gbind for both proteins were -35 and 57 kcal mol-1, respectively, indicating that the structural stability of CRY-DASH was lower than that of CPD-PHR upon the damaged dsDNA binding. In particular, the number of amino acid residues relevant to the damaged dsDNA binding on the CRY-DASH surface was smaller than that on CPD-PHR. Therefore, the present result suggests that CRY-DASH has a weak DNA photolyase activity because it has a lower binding affinity than CPD-PHR.
Project description:We have adapted the eXcision Repair-sequencing (XR-seq) method to generate single-nucleotide resolution dynamic repair maps of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We find that these photoproducts are removed from the genome primarily by incisions 13-18 nucleotides 5’ and 6-7 nucleotides 3’ to the UV damage that generate 21-27 nt-long excision products. Analyses of the excision repair kinetics both in single genes and at the genome-wide level reveal strong transcription-coupled repair of the transcribed strand (TS) at early time points followed by predominantly non-transcribed strand (NTS) repair at later stages. We have also characterized the excision repair level as a function of transcription level. The availability of high-resolution and dynamic repair maps should aid in future repair and mutagenesis studies in this model organism. Overall design: We performed XR-seq for UV-induced CPD and (6-4)PP repair in wild type yeast cells. Our analysis intergreted the published datasets from RNA-seq and NET-seq (GEO accession: GSE68484) and CPD-seq (GEO accession: GSE79977).
Project description:We developed a method for genome-wide mapping of DNA excision repair named XR-seq (excision repair sequencing). Human nucleotide excision repair generates two incisions surrounding the site of damage, creating an ∼30-mer. In XR-seq, this fragment is isolated and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. We used XR-seq to produce stranded, nucleotide-resolution maps of repair of two UV-induced DNA damages in human cells: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts [(6-4)PPs]. In wild-type cells, CPD repair was highly associated with transcription, specifically with the template strand. Experiments in cells defective in either transcription-coupled excision repair or general excision repair isolated the contribution of each pathway to the overall repair pattern and showed that transcription-coupled repair of both photoproducts occurs exclusively on the template strand. XR-seq maps capture transcription-coupled repair at sites of divergent gene promoters and bidirectional enhancer RNA (eRNA) production at enhancers. XR-seq data also uncovered the repair characteristics and novel sequence preferences of CPDs and (6-4)PPs. XR-seq and the resulting repair maps will facilitate studies of the effects of genomic location, chromatin context, transcription, and replication on DNA repair in human cells.
Project description:Protein-bound water molecules play crucial roles in their structure and function, but their detection is an experimental challenge, particularly in aqueous solution at room temperature. By applying attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to a light-driven Cl(-) pump pharaonis halorhodopsin (pHR), here we detected an O-H stretching vibration of protein-bound water molecules in the active center. The pHR(Cl(-)) minus pHR(Br(-)) ATR-FTIR spectra show random fluctuation at 3600-3000 cm(-1), frequency window of water vibration, which can be interpreted in terms of dynamical fluctuation of aqueous water at room temperature. On the other hand, we observed a reproducible spectral feature at 3617 (+)/3630 (-) cm(-1) in the pHR(Cl(-)) minus pHR(Br(-)) spectrum, which is absent in the pHR(Cl(-)) minus pHR(Cl(-)) and in the pHR(Br(-)) minus pHR(Br(-)) spectra. The water O-H stretching vibrations of pHR(Cl(-)) and pHR(Br(-)) at 3617 and 3630 cm(-1), respectively, are confirmed by light-induced difference FTIR spectra in isotope water (H2 (18)O) at 77 K. The observed water molecule presumably binds to the active center of pHR, and alter its hydrogen bond during the Cl(-) pumping photocycle.
Project description:We developed a method for genome-wide mapping of DNA excision repair named XR-seq (eXcision Repair-seq). Human nucleotide excision repair generates two incisions surrounding the site of damage, creating a ~30-mer. In XR-seq, this fragment is isolated and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. We used XR-seq to produce stranded, nucleotide-resolution maps of repair of two UV-induced DNA damages in human cells, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts ((6-4)PPs). In wild-type cells, CPD repair was highly associated with transcription, specifically with the template strand. Experiments in cells defective in either transcription-coupled excision repair or general excision repair isolated the contribution of each pathway to the overall repair pattern, and showed that transcription-coupled repair of both photoproducts occurs exclusively on the template strand. XR-seq maps capture transcription-coupled repair at sites of divergent gene promoters and bi-directional eRNA production at enhancers. XR-seq data also uncovered the repair characteristics and novel sequence preferences of CPDs and (6-4)PPs. XR-seq and the resulting repair maps will facilitate studies of the effects of genomic location, chromatin context, transcription, and replication on DNA repair in human cells. We have performed XR-seq for two types of UV-induced damages (CPD and (6-4)PP) in three different cell lines: NHF1, XP-C (XP4PA-SV-EB, GM15983)), and CS-B (CS1ANps3g2, GM16095). Two biological replicates were performed for each experiment, in which independent cell populations were UV treated and subjected to XR-seq.
Project description:Ultraviolet light induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts, which interfere with DNA replication and transcription. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes these photoproducts, but whether NER functions at telomeres is unresolved. Here we use immunospot blotting to examine the efficiency of photoproduct formation and removal at telomeres purified from UVC irradiated cells at various recovery times. Telomeres exhibit approximately twofold fewer photoproducts compared with the bulk genome in cells, and telomere-binding protein TRF1 significantly reduces photoproduct formation in telomeric fragments in vitro. CPD removal from telomeres occurs 1.5-fold faster than the bulk genome, and is completed by 48?h. 6-4PP removal is rapidly completed by 6?h in both telomeres and the overall genome. A requirement for XPA protein indicates the mechanism of telomeric photoproduct removal is NER. These data provide new evidence that telomeres are partially protected from ultraviolet irradiation and that NER preserves telomere integrity.