Association between DPYD c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 and severe toxicity to 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer patients: NCCTG N0147 (Alliance).
ABSTRACT: Severe (grade?3) adverse events (AEs) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy regimens can result in treatment delays or cessation, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening complications. Current genetic biomarkers for 5-FU toxicity prediction, however, account for only a small proportion of toxic cases. In the current study, we assessed DPYD variants suggested to correlate with 5-FU toxicity, a deep intronic variant (c.1129-5923 C>G), and four variants within a haplotype (hapB3) in 1953 stage III colon cancer patients who received adjuvant FOLFOX±cetuximab. Logistic regression was used to assess multivariable associations between DPYD variant status and AEs common to 5-FU (5FU-AEs). In our study cohort, 1228 patients (62.9%) reported any grade?3 AE (overall AE), with 638 patients (32.7%) reporting any grade?3 5FU-AE. Only 32 of 78 (41.0%) patients carrying DPYD c.1129-5923 C>G and the completely linked hapB3 variants c.1236 C>G and c.959-51 T>C showed at least one grade?3 5FU-AE, resulting in no statistically significant association (adjusted odds ratio=1.47, 95% confidence interval=0.90-2.43, P=0.1267). No significant associations were identified between c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 and overall grade?3 AE rate. Our results suggest that c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 have limited predictive value for severe toxicity to 5-FU-based combination chemotherapy.
Project description:Previous studies have suggested the potential importance of three DPYD variants (DPYD*2A, D949V, and I560S) with increased 5-FU toxicity. Their individual associations, however, in 5-FU-based combination therapies, remain controversial and require further systematic study in a large patient population receiving comparable treatment regimens with uniform clinical data.We genotyped 2886 stage III colon cancer patients treated adjuvantly in a randomized phase III trial with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI, alone or combined with cetuximab, and tested the individual associations between functionally deleterious DPYD variants and toxicity. Logistic regressions were used to assess univariate and multivariable associations. All statistical tests were two-sided.In 2594 patients with complete adverse event (AE) data, the incidence of grade 3 or greater 5FU-AEs in DPYD*2A, I560S, and D949V carriers were 22/25 (88.0%), 2/4 (50.0%), and 22/27 (81.5%), respectively. Statistically significant associations were identified between grade 3 or greater 5FU-AEs and both DPYD*2A (odds ratio [OR] = 15.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.54 to 50.96, P < .001) and D949V (OR = 9.10, 95% CI = 3.43 to 24.10, P < .001) variants. Statistical significance remained after adjusting for multiple variables. The DPYD*2A variant statistically significantly associated with the specific AEs nausea/vomiting (P = .007) and neutropenia (P < .001), whereas D949V statistically significantly associated with dehydration (P = .02), diarrhea (P = .003), leukopenia (P = .002), neutropenia (P < .001), and thrombocytopenia (P < .001). Although two patients with I560S had grade≥3 5FU-AEs; a statistically significant association could not be demonstrated because of its low frequency (P = .48).In the largest study to date, statistically significant associations were found between DPYD variants (DPYD*2A and D949V) and increased incidence of grade 3 or greater 5FU-AEs in patients treated with adjuvant 5-FU-based combination chemotherapy.
Project description:Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial enzyme acting in the catabolism of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU). DPD deficiency is known to cause a potentially lethal toxicity following administration of 5FU. Here, we report novel genetic mechanisms underlying DPD deficiency in patients presenting with grade III/IV 5FU-associated toxicity. In one patient a genomic DPYD deletion of exons 21-23 was observed. In five patients a deep intronic mutation c.1129-5923C>G was identified creating a cryptic splice donor site. As a consequence, a 44 bp fragment corresponding to nucleotides c.1129-5967 to c.1129-5924 of intron 10 was inserted in the mature DPD mRNA. The deleterious c.1129-5923C>G mutation proved to be in cis with three intronic polymorphisms (c.483 + 18G>A, c.959-51T>G, c.680 + 139G>A) and the synonymous mutation c.1236G>A of a previously identified haplotype. Retrospective analysis of 203 cancer patients showed that the c.1129-5923C>G mutation was significantly enriched in patients with severe 5FU-associated toxicity (9.1%) compared to patients without toxicity (2.2%). In addition, a high prevalence was observed for the c.1129-5923C>G mutation in the normal Dutch (2.6%) and German (3.3%) population. Our study demonstrates that a genomic deletion affecting DPYD and a deep intronic mutation affecting pre-mRNA splicing can cause severe 5FU-associated toxicity. We conclude that screening for DPD deficiency should include a search for genomic rearrangements and aberrant splicing.
Project description:Evolving intensiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, including chemotherapeutics and targeted agents associations, in adjuvant and metastatic CRC (MCRC) settings, increased overall survival (OS) with individual variability of toxicity. Pharmacogenomic guidelines recommended pre-treatment identification of at-risk patients suggesting dose adjustment of fluoropyrimidines based on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD), and irinotecan on UDP glucuronosyl-transferase 1 family polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) genetic variants, but they are poorly applied in clinical practice. This review highlighted clinically validated pharmacogenetic markers, to underline the need of their implementation in the multidisciplinary molecular board for individual CRC patients in clinical practice. Five clinically relevant DPYD variants with different prevalence impair enzymatic effectiveness and significantly increase toxicity: c.1236 G>A (c.1129-5923 C>G, HapB3), 4.1-4.8%; c.1679 T>G (DPYD*13), c.1905+1G>A (DPYD*2A), c.2846 A>T, c.2194 A>T (DPYD*6) 1% each. c.1679T>G and c.1905+1G>A are most deleterious on DPD effectiveness, moderately reduced in c.1236/HapB3 and c.2846A>T. Cumulatively, these variants explain approximately half of the estimated 10-15% fluoropyrimidine-related gastrointestinal and hematological toxicities due to DPD. Prevalent UGT1A1 gene [TA]7TAA promoter allelic variant UGT1A1*28, characterized by an extra TA repeat, is associated with low transcriptional and reduced enzymatic effectiveness, decreased SN38 active irinotecan metabolite glucuronidation, vs wild-type UGT1A1*1 [A(TA)6TAA]. Homozygote UGT1A1*28 alleles patients are exposed to higher hematological and gastrointestinal toxicities, even more than heterozygote, at >150 mg/m2 dose. Dose reduction is recommended for homozygote variant. Wild-type UGT1A1*28 alleles patients could tolerate increased doses, potentially affecting favorable outcomes. Implementation of up-front evaluation of the five validated DPYD variants and UGT1A1*28 in the multidisciplinary molecular tumor board, also including CRC genetic characterization, addresses potential treatments with fluoropyrimidines and irinotecan associations at proper doses and schedules, particularly for early CRC, MCRC patients fit for intensive regimens or unfit for conventional regimens, requiring treatment modulations, and also for patients who experience severe, unexpected toxicities. Integration of individual evaluation of toxicity syndromes (TS), specifically limiting TS (LTS), an innovative indicator of toxicity burden in individual patients, may be useful to better evaluate relationships between pharmacogenomic analyses with safety profiles and clinical outcomes.
Project description:AIMS:Triplet chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin and irinotecan is a standard therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DPYD and UGT1A1 influence fluoropyrimdines and irinotecan adverse events (AEs). Low frequency DPYD variants (c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T) are validated but more frequent ones (c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G and c.1896 T > C) are not. rs895819 T > C polymorphism in hsa-mir-27a is associated with reduced DPD activity. In this study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of a pharmacogenetic panel for patients receiving triplet combinations. METHODS:Germline DNA was available from 64 CRC patients enrolled between 2008 and 2013 in two phase II trials of capecitabine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan plus bevacizumab or cetuximab. SNPs were determined by Real-Time PCR. We evaluated the functional variants in DPYD (rare: c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T; most common: c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C), hsa-mir-27a (rs895819) and UGT1A1 (*28) genes to assess their association with grade 3-4 AEs. RESULTS:None of the patients carried rare DPYD variants. We found DPYD c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C in heterozygosity in 19%, 5% and 8%, respectively, homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a in 9% and homozygous UGT1A1*28 in 8%. Grade 3-4 AEs were observed in 36% patients and were associated with DPYD c.496A > G (odds ratio (OR) 4.93, 95% CI 1.29, 18.87; P = 0.021) and homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a (OR 11.11, 95% CI 1.21, 102.09; P = 0.020). Carriers of DPYD c.1896 T > C and homozygous UGT1A1*28 showed an OR of 8.42 (95% CI 0.88, 80.56; P = 0.052). Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent value for DPYD c.496A > G and c.1896 T > C. CONCLUSIONS:Concomitant assessment of DPYD variants and the UGT1A1*28 allele is a promising strategy needing further validation for dose personalization.
Project description:Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) is a highly polymorphic gene and classic deficient variants (i.e., c.1236G>A/HapB3, c.1679T>G, c.1905+1G>A and c.2846A>T) are characterized by impaired enzyme activity and risk of severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in patients treated with fluoropyrimidines. The identification of poor metabolizers by pre-emptive DPYD screening may reduce the rate of ADRs but many patients with wild-type genotype for classic variants may still display ADRs. Therefore, the search for additional DPYD polymorphisms associated with ADRs may improve the safety of treatment with fluoropyrimidines. This study included 1254 patients treated with fluoropyrimidine-containing regimens and divided into cohort 1, which included 982 subjects suffering from gastrointestinal G?2 and/or hematological G?3 ADRs, and cohort 2 (control group), which comprised 272 subjects not requiring dose reduction, delay or discontinuation of treatment. Both groups were screened for DPYD variants c.496A>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, c.1601G>A (DPYD*4), c.1627A>G (DPYD*5), c.1679T>G (DPYD*13), c.1896T>C, c.1905?+?1G>A (DPYD*2A), c.2194G>A (DPYD*6), and c.2846A>T to assess their association with toxicity. Genetic analysis in the two cohorts were done by Real-Time PCR of DNA extracted from 3?ml of whole blood. DPYD c.496A>G, c.1601G>A, c.1627A>G, c.1896T>C, and c.2194G>A variants were found in both cohort 1 and 2, while c.1905+1G>A and c.2846A>T were present only in cohort 1. DPYD c.1679T>G and c.1236G>A/HapB3 were not found. Univariate analysis allowed the selection of c.1905+1G>A, c.2194G>A and c.2846A>T alleles as significantly associated with gastrointestinal and hematological ADRs (p?<?0.05), while the c.496A>G variant showed a positive trend of association with neutropenia (p?=?0.06). In conclusion, c.2194G>A is associated with clinically-relevant ADRs in addition to the already known c.1905+1G>A and c.2846A>T variants and should be evaluated pre-emptively to reduce the risk of fluoropyrimidine-associated ADRs.
Project description:We investigated the predictive value of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) phenotype, measured as pretreatment serum uracil and dihydrouracil concentrations, for severe as well as fatal fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity in 550 patients treated previously with fluoropyrimidines during a prospective multicenter study.Pretreatment serum concentrations of uracil and dihydrouracil were measured using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The primary endpoint of this analysis was global (any) severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity, that is, grade ?3 toxicity according to the NCI CTC-AE v3.0, occurring during the first cycle of treatment. The predictive value of uracil and the uracil/dihydrouracil ratio for early severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity were compared. Pharmacogenetic variants in DPYD (c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, c.1129-5923C>G, and c.1601G>A) and TYMS (TYMS 5'-UTR VNTR and TYMS 3'-UTR 6-bp ins/del) were measured and tested for associations with severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity to compare predictive value with DPD phenotype. The Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate method was used to control for type I errors at level q<0.050 (corresponding to P<0.010).Uracil was superior to the dihydrouracil/uracil ratio as a predictor of severe toxicity. High pretreatment uracil concentrations (>16?ng?ml-1) were strongly associated with global severe toxicity (OR 5.3, P=0.009), severe gastrointestinal toxicity (OR 33.7, P<0.0001), toxicity-related hospitalisation (OR 16.9, P<0.0001), as well as fatal treatment-related toxicity (OR 44.8, P=0.001). None of the DPYD variants alone, or TYMS variants alone, were associated with severe toxicity.High pretreatment uracil concentration was strongly predictive of severe, including fatal, fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity, and is a highly promising phenotypic marker to identify patients at risk of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Severe toxicity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy in gastrointestinal cancer has been associated with constitutional genetic alterations of the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD). METHODS: In this study, we evaluated DPYD promoter methylation through quantitative methylation-specific PCR and screened DPYD for large intragenic rearrangements in peripheral blood from 45 patients with gastrointestinal cancers who developed severe 5-FU toxicity. DPYD promoter methylation was also assessed in tumor tissue from 29 patients RESULTS: Two cases with the IVS14+1G > A exon 14 skipping mutation (c.1905+1G > A), and one case carrying the 1845 G > T missense mutation (c.1845G > T) in the DPYD gene were identified. However, DPYD promoter methylation and large DPYD intragenic rearrangements were absent in all cases analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that DPYD promoter methylation and large intragenic rearrangements do not contribute significantly to the development of 5-FU severe toxicity in gastrointestinal cancer patients, supporting the need for additional studies on the mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to severe 5-FU toxicity.
Project description:In the 45 years since its development, the pyrimidine analog 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has become an integral component of many cancer treatments, most notably for the management of colorectal cancer. An appreciable fraction of patients who receive 5-FU suffer severe adverse toxicities, which in extreme cases may result in death. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, encoded by DPYD) rapidly degrades 85% of administered 5-FU, and as such, limits the amount of drug available for conversion into active metabolites. Clinical studies have suggested that genetic variations in DPYD increase the risk for 5-FU toxicity, however, there is not a clear consensus about which variations are relevant predictors. In the present study, DPYD variants were expressed in mammalian cells, and the enzymatic activity of expressed protein was determined relative to wild-type (WT). Relative sensitivity to 5-FU for cells expressing DPYD variations was also measured. The DPYD*2A variant (exon 14 deletion caused by IVS14+1G>A) was confirmed to be catalytically inactive. Compared with WT, two variants, S534N and C29R, showed significantly higher enzymatic activity. Cells expressing S534N were more resistant to 5-FU-mediated toxicity compared with cells expressing WT DPYD. These findings support the hypothesis that selected DPYD alleles are protective against severe 5-FU toxicity, and, as a consequence, may decrease the effectiveness of 5-FU an antitumor drug in carriers. In addition, this study shows a method that may be useful for phenotyping other genetic variations in pharmacologically relevant pathways.
Project description:5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its pro-drug capecitabine are widely used anticancer agents. Most 5-FU catabolism is dependent on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) encoded by the <i>DPYD</i> gene, and <i>DPYD</i> variants that reduce DPD function increase 5-FU toxicity. Most DPD deficient patients are heterozygous and can be treated with reduced 5-FU dosing. We describe a patient with a genotype associated with near complete absence of DPD function, and severe and likely fatal toxicity with 5-FU treatment. The patient was treated effectively with alternative systemic therapy. Routine pretreatment <i>DPYD</i> genotyping is recommended by the European Medicines Agency, and guidelines for use of 5-FU in DPD deficient patients are available. However, outside the province of Quebec, routine pretreatment screening for DPD deficiency remains unavailable in Canada. It is likely our patient would have died from 5-FU toxicity under the current standard of care, but instead provides an example of the potential benefit of <i>DPYD</i> screening on patient outcomes.
Project description:Toxicity from neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NT) increases morbidity and limits therapeutic efficacy in patients with rectal cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether specific polymorphisms in genes associated with rectal cancer response to NT were correlated with NT-related toxicity.One hundred thirty-two patients with locally advanced rectal cancer received NT followed by surgery. All patients received 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiation (RT), and 80 patients also received modified infusional 5-FU, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin chemotherapy (mFOLFOX-6). Grade ?3 adverse events (AEs) that occurred during 5-FU/RT and during combined 5-FU/RT + mFOLFOX-6 were recorded. Pretreatment biopsy specimens and normal rectal tissues were collected from all patients. DNA was extracted and screened for 22 polymorphisms in 17 genes that have been associated with response to NT. Polymorphisms were correlated with treatment-related grade ?3 AEs.Overall, 27 of 132 patients (20%) had grade ?3 AEs; 18 patients had a complication associated only with 5-FU/RT, 3 patients experienced toxicity only during mFOLFOX-6, and 6 patients had grade ?3 AEs associated with both treatments before surgery. Polymorphisms in the genes x-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1 (XRCC1), xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD), and tumor protein 53 (TP53) were associated with grade ?3 AEs during NT (P < .05). Specifically, 2 polymorphisms-an arginine-to-glutamine substitution at codon 399 (Q399R) in XRCC1 and a lysine-to-glutamine substitution at codon 751 (K751Q) in XPD-were associated with increased toxicity to 5-FU/RT (P < .05), and an arginine-to-proline substitution at codon 72 (R72P) in TP53 was associated with increased toxicity to mFOLFOX-6 (P = .008).Specific polymorphisms in XRCC1, XPD, and TP53 were associated with increased toxicity to NT in patients with rectal cancer. The current results indicated that polymorphism screening may help tailor treatment for patients by selecting therapies with the lowest risk of toxicity, thus increasing patient compliance.