Postsynthesis of h-BN/Graphene Heterostructures Inside a STEM.
ABSTRACT: Combinations of 2D materials with different physical properties can form heterostructures with modified electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and optical properties. The direct observation of a lateral heterostructure synthesis is reported by epitaxial in-plane graphene growth from the step-edge of hexagonal BN (h-BN) within a scanning transmission electron microscope chamber. Residual hydrocarbon in the chamber is the carbon source. The growth interface between h-BN and graphene is atomically identified as largely N-C bonds. This postgrowth method can form graphene nanoribbons connecting two h-BN domains with different twisting angles, as well as isolated carbon islands with arbitrary shapes embedded in the h-BN layer. The electronic properties of the vertically stacked h-BN/graphene heterostructures are investigated by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Low-loss EELS analysis of the dielectric response suggests a robust coupling effect between the graphene and h-BN layers.
Project description:Stacking various two-dimensional atomic crystals is a feasible approach to creating unique multilayered van der Waals heterostructures with tailored properties. Herein for the first time, we present a controlled preparation of large-area h-BN/graphene heterostructures via a simple chemical deposition of h-BN layers on epitaxial graphene/SiC(0001). Van der Waals forces, which are responsible for the cohesion of the multilayer system, give rise to an abrupt interface without interdiffusion between graphene and h-BN, as shown by X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) and direct observation using scanning and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM/HRTEM). The electronic properties of graphene, such as the Dirac cone, remain intact and no significant charge transfer i.e. doping, is observed. These results are supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. We demonstrate that the h-BN capped graphene allows the fabrication of vdW heterostructures without altering the electronic properties of graphene.
Project description:Atomically sharp heterojunctions in lateral two-dimensional heterostructures can provide the narrowest one-dimensional functionalities driven by unusual interfacial electronic states. For instance, the highly controlled growth of patchworks of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) would be a potential platform to explore unknown electronic, thermal, spin or optoelectronic property. However, to date, the possible emergence of physical properties and functionalities monitored by the interfaces between metallic graphene and insulating h-BN remains largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate a blue emitting atomic-resolved heterojunction between graphene and h-BN. Such emission is tentatively attributed to localized energy states formed at the disordered boundaries of h-BN and graphene. The weak blue emission at the heterojunctions in simple in-plane heterostructures of h-BN and graphene can be enhanced by increasing the density of the interface in graphene quantum dots array embedded in the h-BN monolayer. This work suggests that the narrowest, atomically resolved heterojunctions of in-plane two-dimensional heterostructures provides a future playground for optoelectronics.
Project description:Van der Waals materials have received a great deal of attention for their exceptional layered structures and exotic properties, which can open up various device applications in nanoelectronics. However, in situ epitaxial growth of dissimilar van der Waals materials remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a solution for fabricating van der Waals heterostructures. Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructures were synthesized on cobalt substrates by using molecular beam epitaxy. Various characterizations were carried out to evaluate the heterostructures. Wafer-scale heterostructures consisting of single-layer/bilayer graphene and multilayer h-BN were achieved. The mismatch angle between graphene and h-BN is below 1°.
Project description:High-quality large-area graphene/h-BN vertical heterostructures are promising building blocks for many viable applications such as energy harvesting/conversion, electronics and optoelectronics. Here, we successfully grew high-quality large-area graphene/h-BN vertical heterostructures on Pt foils by one-batch low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). We obtained the high quality of about 200-µm-wide graphene/h-BN film having uniform layer thickness. Moreover, the obtained graphene/h-BN heterostructures exhibited field effect mobility of up to 7,200 cm2V-1s-1 at room temperature. These results suggest that such graphene/h-BN heterostructures on recyclable Pt foils grown by LPCVD are promising for high-performance graphene-based electronics.
Project description:The two-dimensional (2D) material graphene is highly promising for Hall sensors due to its potential of having high charge carrier mobility and low carrier concentration at room temperature. Here, we report the scalable batch-fabrication of magnetic Hall sensors on graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) using commercially available large area CVD grown materials. The all-CVD grown h-BN/graphene/h-BN van der Waals heterostructures were prepared by layer transfer technique and Hall sensors were batch-fabricated with 1D edge metal contacts. The current-related Hall sensitivities up to 97 V/AT are measured at room temperature. The Hall sensors showed robust performance over the wafer scale with stable characteristics over six months in ambient environment. This work opens avenues for further development of growth and fabrication technologies of all-CVD 2D material heterostructures and allows further improvements in Hall sensor performance for practical applications.
Project description:New class of ternary nanohetrostructures have been proposed by mixing 2D gallium nitride (GaN) with graphene and 2D hexagonal boron nitride (BN) with an aim towards desgining innovative 2D materials for applications in electronics and other industries. The structural stability and electronic properties of these nanoheterostructures have been analyzed using first-principles based calculations done in the framework of density functional theory. Different structure patterns have been analyzed to identify the most stable structures. It is found to be more energetically favorable that the carbon atoms occupy the positions of the nitrogen atoms in a clustered pattern in CC-GaN heterostructures, whereas boron doping is preferred in the reverse order, where isolated BN and GaN layered configurations are preferred in BN-GaN heterostructures. These 2D nanoheterostructures are energetically favored materials with direct band gap and have potential application in nanoscale semiconducting and nanoscale optoelectronic devices.
Project description:Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a powerful technique for investigating lattice dynamics of nanoscale systems including graphene and small molecules, but establishing a stable tunnel junction is considered as a major hurdle in expanding the scope of tunneling experiments. Hexagonal boron nitride is a pivotal component in two-dimensional Van der Waals heterostructures as a high-quality insulating material due to its large energy gap and chemical-mechanical stability. Here we present planar graphene/h-BN-heterostructure tunneling devices utilizing thin h-BN as a tunneling insulator. With much improved h-BN-tunneling-junction stability, we are able to probe all possible phonon modes of h-BN and graphite/graphene at ? and K high symmetry points by inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. Additionally, we observe that low-frequency out-of-plane vibrations of h-BN and graphene lattices are significantly modified at heterostructure interfaces. Equipped with an external back gate, we can also detect high-order coupling phenomena between phonons and plasmons, demonstrating that h-BN-based tunneling device is a wonderful playground for investigating electron-phonon couplings in low-dimensional systems.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) materials and their corresponding van der Waals heterostructures have drawn tremendous interest due to their extraordinary electrical and optoelectronic properties. Insulating 2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with an atomically smooth surface has been widely used as a passivation layer to improve carrier transport for other 2D materials, especially for Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs). However, heat flow at the interface between TMDCs and h-BN, which will play an important role in thermal management of various electronic and optoelectronic devices, is not yet understood. In this paper, for the first time, the interface thermal conductance (G) at the MoS<sub>2</sub>/h-BN interface is measured by Raman spectroscopy, and the room-temperature value is (17.0?±?0.4) MW?·?m<sup>-2</sup>K<sup>-1</sup>. For comparison, G between graphene and h-BN is also measured, with a value of (52.2?±?2.1) MW?·?m<sup>-2</sup>K<sup>-1</sup>. Non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) calculations, from which the phonon transmission spectrum can be obtained, show that the lower G at the MoS<sub>2</sub>/h-BN interface is due to the weaker cross-plane transmission of phonon modes compared to graphene/h-BN. This study demonstrates that the MoS<sub>2</sub>/h-BN interface limits cross-plane heat dissipation, and thereby could impact the design and applications of 2D devices while considering critical thermal management.
Project description:The thermoelectric voltage generated at an atomically abrupt interface has not been studied exclusively because of the lack of established measurement tools and techniques. Atomically thin 2D materials provide an excellent platform for studying the thermoelectric transport at these interfaces. Here, we report a novel technique and device structure to probe the thermoelectric transport across Au/h-BN/graphene heterostructures. An indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrical heater is patterned on top of this heterostructure, enabling Raman spectroscopy and thermometry to be obtained from the graphene top electrode in situ under device operating conditions. Here, an AC voltage V(?) is applied to the ITO heater and the thermoelectric voltage across the Au/h-BN/graphene heterostructure is measured at 2? using a lock-in amplifier. We report the Seebeck coefficient for our thermoelectric structure to be -215 ?V/K. The Au/graphene/h-BN heterostructures enable us to explore thermoelectric and thermal transport on nanometer length scales in a regime of extremely short length scales. The thermoelectric voltage generated at the graphene/h-BN interface is due to thermionic emission rather than bulk diffusive transport. As such, this should be thought of as an interfacial Seebeck coefficient rather than a Seebeck coefficient of the constituent materials.
Project description:Heterostructures receive intensive attentions due to their excellent intrinsic properties and wide applications. Here, we investigate the natural physical properties and performances of strain BN-MS2 (M?=?Mo, W) heterostructure by density functional theory. Different to compressive monolayer MS2, corresponding BN-MS2 heterostructures keep direct band-gap characters because effects of charge transfer on anti-bonding dz2 orbitals are stronger than those of Poisson effect. Mexican-hat-like bands without magnetic moments are observed at strain BN-MS2 heterostructures when the compression is enough. Consequently, electron mobilities of strain BN-MS2 heterostructures are slightly reduced at first and then enlarged with increasing compressive strain. Note that, strain BN-MS2 heterostructures reduce the band edges of MS2 layers and extend their application in photocatalytic water splitting. But just the n-type and p-type Schottky barriers of devices with strain BN-MS2 heterostructures are reduced and even vanished with the increasing tensile and compressive, respectively. Besides, electron mobilities of strain BN-MoS2 and BN-WS2 heterostructures can be enhanced to 1290 and 1926?cm2??V?-1?s-1, respectively, with increasing tensile strain. Interestingly, the exciton binding energies of strain BN-MS2 heterostructures exhibit oscillation variations, different to those of strain monolayer MS2.