SSB binds to the RecG and PriA helicases in vivo in the absence of DNA.
ABSTRACT: The E. coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) binds to the fork DNA helicases RecG and PriA in vitro. Typically for binding to occur, 1.3 m ammonium sulfate must be present, bringing into question the validity of these results as these are nonphysiological conditions. To determine whether SSB can bind to these helicases, we examined binding in vivo. First, using fluorescence microscopy, we show that SSB localizes PriA and RecG to the vicinity of the inner membrane in the absence of DNA damage. Localization requires that SSB be in excess over the DNA helicases and the SSB C-terminus and both PriA and RecG be present. Second, using the purification of tagged complexes, our results show that SSB binds to PriA and RecG in vivo, in the absence of DNA. We propose that this may be the 'storage form' of RecG and PriA. We further propose that when forks stall, RecG and PriA are targeted to the fork by SSB, which, by virtue of its high affinity for single-stranded DNA, allows these helicases to outcompete other proteins. This ensures their actions in the early stages of the rescue of stalled replication forks.
Project description:In bacteria, several salvage responses to DNA replication arrest culminate in reassembly of the replisome on inactivated forks to resume replication. The PriA DNA helicase is a prominent trigger of this replication restart process, preceded in many cases by a repair and/or remodeling of the arrested fork, which can be performed by many specific proteins. The mechanisms that target these rescue effectors to damaged forks in the cell are unknown. We report that the single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein is the key factor that links PriA to active chromosomal replication forks in vivo. This targeting mechanism determines the efficiency by which PriA reaches its specific DNA-binding site in vitro and directs replication restart in vivo. The RecG and RecQ DNA helicases, which are involved in intricate replication reactivation pathways, also associate with the chromosomal replication forks by similarly interacting with SSB. These results identify SSB as a platform for linking a 'repair toolbox' with active replication forks, providing a first line of rescue responses to accidental arrest.
Project description:Collisions between cellular DNA replication machinery (replisomes) and damaged DNA or immovable protein complexes can dissociate replisomes before the completion of replication. This potentially lethal problem is resolved by cellular "replication restart" reactions that recognize the structures of prematurely abandoned replication forks and mediate replisomal reloading. In bacteria, this essential activity is orchestrated by the PriA DNA helicase, which identifies replication forks via structure-specific DNA binding and interactions with fork-associated ssDNA-binding proteins (SSBs). However, the mechanisms by which PriA binds replication fork DNA and coordinates subsequent replication restart reactions have remained unclear due to the dearth of high-resolution structural information available for the protein. Here, we describe the crystal structures of full-length PriA and PriA bound to SSB. The structures reveal a modular arrangement for PriA in which several DNA-binding domains surround its helicase core in a manner that appears to be poised for binding to branched replication fork DNA structures while simultaneously allowing complex formation with SSB. PriA interaction with SSB is shown to modulate SSB/DNA complexes in a manner that exposes a potential replication initiation site. From these observations, a model emerges to explain how PriA links recognition of diverse replication forks to replication restart.
Project description:In all organisms several enzymes that are needed upon replication impediment are targeted to replication forks by interaction with a replication protein. In most cases these proteins interact with the polymerase clamp or with single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSB). In Escherichia coli an accessory replicative helicase was also shown to interact with the DnaB replicative helicase. Here we have used cytological observation of Venus fluorescent fusion proteins expressed from their endogenous loci in live E. coli cells to determine whether DNA repair and replication restart proteins that interact with a replication protein travel with replication forks. A custom-made microscope that detects active replisome molecules provided that they are present in at least three copies was used. Neither the recombination proteins RecO and RecG, nor the replication accessory helicase Rep are detected specifically in replicating cells in our assay, indicating that either they are not present at progressing replication forks or they are present in less than three copies. The Venus-PriA fusion protein formed foci even in the absence of replication forks, which prevented us from reaching a conclusion.
Project description:In Escherichia coli, DNA replication forks stall on average once per cell cycle. When this occurs, replisome components disengage from the DNA, exposing an intact, or nearly intact fork. Consequently, the fork structure must be regressed away from the initial impediment so that repair can occur. Regression is catalyzed by the powerful, monomeric DNA helicase, RecG. During this reaction, the enzyme couples unwinding of fork arms to rewinding of duplex DNA resulting in the formation of a Holliday junction. RecG works against large opposing forces enabling it to clear the fork of bound proteins. Following subsequent processing of the extruded junction, the PriA helicase mediates reloading of the replicative helicase DnaB leading to the resumption of DNA replication. The single-strand binding protein (SSB) plays a key role in mediating PriA and RecG functions at forks. It binds to each enzyme via linker/OB-fold interactions and controls helicase-fork loading sites in a substrate-dependent manner that involves helicase remodeling. Finally, it is displaced by RecG during fork regression. The intimate and dynamic SSB-helicase interactions play key roles in ensuring fork regression and DNA replication restart.
Project description:The RecG DNA helicase a key player in stalled replication fork rescue. The single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) participates in this process, but its role in the interaction of RecG with the fork remains unclear. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the interaction of RecG with a fork DNA in the presence of SSB. We discovered that SSB enhances RecG loading efficiency onto the DNA fork by threefold. Additionally, SSB interacts with RecG leading to the RecG remodeling. As a result, RecG separates from the fork, but remains bound to the DNA duplex. Moreover, in this new binding mode RecG is capable of translocation along the parental duplex DNA. We propose a model of RecG interaction with the replication fork involving two RecG binding modes. SSB plays the role of a remodeling factor defining the mode of RecG binding to the fork mediated by the SSB C-terminus. In the translocating mode, RecG remains in the vicinity of the fork and is capable of initiating the fork regression. Our results afford novel mechanistic insights into RecG interaction with the replication fork and provide the basis for further structural studies.
Project description:As a guardian of the bacterial genome, the RecG DNA helicase repairs DNA replication and rescues stalled replication. We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly visualize dynamics of RecG upon the interaction with replication fork substrates in the presence and absence of SSB using high-speed AFM. We directly visualized that RecG moves back and forth over dozens of base pairs in the presence of SSB. There is no RecG translocation in the absence of SSB. Computational modeling was performed to build models of Escherichia coli RecG in a free state and in complex with the fork. The simulations revealed the formation of complexes of RecG with the fork and identified conformational transitions that may be responsible for RecG remodeling that can facilitate RecG translocation along the DNA duplex. Such complexes do not form with the DNA duplex, which is in line with experimental data. Overall, our results provide mechanistic insights into the modes of interaction of RecG with the replication fork, suggesting a novel role of RecG in the repair of stalled DNA replication forks.
Project description:In E. coli, the regression of stalled DNA replication forks is catalyzed by the DNA helicase RecG. One means of gaining access to the fork is by binding to the single strand binding protein or SSB. This interaction occurs via the wedge domain of RecG and the intrinsically disordered linker (IDL) of SSB, in a manner similar to that of SH3 domains binding to PXXP motif-containing ligands in eukaryotic cells. During loading, SSB remodels the wedge domain so that the helicase domains bind to the parental, duplex DNA, permitting the helicase to translocate using thermal energy. This translocation may be used to clear the fork of obstacles, prior to the initiation of fork regression.
Project description:Little is known about what happens when forks meet to complete DNA replication in any organism. In this study we present data suggesting that the collision of replication forks is a potential threat to genomic stability. We demonstrate that Escherichia coli cells lacking RecG helicase suffer major defects in chromosome replication following UV irradiation, and that this is associated with high levels of DNA synthesis initiated independently of the initiator protein DnaA. This UV-induced stable DNA replication is dependent on PriA helicase and continues long after UV-induced lesions have been excised. We suggest UV irradiation triggers the assembly of new replication forks, leading to multiple fork collisions outside the terminus area. Such collisions may generate branched DNAs that serve to establish further new forks, resulting in uncontrolled DNA amplification. We propose that RecG reduces the likelihood of this pathological cascade being set in motion by reducing initiation of replication at D- and R-loops, and other structures generated as a result of fork collisions. Our results shed light on why replication initiation in bacteria is limited to a single origin and why termination is carefully orchestrated to a single event within a restricted area each cell cycle.
Project description:The PriA protein serves as an initiator for the restart of DNA replication on stalled replication forks and as a checkpoint protein that prevents the replicase from advancing in a strand displacement reaction on forks that do not contain a functional replicative helicase. We have developed a primosomal protein-dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay using a minimal fork substrate composed of synthetic oligonucleotides. We demonstrate that a self-loading reaction, which proceeds at high helicase concentrations, occurs by threading of a preassembled helicase over free 5'-ends, an event that can be blocked by attaching a steric block to the 5'-end or coating DNA with single-stranded DNA binding protein. The specificity of PriA for replication forks is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase. ATPase-defective PriA K230R shows a strong preference for substrates that contain no gap between the leading strand and the duplex portion of the fork, as demonstrated previously. Wild-type PriA prefers substrates with larger gaps, showing maximal activity on substrates on which PriA K230R is inactive. We demonstrate that PriA blocks replicase function on forks by blocking its binding.
Project description:DNA helicases are motor proteins that couple the chemical energy of nucleoside triphosphate hydrolysis to the mechanical functions required for DNA unwinding. Studies of several helicases have identified strand-separating "pin" structures that are positioned to intercept incoming dsDNA and promote strand separation during helicase translocation. However, pin structures vary among helicases and it remains unclear whether they confer a conserved unwinding mechanism. Here, we tested the biochemical and cellular roles of a putative pin element within the Escherichia coli PriA DNA helicase. PriA orchestrates replication restart in bacteria by unwinding the lagging-strand arm of abandoned DNA replication forks and reloading the replicative helicase with the help of protein partners that combine with PriA to form what is referred to as a primosome complex. Using in vitro protein-DNA cross-linking, we localized the putative pin (a ?-hairpin within a zinc-binding domain in PriA) near the ssDNA-dsDNA junction of the lagging strand in a PriA-DNA replication fork complex. Removal of residues at the tip of the ?-hairpin eliminated PriA DNA unwinding, interaction with the primosome protein PriB, and cellular function. We isolated a spontaneous intragenic suppressor mutant of the priA ?-hairpin deletion mutant in which 22 codons around the deletion site were duplicated. This suppressor variant and an Ala-substituted ?-hairpin PriA variant displayed wildtype levels of DNA unwinding and PriB binding in vitro These results suggest essential but sequence nonspecific roles for the PriA pin element and coupling of PriA DNA unwinding to its interaction with PriB.