Association of Carbon Monoxide exposure with blood pressure among pregnant women in rural Ghana: Evidence from GRAPHS.
ABSTRACT: The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS) is a community-level randomized-controlled trial of cookstove interventions for pregnant women and their newborns in rural Ghana. Given that household air pollution from biomass burning may be implicated in adverse cardiovascular outcomes, we sought to determine whether exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) from woodsmoke was associated with blood pressure (BP) among 817 adult women.Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between CO exposure, determined with 72 hour personal monitoring at study enrollment, and BP, also measured at study enrollment. At the time of these assessments, women were in the first or second trimester of pregnancy.A significant positive association was found between CO exposure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP): on average, each 1 ppm increase in exposure to CO was associated with 0.43 mmHg higher DBP [0.01, 0.86]. A non-significant positive trend was also observed for systolic blood pressure (SBP).This study is one of very few to have examined the relationship between household air pollution and blood pressure among pregnant women, who are at particular risk for hypertensive complications. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that household air pollution from wood-burning fires is associated with higher blood pressure, particularly DBP, in pregnant women at early to mid-gestation. The clinical implications of the observed association toward the eventual development of chronic hypertension and/or hypertensive complications of pregnancy remain uncertain, as few of the women were overtly hypertensive at this point in their pregnancies.
Project description:Traffic-related air and noise pollution may increase the risk for cardiovascular disorders, especially among susceptible populations like pregnant women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and traffic noise with blood pressure in pregnant women. We extracted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ?20?weeks gestation, as well as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy from medical records in the HOME Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort from Cincinnati, OH (n?=?370). We estimated exposure to elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT),1 a marker of traffic-related air pollution, at women's residences at ~20?weeks gestation using a validated land use regression model and traffic noise using a publicly available transportation noise model. We used linear mixed models and modified Poisson regression adjusted for covariates to examine associations of ECAT and traffic noise with blood pressure and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy risk, respectively. In adjusted models, we found a 1.6 (95% CI?=?0.02, 3.3; p?=?0.048) mm?Hg increase in SBP associated with an interquartile range increase in ECAT concentration; the association was stronger after adjusting for traffic noise (1.9?mm?Hg, 95%?=?0.1, 3.7; p?=?0.035). ECAT concentrations were not significantly associated with DBP or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and traffic noise was not associated with SBP, DBP, or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. There was no evidence of a joint effect of traffic noise and ECAT on any outcome. In this cohort, higher residential traffic-related air pollution exposure at ~20?weeks gestation was associated with higher SBP in late pregnancy. It is important for future studies of traffic-related air or noise pollution to jointly consider both exposures and neighborhood characteristics given their correlation and potential cumulative impact on cardiovascular health.
Project description:Smoke from the burning of biomass fuels has been linked with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight, stillbirth, and prematurity.To identify potential underlying mechanisms of adverse perinatal outcomes, we explored the association of placental pathology with household air pollution in pregnant women from urban/periurban Tanzania who cook predominantly with charcoal.Between 2011 and 2013, we measured personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) over 72 hr among a cohort of Tanzanian pregnant women. Placentas were collected after delivery for examination. Placental pathologies of inflammatory, hypoxic, ischemic/hypertensive, infectious and thrombotic etiologies were diagnosed, blinded to exposure levels. Using multiple logistic regression, we explored the association of PM2.5 and CO exposure with placental pathology.One hundred sixteen women had personal air exposure measurements and placental histopathology available for analysis. PM2.5 and CO exposures were moderate [geometric means (GSD) were 40.5 μg/m3 (17.3) and 2.21 ppm (1.47) respectively]; 88.6% of PM2.5 measurements exceeded World Health Organization air quality guidelines. We observed an increase in the odds (per 1-unit increase in exposure on the ln-scale) of fetal thrombotic vasculopathy (FTV) both with increasing PM2.5 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.8] and CO measurements (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 6.4) in adjusted models only. FTV also was more common among pregnancies complicated by stillbirth or low birth weight.Fetal thrombosis may contribute to the adverse outcomes associated with household air pollution from cook stoves during pregnancy. Larger studies are necessary for confirmation. Citation: Wylie BJ, Matechi E, Kishashu Y, Fawzi W, Premji Z, Coull BA, Hauser R, Ezzati M, Roberts D. 2017. Placental pathology associated with household air pollution in a cohort of pregnant women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Environ Health Perspect 125:134-140; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP256.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels affects nearly 3 billion people worldwide and is responsible for an estimated 2.5 million premature deaths and 77 million disability-adjusted life years annually. Investigating the effect of household air pollution on indicators of cardiometabolic disease, such as metabolic syndrome, can help clarify the pathways between this widespread exposure and cardiovascular diseases, which are increasing in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS:Our cross-sectional study of 150 women in rural Honduras (76 with traditional stoves and 74 with cleaner-burning Justa stoves) explored the effect of household air pollution exposure on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Household air pollution was measured by stove type and 24-h average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter [PM2.5] mass and black carbon concentrations. Health endpoints included non-fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, calculated low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, waist circumference to indicate abdominal obesity, and presence of metabolic syndrome (defined by current modified international guidelines: waist circumference???80?cm plus any two of the following: triglycerides?>?200?mg/dL, HDL?<?50?mg/dL, systolic blood pressure???130?mmHg, diastolic blood pressure???85?mmHg, or glycated hemoglobin?>?5.6%). RESULTS:Forty percent of women met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence ratio [PR] for metabolic syndrome (versus normal) per interquartile range increase in kitchen PM2.5 and kitchen black carbon was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.34) per 312??g/m3 increase in PM2.5, and 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.12) per 73??g/m3 increase in black carbon. There is suggestive evidence of a stronger effect in women ??40 years of age compared to women <?40 (p-value for interaction?=?0.12 for personal PM2.5). There was no evidence of associations between all other exposure metrics and health endpoints. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among our study population was high compared to global estimates. We observed a suggestive effect between metabolic syndrome and exposure to household air pollution. These results for metabolic syndrome may be driven by specific syndrome components, such as blood pressure. Longitudinal research with repeated health and exposure measures is needed to better understand the link between household air pollution and indicators of cardiometabolic disease risk.
Project description:Growing evidence links household air pollution exposure from biomass cookstoves with elevated blood pressure. We assessed cross-sectional associations of 24-hour mean concentrations of personal and kitchen fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), and stove type with blood pressure, adjusting for confounders, among 147 women using traditional or cleaner-burning Justa stoves in Honduras. We investigated effect modification by age and body mass index. Traditional stove users had mean (standard deviation) personal and kitchen 24-hour PM2.5 concentrations of 126 ?g/m3 (77) and 360 ?g/m3 (374), while Justa stove users' exposures were 66 ?g/m3 (38) and 137 ?g/m3 (194), respectively. BC concentrations were similarly lower among Justa stove users. Adjusted mean systolic blood pressure was 2.5 mm Hg higher (95% CI, 0.7-4.3) per unit increase in natural log-transformed kitchen PM2.5 concentration; results were stronger among women of 40 years or older (5.2 mm Hg increase, 95% CI, 2.3-8.1). Adjusted odds of borderline high and high blood pressure (categorized) were also elevated (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.0-2.3). Some results included null values and are suggestive. Results suggest that reduced household air pollution, even when concentrations exceed air quality guidelines, may help lower cardiovascular disease risk, particularly among older subgroups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies on the hypertensive effect of long-term air pollution exposure were inconclusive and showed scarce evidence from rural areas in developing countries. In this context, we examined the associations of air pollution exposure with hypertension and blood pressure, and their effect modifiers in rural Chinese adults. METHODS:We studied 39,259 participants from a cohort established in five rural regions of central China. Individual exposures to PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 ?m and 10 ?m) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was evaluated using satellite-based spatiotemporal models. Mixed-effect regression models were applied to examine the associations of long-term exposure to air pollution with hypertension and four blood pressure component measurements, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP). Several potential effect modifiers related to demographic and behavioral factors were also examined. RESULTS:The results showed that for each 1 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5, PM10 and NO2, the adjusted odds ratio of hypertension was 1.029 (95%CI: 1.001,1.057), 1.015 (95%CI: 1.001, 1.029) and 1.069 (95%CI: 1.038, 1.100), respectively. These three air pollutants were also associated with increased SBP (except for PM10), DBP and MAP. The hypertensive effects of air pollution were more pronounced among males, smokers, drinkers, individuals with a high-fat diet, and those with high-level physical activity. CONCLUSION:Long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 was associated with increased blood pressure and hypertension in rural Chinese adults, and the associations were modified by several behavioral factors.
Project description:Chronic air pollution exposure increases risk for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, but the effect of acute air pollution exposure on blood pressure during pregnancy is less well known.We studied 151,276 singleton term deliveries from the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002-2008) with clinical blood pressure measured at admission to labor/delivery and diagnoses of hypertensive disorders collected from electronic medical records and hospital discharge summaries. Air pollution exposures were estimated for the admission hour and the 4 hours preceding admission using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality models and observed air monitoring data. Blood pressure was categorized as normal; high normal; and mild, moderate, or severe hypertension based on pregnancy cut points. Adjusted ordinal logistic regression estimated the odds of women having a higher admission blood pressure category as a function of air pollutant, hypertensive disorders, and their interaction effect.Odds of high blood pressure at admission to labor/delivery were increased in normotensive women after exposure to nitrogen oxides (by 0.2%/5 units), sulfur dioxide (by 0.3%/1 unit), carbon monoxide and several air toxics (by 3%-4%/high exposure). The effects were often similar or stronger among women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Exposure to particulate matter <10 ?m increased odds of high blood pressure in women with preeclampsia by 3%/5 units.Air pollution can influence admission blood pressure in term deliveries and may increase likelihood of preeclampsia screening at delivery admission.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Growing evidence links household air pollution exposure from biomass-burning cookstoves to cardiometabolic disease risk. Few randomized controlled interventions of cookstoves (biomass or otherwise) have quantitatively characterized changes in exposure and indicators of cardiometabolic health, a growing and understudied burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Ideally, the solution is to transition households to clean cooking, such as with electric or liquefied petroleum gas stoves; however, those unable to afford or to access these options will continue to burn biomass for the foreseeable future. Wood-burning cookstove designs such as the Justa (incorporating an engineered combustion zone and chimney) have the potential to substantially reduce air pollution exposures. Previous cookstove intervention studies have been limited by stove types that did not substantially reduce exposures and/or by low cookstove adoption and sustained use, and few studies have incorporated community-engaged approaches to enhance the intervention. METHODS/DESIGN:We conducted an individual-level, stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial with the Justa cookstove intervention in rural Honduras. We enrolled 230 female primary cooks who were not pregnant, non-smoking, aged 24-59?years old, and used traditional wood-burning cookstoves at baseline. A community advisory board guided survey development and communication with participants, including recruitment and retention strategies. Over a 3-year study period, participants completed 6 study visits approximately 6?months apart. Half of the women received the Justa after visit 2 and half after visit 4. At each visit, we measured 24-h gravimetric personal and kitchen fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations, qualitative and quantitative cookstove use and adoption metrics, and indicators of cardiometabolic health. The primary health endpoints were blood pressure, C-reactive protein, and glycated hemoglobin. Overall study goals are to explore barriers and enablers of new cookstove adoption and sustained use, compare health endpoints by assigned cookstove type, and explore the exposure-response associations between PM2.5 and indicators of cardiometabolic health. DISCUSSION:This trial, utilizing an economically feasible, community-vetted cookstove and evaluating endpoints relevant for the major causes of morbidity and mortality in LMICs, will provide critical information for household air pollution stakeholders globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02658383 , posted January 18, 2016, field work completed May 2018. Official title, "Community-Based Participatory Research: A Tool to Advance Cookstove Interventions." Principal Investigator Maggie L. Clark, Ph.D. Last update posted July 12, 2018.
Project description:Household air pollution is estimated to be responsible for nearly three million premature deaths annually. Measuring fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) may improve the limited understanding of the association of household air pollution and airway inflammation. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of FeNO with exposure to household air pollution (24-h average kitchen and personal fine particulate matter and black carbon; stove type) among 139 women in rural Honduras using traditional stoves or cleaner-burning Justa stoves. We additionally evaluated interaction by age. Results were generally consistent with a null association; we did not observe a consistent pattern for interaction by age. Evidence from ambient and household air pollution regarding FeNO is inconsistent, and may be attributable to differing study populations, exposures, and FeNO measurement procedures (e.g., the flow rate used to measure FeNO).
Project description:A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy available to all people is the long-term goal, with an intermediate solution being to make available energy that is clean enough to have a health impact.
Project description:Abstract: Domestic incense burning is a common activity in China. Although it generates serious air pollution and has been linked to various health outcomes, it remains unknown whether it is associated with blood pressure and hypertension. A community-based survey including 1153 hypertensive subjects and 4432 normotensive participants in Guangdong (China) was used to examine this question. Two-level logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The analyses showed that, compared with non-users, OR of hypertension was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03-1.50) for users, and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.04-1.80) for daily users with a clear dose-response relationship. The estimated increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 1.02 mmHg (95% CI: 0.06-1.99) and 1.26 mmHg (95% CI: 0.69-1.83) for users, 0.67 mmHg (95% CI: -0.35-1.68) and 1.25 mmHg (95% CI: 0.66-1.85) for occasional users, and 2.09 mmHg (95% CI: 0.79-3.39) and 1.28 mmHg (95% CI: 0.52-2.05) for daily users, respectively. The results remained after adjusting for potential confounders and more pronounced associations were found among females. This study suggests that domestic incense burning may increase the risk of hypertension and blood pressure in the study population, and women are more vulnerable to these effects than men.