OsWRKY74, a WRKY transcription factor, modulates tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice.
ABSTRACT: The WRKY transcription factor family has 109 members in the rice genome, and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Here, we demonstrated that a rice OsWRKY74 belonging to group III of the WRKY transcription factor family was involved in tolerance to phosphate (Pi) starvation. OsWRKY74 was localized in the nucleus and mainly expressed in roots and leaves. Overexpression of OsWRKY74 significantly enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation, whereas transgenic lines with down-regulation of OsWRKY74 were sensitive to Pi starvation. Root and shoot biomass, and phosphorus (P) concentration in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants were ~16% higher than those of wild-type (WT) plants in Pi-deficient hydroponic solution. In soil pot experiments, >24% increases in tiller number, grain weight and P concentration were observed in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants compared to WT plants when grown in P-deficient medium. Furthermore, Pi starvation-induced changes in root system architecture were more profound in OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants than in WT plants. Expression patterns of a number of Pi-responsive genes were altered in the OsWRKY74-overexpressing and RNA interference lines. In addition, OsWRKY74 may also be involved in the response to deficiencies in iron (Fe) and nitrogen (N) as well as cold stress in rice. In Pi-deficient conditions, OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants exhibited greater accumulation of Fe and up-regulation of the cold-responsive genes than WT plants. These findings highlight the role of OsWRKY74 in modulation of Pi homeostasis and potential crosstalk between P starvation and Fe starvation, and cold stress in rice.
Project description:WRKY protein is a unique transcription factor (TF) and plays an important role in the physiological processes of various stress responses and plant development. In this research, we obtained a WRKY TF gene from soybean by homologous cloning, and named it GmWRKY45. GmWRKY45 is a nuclear protein containing a highly conserved WRKY domain and a C2H2 zinc finger structure, and mainly expressed in roots, flowers and pods of soybean. The quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that GmWRKY45 was induced by phosphate starvation and salt stress. As compared with the wild type (WT), overexpression of GmWRKY45 increased the adaptability of transgenic Arabidopsis to phosphate starvation, which might be related to the enhancement of lateral root development. The phosphorus concentration, fresh weight and dry weight of GmWRKY45-overexpressing Arabidopsis were higher than those of WT under Pi-sufficient or Pi-deficient condition. Meantime, the expression of phosphate-responsive genes was affected in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, GmWRKY45 improved the salt tolerance and changed fertility of transgenic Arabidopsis. Under salt stress, we found the survival rate and soluble sugar content of transgenic Arabidopsis were significantly higher than those of WT. In a conventional soil pot experiment, the transgenic Arabidopsis produced shorter silique, less and larger seeds than WT, these might be due to partial abortion of pollens. The overall results showed that GmWRKY45 was not only involved in response to abiotic stress but also related to fertility, suggested that GmWRKY45 had an elaborate regulatory system in plants.
Project description:Iron (Fe) is one of the essential mineral elements for plant growth and development. Acquisition of Fe by plants is mediated by a complex network involving Fe mobilization, uptake by root cells, and transport within plants. Here, we evaluated the role of a previously clarified gene encoding a receptor-like protein from rice, OsRMC, in the regulation of Fe acquisition by comparing Fe concentration, biomass, and expression patterns of genes associated with Fe mobilization and transport in wild-type (WT) rice with those in OsRMC overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown transgenic rice plants. Expression of OsRMC was upregulated in both shoots and roots upon exposure of WT to Fe-deficient medium. Expression levels of OsRMC were positively correlated with Fe concentration in rice plants under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions such that overexpression and RNAi lines had higher and lower Fe concentration in both roots and shoots than WT plants, respectively. Moreover, overexpression of OsRMC conferred greater accumulation of Fe in mature seeds under Fe-sufficient conditions. OsRMC may also play a role in regulation of Fe deficiency-induced changes in root growth, as evidenced by greater and smaller root systems of OsRMC overexpression lines and RNAi lines than WT under Fe-deficient conditions, respectively. Several Fe deficiency-responsive genes including OsDMAS1, OsNAS1, OsNAS2, OsNAAT1, OsIRT1, OsYSL15, and OsIRO2 were up- and downregulated in OsRMC-overexpressing and RNAi plants compared with WT rice plants. These novel findings highlight an important role of OsRMC played in mediation of Fe acquisition and root growth in rice, particularly under Fe-deficient conditions.
Project description:Myeloblastosis (MYB) transcription factors play central roles in plant developmental processes and in responses to nutrient deficiency. In this study, OsMYB5P, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, was isolated and identified from rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Dongjin') under inorganic phosphate (Pi)-deficient conditions. OsMYB5P protein is localized to the nucleus and functions as a transcription activator in plant development. Overexpression of OsMYB5P in rice and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0) increases tolerance to phosphate starvation, whereas OsMYB5P knock-out through RNA interference increases sensitivity to Pi depletion in rice. Furthermore, shoots and roots of transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsMYB5P were longer than those of wild plants under both normal and Pi-deficient conditions. These results indicate that OsMYB5P is associated with the regulation of shoot development and root- system architecture. Overexpression of OsMYB5P led to increased Pi accumulation in shoots and roots. Interestingly, OsMYB5P directly bound to MBS (MYB binding site) motifs on the OsPT5 promoter and induced transcription of OsPT5 in rice. In addition, overexpression of OsMYB5P in Arabidopsis triggered increased expression of AtPht1;3, an Arabidopsis Pi transporter, in shoots and roots under normal and Pi-deficient conditions. Together, these results demonstrate that overexpression of OsMYB5P increases tolerance to Pi deficiency in plants by modulating Pi transporters at the transcriptional level in monocots and dicots.
Project description:Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones with diverse functions. However, there has been little information on the role of GAs in response to plant nutrient deficiency.To evaluate the roles of GAs in regulation of Fe homeostasis, the effects of GA on Fe accumulation and Fe translocation in rice seedlings were investigated using wild-type, a rice mutant ( eui1 ) displaying enhnaced endogenous GA concentrations due to a defect in GA deactivation, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsEUI .Exposure to Fe-deficient medium significantly reduced biomass of rice plants. Both exogenous application of GA and an endogenous increase of bioactive GA enhanced Fe-deficiency response by exaggerating foliar chlorosis and reducing growth. Iron deficiency significantly suppressed production of GA 1 and GA 4 , the biologically active GAs in rice. Exogenous application of GA significantly decreased leaf Fe concentration regardless of Fe supply. Iron concentration in shoot of eui1 mutants was lower than that of WT plants under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, alleviated Fe-deficiency responses, and overexpression of EUI significantly increased Fe concentration in shoots and roots. Furthermore, both exogenous application of GA and endogenous increase in GA resulting from EUI mutation inhibited Fe translocation within shoots by suppressing OsYSL2 expression, which is involved in Fe transport and translocation.The novel findings provide compelling evidence to support the involvement of GA in mediation of Fe homeostasis in strategy II rice plants by negatively regulating Fe transport and translocation.
Project description:Rice (Oryza sativa) secretes 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) to acquire insoluble iron (Fe) from the rhizosphere. In rice, DMA is synthesized by DMA synthase 1 (OsDMAS1), a member of the aldo-keto reductase super family. We screened OsDMAS1 paralogs for DMA synthesis. None of these paralogs displayed in vitro DMA synthesis activity, suggesting that rice only harbors one functional DMAS. We further characterized OsDMAS1 mutant plants. We failed to screen homozygous knock-out plants (dmas-1), so we characterized DMAS knock-down plants (dmas-kd1 and dmas-kd2). Under Fe-deficient conditions, dmas-kd1 plants were more chlorotic compared to the wild-type (WT) plants, and the expression of OsNAS3, OsYSL2, OsIRT1, and OsIRO2 was significantly up-regulated in the dmas-kd1 mutant, indicating that metal homeostasis was significantly disturbed. The secretion of DMA in dmas-kd1 was not significantly reduced. The dmas-kd1 plants accumulated less Fe in their roots compared to WT plants when grown with 10 ?M FeSO4. The dmas-kd1 plants accumulated more Zn in their roots compared to WT plants under Fe-deficient, Fe-EDTA, and FeSO4 conditions. In both dehusked rice seeds (brown rice) and polished rice, no differences were observed for Fe, Cu, or Mn accumulation, whereas dmas-kd1 seeds significantly accumulated more Zn in brown rice. Our data suggests that rice only harbors one functional gene for DMA synthesis. In addition, the knock-down of OsDMAS1 significantly up-regulates the genes involved in Fe uptake and homeostasis.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) plays versatile functions in regulating plant development and tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Towards elucidating the functions of one of the ABA receptors (ABARs) in rice, OsPYL10 was cloned from drought tolerant rice cv. Nagina 22 and was overexpressed under stress inducible RD29A promoter in a mega rice variety MTU1010 by using Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation. Four single copy transgenic lines selected based on Southern blot analysis were used for physiological and molecular analysis. PYL10 receptor appears to regulate its ligand ABA accumulation as PYL10 overexpressing transgenics accumulated 2-3.3-fold higher levels of ABA than that of WT in flag leaf at anthesis under non-stress conditions. The enhanced accumulation of ABA was associated with enhanced expression of genes for ABA biosynthesis viz., ZEP1, NCED1, NCED2, NCED3, and NCED4 in transgenics than in WT plants. At seedling stage, PYL10 transgenics showed significantly higher survival rate under cold stress as compared with WT plants. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of cold responsive genes viz., DREB1F, MYB3R2, TPP1, COR410, DEHYDRIN, and LEA3 were significantly higher in PYL10 overexpressing transgenic lines as compared to WT plants under cold stress. PYL10 transgenic and WT plants grown in the same pot were subjected to -80 kPa drought stress and recovery treatments at vegetative and reproductive stages. At vegetative stage drought stress, three overexpressing lines showed significantly higher grain yield (40-58%) and at reproductive stage drought stress one of these overexpression lines showed two-fold higher grain yield than that of WT plants. Excised leaf water loss analysis showed that PYL10 transgenic lost about 20% less water than WT plants. At reproductive stage, OsPYL10 transgenic maintained higher RWC, membrane stability index, chlorophyll content, and accumulated lower amount of MDA and H2O2 as compared with WT plants. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of RAB16, Dehydrin, LEA3, and ABA45 were higher in PYL10 transgenics as compared with WT plants under drought stress. Thus, overall results showed that OsPYL10 overexpression has potential to improve both drought and cold stress tolerance of indica rice.
Project description:Low availability of phosphorus (P) in the soil is the principal limiting factor for the growth of cut chrysanthemum. Plant phosphate transporters (PTs) facilitate acquisition of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and its homeostasis within the plant. In the present study, CmPht1;2 of the Pht1 family was cloned from chrysanthemum. CmPht1;2 is composed of 12 transmembrane domains and localized to the plasma membrane. Expression of CmPht1;2 in roots was induced by Pi starvation. Chrysanthemum plants with overexpression of CmPht1;2 (Oe) showed higher Pi uptake, as compared to the wild type (WT), both under Pi-starvation and Pi-sufficient conditions, and also showed a higher root biomass compared to WT in the Pi-starvation conditions. Seven days after the P-deficiency treatment, 85 distinct analytes were identified in the roots and 27 in the shoots between the Oe1 plant and WT, in which sophorose, sorbitol (sugars), hydroxybutyric acid (organic acids), and ornithine (amino acid) of CmPht1;2 overexpressing chrysanthemum are specific responses to P-starvation.
Project description:Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that modulate numerous physiological processes in plants. However, few studies have focused on the involvement of BRs in sensing and responding to the stress of mineral nutrient deficiency. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of BRs in the response of rice (Oryza sativa) to iron (Fe) deficiency during Fe uptake, transport, and translocation. Exogenous application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) to wild-type (WT) plants exaggerated leaf symptoms of Fe deficiency and suppressed growth. EBR increased and decreased Fe concentrations in roots and shoots, respectively, under both Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient conditions. Transcripts involved in Fe homeostasis, including OsIRT1, OsYSL15, OsYSL2, OsNAS1, and OsNAS2, were enhanced by EBR under Fe-deficient conditions. EBR depressed expression of OsNAS1, OsNAS2, and OsYSL2 in shoots, and inhibited Fe transport and translocation via the phloem. Rice mutant d2-1, which is defective in BR biosynthesis, was more tolerant to Fe deficiency than the WT, and accumulated greater amounts of Fe in roots than the WT under Fe-sufficient conditions. A greater upregulation of OsIRT1, OsYSL15, OsYSL2, OsNAS1, and OsNAS2 in the d2-1 mutant compared to the WT was found under Fe-sufficient conditions, while expression of these genes in the d2-1 mutant was lower than in the WT under Fe-deficient conditions. The greater tolerance of the d2-1 mutant could be partly mitigated by exogenous application of EBR. These novel findings highlight the important role of BR in mediating the response of strategy II plants to Fe deficiency by regulating Fe uptake and translocation in rice.
Project description:Iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) are essential mineral nutrients in plants. Knowledge regarding global changes in the abundance of Fe-responsive genes under Pi deficiency as well as the processes these genes are involved in remains largely unavailable at the genome level. In the current study, we comparatively analyzed RNA sequencing data sets relative to Fe deficiency (NCBI: SRP044814) and Pi starvation (NCBI: SRA050356.1).Analysis showed a total of 579 overlapping genes that are responsible for both Fe deficiency and Pi starvation in Arabidopsis roots. A subset of 137 genes had greater than twofold changes in transcript abundant as a result of the treatments. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the stress-related processes 'response to salt stress', 'response to oxidative stress', and 'response to zinc ion' were enriched in the 579 genes, while Fe response-related processes, including 'cellular response to nitric oxide', 'cellular response to iron ion', and 'cellular iron ion homeostasis', were also enriched in the subset of 137 genes. Co-expression analysis of the 579 genes using the MACCU toolbox yielded a network consisting of 292 nodes (genes). Further analysis revealed that a subset of 90 genes were up-regulated under Fe shortage, but down-regulated under Pi starvation. GO analysis in this group of genes revealed an increased cellular response to iron ion/nitric oxide/ethylene stimuli. Promoter analysis was performed in 35 of the 90 genes with a 1.5-fold or greater change in abundance, showing that 12 genes contained the PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE1-binding GNATATNC cis-element within their promoter regions. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the decreased abundance of Fe acquisition genes under Pi deficiency exclusively relied on Fe concentration in Pi-deficient media.Comprehensive analysis of the overlapping genes derived from Fe deficiency and Pi starvation provides more information to understand the link between Pi and Fe homeostasis. Gene clustering and root-specific co-expression analysis revealed several potentially important genes which likely function as putative novel players in response to Fe and Pi deficiency or in cross-talk between Fe-deficient responses and Pi-deficient signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ribosomes are essential ribonucleoprotein complexes that are engaged in translation and thus indispensable for growth. Arabidopsis thaliana ribosomes are composed of 80 distinct ribosomal proteins (RPs), each of which is encoded by two to seven highly similar paralogous genes. Little information is available on how RP genes respond to a shortage of essential mineral nutrients such as phosphate (Pi) or iron (Fe). In the present study, the expression of RP genes and the differential accumulation of RPs upon Pi or Fe deficiency in Arabidopsis roots were comprehensively analyzed. RESULTS: Comparison of 3,106 Pi-responsive genes with 3,296 Fe-responsive genes revealed an overlap of 579 genes that were differentially expressed under both conditions in Arabidopsis roots. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these 579 genes were mainly associated with abiotic stress responses. Among the 247 RP genes retrieved from the TAIR10 release of the Arabidopsis genome (98 small subunit RP genes, 143 large subunit RP genes and six ribosome-related genes), seven RP genes were not detected in Arabidopsis roots by RNA sequencing under control conditions. Transcripts from 20 and 100 RP genes showed low and medium abundance, respectively; 120 RP genes were highly expressed in Arabidopsis roots. As anticipated, gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that most RP genes were related to translation and ribosome assembly, but some of the highly expressed RP genes were also involved in the responses to cold, UV-B, and salt stress. Only three RP genes derived from three 'sets' of paralogous genes were differentially expressed between Pi-sufficient and Pi-deficient roots, all of which were induced by Pi starvation. In Fe-deficient plants, 81 RP genes from 51 'sets' of paralagous RP genes were significantly down-regulated in response to Fe deficiency. The biological processes 'translation' (GO: 0006412), 'ribosome biogenesis (GO: 0042254), and 'response to salt (GO: 0009651), cold (GO: 0009409), and UV-B stresses (GO: 0071493)' were enriched in this subset of RP genes. At the protein level, 21 and two RPs accumulated differentially under Pi- and Fe-deficient conditions, respectively. Neither the differentially expressed RP genes nor the differentially expressed RPs showed any overlap between the two growth types. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study three and 81 differentially expressed RP genes were identified under Pi and Fe deficiency, respectively. At protein level, 21 and two RP proteins were differentially accumulated under Pi- and Fe-deficient conditions. Our study shows that the expression of paralogous genes encoding RPs was regulated in a stress-specific manner in Arabidopsis roots, presumably resulting in an altered composition of ribosomes and biased translation. These findings may aid in uncovering an unexplored mechanism by which plants adapt to changing environmental conditions.