Neural cells play an inhibitory role in pancreatic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic endocrine ?-cells derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have received attention as screening systems for therapeutic drugs and as the basis for cell-based therapies. Here, we used a 12-day ?-cell differentiation protocol for mouse ES cells and obtained several hit compounds that promoted ?-cell differentiation. One of these compounds, mycophenolic acid (MPA), effectively promoted ES cell differentiation with a concomitant reduction of neuronal cells. The existence of neural cell-derived inhibitory humoral factors for ?-cell differentiation was suggested using a co-culture system. Based on gene array analysis, we focused on the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and showed that the Wnt pathway inhibitor reversed MPA-induced ?-cell differentiation. Wnt pathway activation promoted ?-cell differentiation also in human iPS cells. Our results showed that Wnt signaling activation positively regulates ?-cell differentiation, and represent a downstream target of the neural inhibitory factor.
Project description:Mycophenolic acid (MPA), effectively promoted ES cell pancreatic differentiation with a concomitant reduction of neuronal cells. The targets of MPA were investigated by microarray analysis of cells treated on day 5 with MPA and harvested on day 6 and 8. Cells were harvested for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We performed gene expression profiles of differentiated mouse ES cells treated with or without 2 microM MPA at day5, 6, and 8
Project description:Wnt signaling is intrinsic to embryonic stem cell self-renewal and mammalian development. However, the effects of wnts on ES cells self-renewal and iPS cells transduction was not clearly understood. In this study, L-Wnt3a cells that secreted activated Wnt3a protein into medium were used to produce Wnt3a condition medium (Wnt3a-CM) or feeder layer for ES cells cultivation and iPS cells transduction. The results showed that L-Wnt3a cells as feeder layer significantly promoted establishment of ES cell lines and generation of iPS cells. The ES cells robustly maintained pluripotency in Wnt3a-CM on feeder free condition. Moreover, we demonstrate that activated Wnt signaling by Wnt3a-CM at the early stage of reprogramming promoted generation of iPS cells by up-regulating Tcf3 and Tcf4, improving mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), promptly reactivating endogenous pluripotent genes, and regulating epigenetic remodeling. Taken together, L-Wnt3a cells and their condition medium could be a novel culture system to robustly maintained pluripotency of ES cells and accelerated somatic reprogramming by activating Wnt signaling.
Project description:Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from human somatic cells by ectopic expression of four Yamanaka factors. Here, we report that Survivin, an apoptosis inhibitor, can enhance iPS cells generation from human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) together with one factor OCT4 (1F-OCT4-Survivin). Compared with 1F-OCT4, Survivin accelerates the process of reprogramming from human NPCs. The neurocyte-originated induced pluripotent stem (NiPS) cells generated from 1F-OCT4-Survivin resemble human embryonic stem (hES) cells in morphology, surface markers, global gene expression profiling, and epigenetic status. Survivin keeps high expression in both iPS and ES cells. During the process of NiPS cell to neural cell differentiation, the expression of Survivin is rapidly decreased in protein level. The mechanism of Survivin promotion of reprogramming efficiency from NPCs may be associated with stabilization of ?-catenin in WNT signaling pathway. This hypothesis is supported by experiments of RT-PCR, chromatin immune-precipitation, and Western blot in human ES cells. Our results showed overexpression of Survivin could improve the efficiency of reprogramming from NPCs to iPS cells by one factor OCT4 through stabilization of the key molecule, ?-catenin.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family is essential to normal heart development. Yet, its contribution to cardiomyocyte differentiation from stem cells has not been systemically studied. In this study, we examined the mechanisms and characters of cardiomyocyte differentiation from FGF family protein treated embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used mouse ES cells stably transfected with a cardiac-specific ?-myosin heavy chain (?MHC) promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and mouse iPS cells to investigate cardiomyocyte differentiation. During cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse ES cells, FGF-3, -8, -10, -11, -13 and -15 showed an expression pattern similar to the mesodermal marker Brachyury and the cardiovascular progenitor marker Flk-1. Among them, FGF-10 induced cardiomyocyte differentiation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. FGF-10 neutralizing antibody, small molecule FGF receptor antagonist PD173074 and FGF-10 and FGF receptor-2 short hairpin RNAs inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation. FGF-10 also increased mouse iPS cell differentiation into cardiomyocyte lineage, and this effect was abolished by FGF-10 neutralizing antibody or PD173074. Following Gene Ontology analysis, microarray data indicated that genes involved in cardiac development were upregulated after FGF-10 treatment. In vivo, intramyocardial co-administration of FGF-10 and ES cells demonstrated that FGF-10 also promoted cardiomyocyte differentiation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FGF-10 induced cardiomyocyte differentiation from ES cells and iPS cells, which may have potential for translation into clinical applications.
Project description:Hematopoiesis generated from human embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are unprecedented resources for cell therapy. We compared hematopoietic differentiation potentials from ES and iPS cell lines originated from various donors and derived them using integrative and non-integrative vectors. Significant differences in differentiation toward hematopoietic lineage were observed among ES and iPS. The ability of engraftment of iPS or ES-derived cells in NOG mice varied among the lines with low levels of chimerism. iPS generated from ES cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) reproduce a similar hematopoietic outcome compared to their parental ES cell line. We were not able to identify any specific hematopoietic transcription factors that allow to distinguish between good versus poor hematopoiesis in undifferentiated ES or iPS cell lines. There is a relatively unpredictable variation in hematopoietic differentiation between ES and iPS cell lines that could not be predicted based on phenotype or gene expression of the undifferentiated cells. These results demonstrate the influence of genetic background in variation of hematopoietic potential rather than the reprogramming process.
Project description:It is desirable to obtain unlimited supplies of endothelial cells for research and therapeutics. However, current methods of deriving endothelial cells from humans suffer from issues, such as limited supplies, contamination from animal substances, and lengthy/complicated procedures. In this article we developed a way to differentiate human iPS and ES cells to highly pure endothelial cells in 5 days. The chemically defined system is robust, easy to perform, and free of animal substances. Using the system, we verified that combined TGF? and canonical Wnt agonists are essential and sufficient for iPS/ES cell-to-mesoderm transition. Besides, VEGF-KDR signaling alone is required for endothelial formation at high density while supplementation with FGF allows for colonial endothelial differentiation. Finally, anti-adsorptive agents could enrich the endothelial output by allowing selective attachment of the endothelial precursors. The system was validated to work on multiple iPS/ES cells lines to produce endothelial cells capable of forming capillary-like structures in vitro and integrating into host vasculature in vivo. In sum, the simple yet robust differentiation system permits the unlimited supply of human endothelial cells. The defined and animal substance-free nature of the system is compatible with clinical applications and characterization of endothelial differentiation in an unbiased manner.
Project description:Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great promise for cardiovascular research and therapeutic applications, but the ability of human iPS cells to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiac differentiation potential of human iPS cells generated using OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28 transgenes compared to human embryonic stem (ES) cells. The iPS and ES cells were differentiated using the embryoid body (EB) method. The time course of developing contracting EBs was comparable for the iPS and ES cell lines, although the absolute percentages of contracting EBs differed. RT-PCR analyses of iPS and ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes demonstrated similar cardiac gene expression patterns. The pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG were downregulated with cardiac differentiation, but the downregulation was blunted in the iPS cell lines because of residual transgene expression. Proliferation of iPS and ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes based on 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling was similar, and immunocytochemistry of isolated cardiomyocytes revealed indistinguishable sarcomeric organizations. Electrophysiology studies indicated that iPS cells have a capacity like ES cells for differentiation into nodal-, atrial-, and ventricular-like phenotypes based on action potential characteristics. Both iPS and ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes exhibited responsiveness to beta-adrenergic stimulation manifest by an increase in spontaneous rate and a decrease in action potential duration. We conclude that human iPS cells can differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes, and thus iPS cells are a viable option as an autologous cell source for cardiac repair and a powerful tool for cardiovascular research.
Project description:Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from adult somatic cells by transduction of defined factors. Given their unlimited proliferation and differentiation potential, iPS cells represent promising sources for cell therapy and tools for research and drug discovery. However, systems for the directional differentiation of iPS cells toward paraxial mesodermal lineages have not been reported. In the present study, we established a protocol for the differentiation of mouse iPS cells into paraxial mesodermal lineages in serum-free culture. The protocol was dependent on Activin signaling in addition to BMP and Wnt signaling which were previously shown to be effective for mouse ES cell differentiation. Independently of the cell origin, the number of transgenes, or the type of vectors used to generate iPS cells, the use of serum-free monolayer culture stimulated with a combination of BMP4, Activin A, and LiCl enabled preferential promotion of mouse iPS cells to a PDGFR-?(+)/Flk-1(-) population, which represents a paraxial mesodermal lineage. The mouse iPS cell-derived paraxial mesodermal cells exhibited differentiation potential into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic cells both in vitro and in vivo and contributed to muscle regeneration. Moreover, purification of the PDGFR-?(+)/KDR(-) population after differentiation allowed enrichment of human iPS cell populations with paraxial mesodermal characteristics. The resultant PDGFR-?(+)/KDR(-) population derived from human iPS cells specifically exhibited osteogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic differentiation potential in vitro, implying generation of paraxial mesodermal progenitors similar to mouse iPS cell-derived progenitors. These findings highlight the potential of protocols based on the serum-free, stepwise induction and purification of paraxial mesodermal cell lineages for use in stem cell therapies to treat diseased bone, cartilage, and muscle.
Project description:Somatic cells have been reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that recapitulate the pluripotent nature of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Reduced pluripotency and variable differentiation capacities have hampered progress with this technology for applications in regeneration medicine. We have previously shown that germ cell nuclear factor (Gcnf) is required for the repression of pluripotency genes during ES cell differentiation and embryonic development. Here we report that iPS cell lines, in which the Gcnf gene was properly reprogrammed, allowing expression of Gcnf, repress pluripotency genes during subsequent differentiation. In contrast, iPS clones in which the Gcnf gene was not reprogrammed maintained pluripotency gene expression during differentiation and did not differentiate properly either in vivo or in vitro. These mal-reprogrammed cells recapitulated the phenotype of Gcnf knockout (Gcnf(-/-)) ES cells. Reintroduction of Gcnf into either the Gcnf negative iPS cells or the Gcnf(-/-) ES cells rescued repression of Oct4 during differentiation. Our findings establish a key role for Gcnf as a regulator of iPS cell pluripotency gene expression. It also demonstrates that reactivation of the Gcnf gene may serve as a marker to distinguish completely reprogrammed iPS cells from incompletely pluripotent cells, which would make therapeutic use of iPS cells safer and more practical as it would reduce the oncogenic potential of iPS cells.
Project description:In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from somatic cells by introducing Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. The original process was inefficient; maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) and iPS cell cultures required an expensive reagent-leukemia induced factor (LIF). Our goal is to find a pure compound that not only maintains ES and iPS cell pluripotency, but also increases iPS cell generation efficiency. From 15 candidate compounds we determined that 10 µg/ml n-Butylidenephthalide (BP), an Angelica sinensis extract, triggers the up-regulation of Oct4 and Sox2 gene expression levels in MEF cells. We used ES and iPS cells treated with different concentrations of BP to test its usefulness for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Results indicate higher expression levels of several stem cell markers in BP-treated ES and iPS cells compared to controls that did not contain LIF, including alkaline phosphatase, SSEA1, and Nanog. Embryoid body formation and differentiation results confirm that BP containing medium culture was capable of maintaining ES cell pluripotency after six time passage. Microarray analysis data identified PPAR, ECM, and Jak-Stat signaling as the top three deregulated pathways. We subsequently determined that phosphorylated Jak2 and phosphorylated Stat3 protein levels increased following BP treatment and suppressed with the Jak2 inhibitor, AG490. The gene expression levels of cytokines associated with the Jak2-Stat3 pathway were also up-regulated. Last, we used pou5f1-GFP MEF cells to test iPS generation efficiency following BP treatment. Our data demonstrate the ability of BP to maintain stem cell pluripotency via the Jak2-Stat3 pathway by inducing cytokine expression levels, at the same time improving iPS generation efficiency.