Expression of class II histone deacetylases in two mouse models of temporal lobe epilepsy.
ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms like altered histone acetylation may have a crucial role in epileptogenesis. In two mouse models of temporal lobe epilepsy, we investigated changes in the expression of class II histone deacetylases (HDAC), a group of signal transducers that shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. Intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid (KA) induced a status epilepticus, development of spontaneous seizures (after 3 days), and finally chronic epilepsy and granule cell dispersion. Expression of class II HDAC mRNAs was investigated at different time intervals after KA injection in the granule cell layers and in sectors CA1 and CA3 contralateral to the site of KA injection lacking neurodegeneration. Increased expression of HDAC5 and 9 mRNAs coincided with pronounced granule cell dispersion in the KA-injected hippocampus at late intervals (14-28 days after KA) and equally affected both HDAC9 splice variants. In contrast, in the pilocarpine model (showing no granule cell dispersion), we observed decreases in the expression of HDAC5 and 9 at the same time intervals. Beyond this, striking similarities between both temporal lobe epilepsy models such as fast decreases in HDAC7 and 10 mRNAs during the acute status epilepticus were observed, notably also in the contralateral hippocampus not affected by neurodegeneration. The particular patterns of HDAC mRNA expression suggest a role in epileptogenesis and granule cell dispersion. Reduced expression of HDACs may result in increased expression of pro- and anticonvulsive proteins. On the other hand, export of HDACs from the nucleus into the cytoplasm could allow for deacetylation of cytoplasmatic proteins involved in axonal and dendritic remodeling, like granule cell dispersion. HDAC 5 and HDAC 9 expression is highly increased in granule cells of the KA-injected hippocampus and parallels granule cell dispersion. Both HDACs are thought to be targeted to the cytoplasm and to act there by deacetylating cytoplasmatic (e.g. cytosceleton-related) proteins.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that astrocytes may be a potential new target for the treatment of epilepsy. The glial water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in astrocytes, and along with the inwardly-rectifying K(+) channel K(ir)4.1 is thought to underlie the reuptake of H(2)O and K(+) into glial cells during neural activity. Previous studies have demonstrated increased seizure duration and slowed potassium kinetics in AQP4(-/-) mice, and redistribution of AQP4 in hippocampal specimens from patients with chronic epilepsy. However, the regulation and role of AQP4 during epileptogenesis remain to be defined. In this study, we examined the expression of AQP4 and other glial molecules (GFAP, K(ir)4.1, glutamine synthetase) in the intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) model of epilepsy and compared behavioral and histologic outcomes in wild-type mice vs. AQP4(-/-) mice. Marked and prolonged reduction in AQP4 immunoreactivity on both astrocytic fine processes and endfeet was observed following KA status epilepticus in multiple hippocampal layers. In addition, AQP4(-/-) mice had more spontaneous recurrent seizures than wild-type mice during the first week after KA SE as assessed by chronic video-EEG monitoring and blinded EEG analysis. While both genotypes exhibited similar reactive astrocytic changes, granule cell dispersion and CA1 pyramidal neuron loss, there were an increased number of fluorojade-positive cells early after KA SE in AQP4(-/-) mice. These results indicate a marked reduction of AQP4 following KA SE and suggest that dysregulation of water and potassium homeostasis occurs during early epileptogenesis. Restoration of astrocytic water and ion homeostasis may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.
Project description:TLX is a transcription factor that is essential for neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal. However, the molecular mechanism of TLX-mediated neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal is largely unknown. We show here that TLX recruits histone deacetylases (HDACs) to its downstream target genes to repress their transcription, which in turn regulates neural stem cell proliferation. TLX interacts with HDAC3 and HDAC5 in neural stem cells. The HDAC5-interaction domain was mapped to TLX residues 359-385, which contains a conserved nuclear receptor-coregulator interaction motif IXXLL. Both HDAC3 and HDAC5 have been shown to be recruited to the promoters of TLX target genes along with TLX in neural stem cells. Recruitment of HDACs led to transcriptional repression of TLX target genes, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(CIP1/WAF1)(p21), and the tumor suppressor gene, pten. Either inhibition of HDAC activity or knockdown of HDAC expression led to marked induction of p21 and pten gene expression and dramatically reduced neural stem cell proliferation, suggesting that the TLX-interacting HDACs play an important role in neural stem cell proliferation. Moreover, expression of a TLX peptide containing the minimal HDAC5 interaction domain disrupted the TLX-HDAC5 interaction. Disruption of this interaction led to significant induction of p21 and pten gene expression and to dramatic inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a mechanism for neural stem cell proliferation through transcriptional repression of p21 and pten gene expression by TLX-HDAC interactions.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The goal of the study was to investigate the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in adipocyte function associated with obesity and hypoxia.<h4>Methods</h4>Total proteins and RNA were prepared from human visceral adipose tissues (VAT) of human obese and normal weight subjects and from white adipose tissue (WAT) of C57Bl6-Rj mice fed a normal or high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. HDAC activity was measured by colorimetric assay whereas the gene and protein expression were monitored by real-time PCR and by western blotting, respectively. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to silence the expression of genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.<h4>Results</h4>Total HDAC activity was decreased in VAT and WAT from obese individuals and from mice fed a HFD, respectively. The HDAC activity reduction was associated with decreased <i>HDAC5</i>/<i>Hdac5</i> and <i>HDAC6</i>/<i>Hdac6</i> expression in human and mice adipocyte fraction. Similarly, hypoxia hampered total Hdac activity and reduced the expression of <i>Hdac5</i> and <i>Hdac6</i> in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The decrease of both <i>Hdac5</i> and <i>Hdac6</i> by hypoxia was associated with altered expression of adipokines and of the inducible cAMP early repressor (Icer), a key repressor that is defective in human and mice obesity. Silencing of Icer in adipocytes reproduced the changes in adipokine levels under hypoxia and obesity, suggesting a causative effect. Finally, modeling the defect of the two Hdacs in adipocytes by RNAi or selective inhibitors mimicked the effects of hypoxia on the expression of <i>Icer</i>, leading to impairment of insulin-induced glucose uptake.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Hdac5 and Hdac6 expression are required for the adequate expression of Icer and adipocyte function. Altered adipose expression of the two Hdacs in obesity by hypoxia may contribute to the development of metabolic abnormalities.
Project description:Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are very important for tissue specific gene regulation in development and pathology. Because class IIa HDAC catalytic activity is low, their exact molecular roles have not been fully elucidated. Studies have suggested that class IIa HDACs may serve as a scaffold to recruit the catalytically active class I HDAC complexes to their substrate. Here we directly address whether the class IIa HDAC, HDAC5 may function as a scaffold to recruit co-repressor complexes to promoters. We examined two well-characterized cardiac promoters, the sodium calcium exchanger (Ncx1) and the brain natriuretic peptide (Bnp) whose hypertrophic upregulation is mediated by both class I and IIa HDACs. Selective inhibition of class IIa HDACs did not prevent adrenergic stimulated Ncx1 upregulation, however HDAC5 knockout prevented pressure overload induced Ncx1 upregulation. Using the HDAC5((-/-)) mouse we show that HDAC5 is required for the interaction of the HDAC1/2/Sin3a co-repressor complexes with the Nkx2.5 and YY1 transcription factors and critical for recruitment of the HDAC1/Sin3a co-repressor complex to either the Ncx1 or Bnp promoter. Our novel findings support a non-canonical role of class IIa HDACs in the scaffolding of transcriptional regulatory complexes, which may be relevant for therapeutic intervention for pathologies.
Project description:To clarify the role of HDACs in erythropoiesis, expression, activity and function of class I (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3) and class IIa (HDAC4, HDAC5) HDACs during in vitro maturation of human erythroblasts were compared. During erythroid maturation, expression of HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 remained constant and activity and GATA1 association (its partner of the NuRD complex), of HDAC1 increased. By contrast, HDAC4 content drastically decreased and HDAC5 remained constant in content but decreased in activity. In erythroid cells, pull down experiments identified the presence of a novel complex formed by HDAC5, GATA1, EKLF and pERK which was instead undetectable in cells of the megakaryocytic lineage. With erythroid maturation, association among HDAC5, GATA1 and EKLF persisted but levels of pERK sharply decreased. Treatment of erythroleukemic cells with inhibitors of ERK phosphorylation reduced by >90% the total and nuclear content of HDAC5, GATA1 and EKLF, suggesting that ERK phosphorylation is required for the formation of this complex. Based on the function of class IIa HDACs as chaperones of other proteins to the nucleus and the erythroid-specificity of HDAC5 localization, this novel HDAC complex was named nuclear remodeling shuttle erythroid (NuRSERY). Exposure of erythroid cells to the class II-selective HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) APHA9 increased ?/(?+?) globin expression ratios (Mai et al., 2007), suggesting that NuRSERY may regulate globin gene expression. In agreement with this hypothesis, exposure of erythroid cells to APHA9 greatly reduced the association among HDAC5, GATA1 and EKLF. Since exposure to APHA9 did not affect survival rates or p21 activation, NuRSERY may represent a novel, possibly less toxic, target for epigenetic therapies of hemoglobinopaties and other disorders.
Project description:Granule cell dispersion (GCD) represents a pathological widening of the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus and it is frequently observed in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Recent studies in human MTLE specimens and in animal epilepsy models have shown that a decreased expression and functional inactivation of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin correlates with GCD formation, but causal evidence is still lacking. Here, we used unilateral kainate (KA) injection into the mouse hippocampus, an established MTLE animal model, to precisely map the loss of reelin mRNA-synthesizing neurons in relation to GCD along the septotemporal axis of the epileptic hippocampus. We show that reelin mRNA-producing neurons are mainly lost in the hilus and that this loss precisely correlates with the occurrence of GCD. To monitor GCD formation in real time, we used organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) prepared from mice which express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) primarily in differentiated dentate granule cells. Using life cell microscopy we observed that increasing doses of KA resulted in an enhanced motility of eGFP-positive granule cells. Moreover, KA treatment of OHSC resulted in a rapid loss of Reelin-producing interneurons mainly in the hilus, as observed in vivo. A detailed analysis of the migration behavior of individual eGFP-positive granule cells revealed that the majority of these neurons actively migrate toward the hilar region, where Reelin-producing neurons are lost. Treatment with KA and subsequent addition of the recombinant R3-6 Reelin fragment significantly prevented the movement of eGFP-positive granule cells. Together, these findings suggest that GCD formation is indeed triggered by a loss of Reelin in hilar interneurons.
Project description:Gene expression is in part controlled by chromatin remodeling factors and the acetylation state of nucleosomal histones. The latter process is regulated by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Previously, three human and five yeast HDAC enzymes had been identified. These can be categorized into two classes: the first class represented by yeast Rpd3-like proteins and the second by yeast Hda1-like proteins. Human HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 proteins are members of the first class, whereas no class II human HDAC proteins had been identified. The amino acid sequence of Hda1p was used to search the GenBank/expressed sequence tag databases to identify partial sequences from three putative class II human HDAC proteins. The corresponding full-length cDNAs were cloned and defined as HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC6. These proteins possess certain features present in the conserved catalytic domains of class I human HDACs, but also contain additional sequence domains. Interestingly, HDAC6 contains an internal duplication of two catalytic domains, which appear to function independently of each other. These class II HDAC proteins have differential mRNA expression in human tissues and possess in vitro HDAC activity that is inhibited by trichostatin A. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that these HDAC proteins are not components of the previously identified HDAC1 and HDAC2 NRD and mSin3A complexes. However, HDAC4 and HDAC5 associate with HDAC3 in vivo. This finding suggests that the human class II HDAC enzymes may function in cellular processes distinct from those of HDAC1 and HDAC2.
Project description:Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are critical transcriptional regulators, shuttling between nuclear and cytoplasmic cellular compartments. Within the nucleus, these HDACs repress transcription as components of multiprotein complexes, such as the nuclear corepressor and beclin-6 corepressor (BCoR) complexes. Cytoplasmic relocalization relieves this transcriptional repressive function. Class IIa HDAC shuttling is controlled, in part, by phosphorylations flanking the nuclear localization signal (NLS). Furthermore, we have reported that phosphorylation within the NLS by the kinase Aurora B modulates the localization and function of the class IIa HDAC5 during mitosis. While we identified numerous additional HDAC5 phosphorylations, their regulatory functions remain unknown. Here, we studied phosphorylation sites within functional HDAC5 domains, including the deacetylation domain (DAC, Ser755), nuclear export signal (NES, Ser1108), and an acidic domain (AD, Ser611). We have generated phosphomutant cell lines to investigate how absence of phosphorylation at these sites impacts HDAC5 localization, enzymatic activity, and protein interactions. Combining molecular biology and quantitative MS, we have defined the interactions and HDAC5-containing complexes mediated by site-specific phosphorylation and quantified selected changes using parallel reaction monitoring. These results expand the current understanding of HDAC regulation, and the functions of this critical family of proteins within human cells.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous cancer in which sorafenib is the only approved systemic therapy. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are commonly dysregulated in cancer and therefore represent promising targets for therapies, however their role in HCC pathogenesis is still unknown. We analyzed the expression of 11 HDACs in human HCCs and assessed the efficacy of the pan-HDAC inhibitor panobinostat alone and in combination with sorafenib in preclinical models of liver cancer.Gene expression and copy number changes were analyzed in a cohort of 334 human HCCs, while the effects of panobinostat and sorafenib were evaluated in three liver cancer cell lines and a murine xenograft model.Aberrant HDAC expression was identified and validated in 91 and 243 HCCs, respectively. Upregulation of HDAC3 and HDAC5 mRNAs was significantly correlated with DNA copy number gains. Inhibiting HDACs with panobinostat led to strong anti-tumoral effects in vitro and vivo, enhanced by the addition of sorafenib. Cell viability and proliferation declined, while apoptosis and autophagy increased. Panobinostat increased histone H3 and HSP90 acetylation, downregulated BIRC5 (survivin) and upregulated CDH1. Combination therapy with panobinostat and sorafenib significantly decreased vessel density, and most significantly decreased tumor volume and increased survival in HCC xenografts.Aberrant expression of several HDACs and copy number gains of HDAC3 and HDAC5 occur in HCC. Treatment with panobinostat combined with sorafenib demonstrated the highest preclinical efficacy in HCC models, providing the rationale for clinical studies with this novel combination.
Project description:The mechanisms by which brain insults lead to subsequent epilepsy remain unclear. Insults, including trauma, stroke, tumors, infections, and long seizures [status epilepticus (SE)], create a neuronal state of increased metabolic demand or decreased energy supply. Neurons express molecules that monitor their metabolic state, including sirtuins (Sirts). Sirtuins deacetylate cytoplasmic proteins and nuclear histones, and their epigenetic modulation of the chromatin governs the expression of many genes, influencing neuronal properties. Thus, sirtuins are poised to enduringly modulate neuronal properties following SE, potentially contributing to epileptogenesis, a hypothesis supported by the epilepsy-attenuating effects of blocking a downstream target of Sirt1, Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF) also know as REST (RE1-Silencing Transcription factor). Here we used an adult male rat model of epileptogenesis provoked by kainic acid-induced SE (KA-SE). We assessed KA-SE-provoked Sirt1 activity, infused a Sirt1 inhibitor (EX-527) after KA-SE, and examined for epileptogenesis using continuous digital video-EEG. Sirt1 activity, measured using chromatin immunoprecipitation for Sirt1 binding at a target gene, increased rapidly after SE. Post hoc infusion of the Sirt1 inhibitor prevented Sirt1-mediated repression of a target gene. Blocking Sirt1 activity transiently after KA-SE did not significantly influence the time- course and all of the parameters of epilepsy development. Specifically, latency to first seizure and seizure number, duration, and severity (using the Racine scale and EEG measures) as well as the frequency and duration of interictal spike series, were all unchanged. KA-SE provoked a robust inflammatory response and modest cell loss, yet neither was altered by blocking Sirt1. In conclusion, blocking Sirt1 activity after KA-SE does not abrogate epilepsy development, suggesting that the mechanisms of such acquired epileptogenesis are independent of Sirt1 function.