LRH-1 drives colon cancer cell growth by repressing the expression of the CDKN1A gene in a p53-dependent manner.
ABSTRACT: Liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that has been implicated in the progression of breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancer (CRC). To determine mechanisms underlying growth promotion by LRH-1 in CRC, we undertook global expression profiling following siRNA-mediated LRH-1 knockdown in HCT116 cells, which require LRH-1 for growth and in HT29 cells, in which LRH-1 does not regulate growth. Interestingly, expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A) was regulated by LRH-1 in HCT116 cells. p21 regulation was not observed in HT29 cells, where p53 is mutated. p53 dependence for the regulation of p21 by LRH-1 was confirmed by p53 knockdown with siRNA, while LRH-1-regulation of p21 was not evident in HCT116 cells where p53 had been deleted. We demonstrate that LRH-1-mediated p21 regulation in HCT116 cells does not involve altered p53 protein or phosphorylation, and we show that LRH-1 inhibits p53 recruitment to the p21 promoter, likely through a mechanism involving chromatin remodelling. Our study suggests an important role for LRH-1 in the growth of CRC cells that retain wild-type p53.
Project description:Liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor which has been implicated in the growth and development of breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancers (CRC). In order to identify novel LRH-1-regulated genes in CRC cells, we performed gene expression profiling following siRNA-mediated LRH-1 silencing in the CRC cell line HT29. Overall design: HT29 cells were transfected with LRH-1 siRNA #1, #2, or with a non-targeting siRNA (siLUC) for 24 hours. Following assessment of RNA integrity, four biological replicates for each siRNA treatment were used for microarray analysis.
Project description:AIM: Platinum-(IV)-derivative satraplatin represents a new generation of orally available anti-cancer drugs that are under development for the treatment of several cancers. Understanding the mechanisms of cell cycle modulation and apoptosis is necessary to define the mode of action of satraplatin. In this study, we investigate the ability of satraplatin to induce cell cycle perturbation, clonogenicity loss and apoptosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. METHODS: CRC cells were treated with satraplatin, and the effects of satraplatin on apoptosis and the cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to investigate the effects of satraplatin on cell cycle and apoptosis-related proteins. RT-qPCR was used to evaluate p53-related mRNA modulation. RESULTS: Satraplatin induced an accumulation of CRC cells predominantly in the G(2)/M phase. Increased p53 protein expression was observed in the p53 wild-type HCT116 and LoVo cells together with p21(waf1/cip1) protein up-regulation. However, p21(waf1/cip1) protein accumulation was not observed in the p53 mutant HCT15, HT29, and WiDr cells, even when p53 protein expression was compromised, suggesting that the cell cycle perturbation is p53-p21(waf1/cip1) independent. Following a candidate approach, we found an elevated expression of 14-3-3? protein levels in CRC cells, which was independent of the status of p53, further supporting the role of satraplatin in the perturbation of the G(2)/M cell cycle phase. Moreover, satraplatin treatment induced apoptosis along with Bcl-2 protein down-regulation and abrogated the clonogenic formation of CRC cells in vitro. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our data suggest that satraplatin induces apoptosis in CRC cells, which is preceded by cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M due to the effect of 14-3-3? and in a p53-p21(waf1/cip1)-independent manner. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential use of satraplatin for CRC treatment.
Project description:Liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) is an orphan nuclear receptor which has been implicated in the growth and development of breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancers (CRC). In order to identify novel LRH-1-regulated genes in CRC cells, we performed gene expression profiling following siRNA-mediated LRH-1 silencing in the CRC cell line HCT116. Overall design: HCT116 cells were transfected with LRH-1 siRNA #1, #2, or with a non-targeting siRNA (siLUC) for 24 hours. Following assessment of RNA integrity, four biological replicates for each siRNA treatment were used for microarray analysis.
Project description:Chemoresistance is the main cause of treatment failure in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be elucidated. In a previous work we identified low levels of PKM2 as a putative oxaliplatin-resistance marker in HT29 CRC cell lines and also in patients. In order to assess how PKM2 influences oxaliplatin response in CRC cells, we silenced PKM2 using specific siRNAs in HT29, SW480 and HCT116 cells. MTT test demonstrated that PKM2 silencing induced resistance in HT29 and SW480 cells and sensitivity in HCT116 cells. Same experiments in isogenic HCT116 p53 null cells and double silencing of p53 and PKM2 in HT29 cells failed to show an influence of p53. By using trypan blue stain and FITC-Annexin V/PI tests we detected that PKM2 knockdown was associated with an increase in cell viability but not with a decrease in apoptosis activation in HT29 cells. Fluorescence microscopy revealed PKM2 nuclear translocation in response to oxaliplatin in HCT116 and HT29 cells but not in OXA-resistant HTOXAR3 cells. Finally, by using a qPCR Array we demonstrated that oxaliplatin and PKM2 silencing altered cell death gene expression patterns including those of BMF, which was significantly increased in HT29 cells in response to oxaliplatin, in a dose and time-dependent manner, but not in siPKM2-HT29 and HTOXAR3 cells. BMF gene silencing in HT29 cells lead to a decrease in oxaliplatin-induced cell death. In conclusion, our data report new non-glycolytic roles of PKM2 in response to genotoxic damage and proposes BMF as a possible target gene of PKM2 to be involved in oxaliplatin response and resistance in CRC cells.
Project description:Colorectal cancers (CRCs) account for nearly 10% of all cancer deaths in industrialized countries. Recent evidence points to a central role for the nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) in intestinal tumorigenesis. Interaction of LRH-1 with the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, highly active in a critical subpopulation of CRC cells, underscores the importance of elucidating LRH-1's role in this disease. Reduction of LRH-1 diminishes tumor burden in murine models of CRC; however, it is not known whether LRH-1 is required for tumorigenesis, for proliferation, or for both. In this work, we address this question through shRNA-mediated silencing of LRH-1 in established CRC cell lines. LRH-1 mRNA knockdown results in significantly impaired proliferation in a cell line highly expressing the receptor and more modest impairment in a cell line with moderate LRH-1 expression. Cell-cycle analysis shows prolongation of G0/G1 with LRH-1 silencing, consistent with LRH-1 cell-cycle influences in other tissues. Cluster analysis of microarray gene expression demonstrates significant genome wide alterations with major effects in cell-cycle regulation, signal transduction, bile acid and cholesterol metabolism, and control of apoptosis. This study demonstrates a critical proproliferative role for LRH-1 in established colon cancer cell lines. LRH-1 exerts its effects via multiple signaling networks. Our results suggest that selected CRC patients could benefit from LRH-1 inhibitors.
Project description:Liver receptor homolog 1 (nuclear receptor LRH-1, NR5A2) is an essential regulator of gene transcription, critical for maintenance of cell pluripotency in early development and imperative for the proper functions of the liver, pancreas, and intestines during the adult life. Although physiological hormones of LRH-1 have not yet been identified, crystallographic and biochemical studies demonstrated that LRH-1 could bind regulatory ligands and suggested phosphatidylinositols as potential hormone candidates for this receptor. No synthetic antagonists of LRH-1 are known to date. Here, we identify the first small molecule antagonists of LRH-1 activity. Our search for LRH-1 modulators was empowered by screening of 5.2 million commercially available compounds via molecular docking followed by verification of the top-ranked molecules using in vitro direct binding and transcriptional assays. Experimental evaluation of the predicted ligands identified two compounds that inhibit the transcriptional activity of LRH-1 and diminish the expression of the receptor's target genes. Among the affected transcriptional targets are co-repressor SHP (small heterodimer partner) as well as cyclin E1 (CCNE1) and G0S2 genes that are known to regulate cell growth and proliferation. Treatments of human pancreatic (AsPC-1), colon (HT29), and breast adenocarcinoma cells T47D and MDA-MB-468 with the LRH-1 antagonists resulted in the receptor-mediated inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our data suggest that specific antagonists of LRH-1 could be used as specific molecular probes for elucidating the roles of the receptor in different types of malignancies.
Project description:Only 10%-20% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients observe effective responses to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemo-treatment. We used real-time PCR array and Western blot analysis to examine the expression alteration of acetyltransferases and deacetylases in 5-FU resistant CRC cell lines as compared to their respective parental CRC cell lines. Unlike other acetyltransferases and deacetylases, we found that the expression of acetyltransferase P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) is consistently decreased in three 5-FU resistant CRC cell lines. Similarly, knockdown of PCAF in HCT116 CRC parental cell line also increases the resistance to 5-FU and attenuates 5-FU-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that increased binding of trimethylated histone H3K27 in the promoter region of PCAF attenuated its transcription in 5-FU resistant HCT116/5-FU cells. Decreased PCAF impairs the acetylation of p53 and attenuates the p53-dependent transcription of p21, which results in the increased cyclin D1 and phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma 1. Conversely, overexpression of PCAF in CRC cell lines increases p21 and their susceptibility to 5-FU in vitro and in vivo. However, knockdown of p21 abolishes the beneficial effects of PCAF overexpression on increasing the sensitivity of HCT116/5-FU cells to 5-FU. Also, the reduced intensity of PCAF immunostaining was observed in the precancerous lesion, and microarray data from the public database further demonstrated the association between PCAF down-regulation and poor survival outcome. Our data suggest that PCAF-mediated p53 acetylation is an essential regulatory mechanism for increasing the susceptibility of CRC to 5-FU.
Project description:Metformin is a widely used and well-tolerated anti-diabetic drug that can reduce cancer risk and improve the prognosis of certain malignancies. However, the mechanism underlying its anti-cancer effect is still unclear. We studied the anti-cancer activity of metformin on colorectal cancer (CRC) by using the drug to treat HT29, HCT116 and HCT116 p53-/- CRC cells. Metformin reduced cell proliferation and migration by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. This was accompanied by a sharp decrease in the expression of c-Myc and down-regulation of IGF1R. The anti-proliferative action of metformin was mediated by two different mechanisms: AMPK activation and increase in the production of reactive oxygen species, which suppressed the mTOR pathway and its downstream targets S6 and 4EBP1. A reduction in CD44 and LGR5 expression suggested that the drug had an effect on tumour cells with stem characteristics. However, a colony formation assay showed that metformin slowed the cells' ability to form colonies without arresting cell growth, as confirmed by absence of apoptosis, autophagy or senescence. Our finding that metformin only transiently arrests CRC cell growth suggests that efforts should be made to identify compounds that combined with the biguanide can act synergistically to induce cell death.
Project description:Dysregulated cell cycle progression has a critical role in tumorigenesis. Cell division cycle 27 (CDC27) is a core subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, although the specific role of CDC27 in cancer remains unknown. In our study, we explored the biological and clinical significance of CDC27 in colorectal cancer (CRC) growth and progression and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Results showed that CDC27 expression is significantly correlated with tumor progression and poor patient survival. Functional assays demonstrated that overexpression of CDC27 promoted proliferation in DLD1 cells, whereas knockdown of CDC27 in HCT116 cells inhibited proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Further mechanistic investigation showed that CDC27 downregulation resulted in G1/S phase transition arrest via the significant accumulation of p21 in HCT116 cells, and the upregulation of CDC27 promoted G1/S phase transition via the attenuation of p21 in DLD1 cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that CDC27 regulated inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1) protein expression in DLD1 and HCT116 cells, and rescue assays revealed that CDC27 regulated p21 expression through modulating ID1 expression. Taken together, our results indicate that CDC27 contributes to CRC cell proliferation via the modulation of ID1-mediated p21 regulation, which offers a novel approach to the inhibition of tumor growth. Indeed, these findings provide new perspectives for the future study of CDC27 as a target for CRC treatment.
Project description:A long-term goal in the cancer-field has been to develop strategies for treating p53-mutated tumors. A novel small-molecule, PG3-Oc, restores p53 pathway-signaling in tumor cells with mutant-p53, independently of p53/p73. PG3-Oc partially upregulates the p53-transcriptome (13.7% of public p53 target-gene dataset; 15.2% of in-house dataset) and p53-proteome (18%, HT29; 16%, HCT116-p53<sup>-/-</sup>). Bioinformatic analysis indicates critical p53-effectors of growth-arrest (p21), apoptosis (PUMA, DR5, Noxa), autophagy (DRAM1), and metastasis-suppression (NDRG1) are induced by PG3-Oc. ERK1/2- and CDK9-kinases are required to upregulate ATF4 by PG3-Oc which restores p53 transcriptomic-targets in cells without functional-p53. PG3-Oc represses MYC (ATF4-independent), and upregulates PUMA (ATF4-dependent) in mediating cell death. With largely nonoverlapping transcriptomes, induced-ATF4 restores p53 transcriptomic targets in drug-treated cells including functionally important mediators such as PUMA and DR5. Our results demonstrate novel p53-independent drug-induced molecular reprogramming involving ERK1/2, CDK9, and ATF4 to restore upregulation of p53 effector genes required for cell death and tumor suppression.