KLHL12 Promotes Non-Lysine Ubiquitination of the Dopamine Receptors D4.2 and D4.4, but Not of the ADHD-Associated D4.7 Variant.
ABSTRACT: DOPAMINE D4 RECEPTOR POLYMORPHISM:The dopamine D4 receptor has an important polymorphism in its third intracellular loop that is intensively studied and has been associated with several abnormal conditions, among others, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. KLHL12 PROMOTES UBIQUITINATION OF THE DOPAMINE D4 RECEPTOR ON NON-LYSINE RESIDUES:In previous studies we have shown that KLHL12, a BTB-Kelch protein, specifically interacts with the polymorphic repeats of the dopamine D4 receptor and enhances its ubiquitination, which, however, has no influence on receptor degradation. In this study we provide evidence that KLHL12 promotes ubiquitination of the dopamine D4 receptor on non-lysine residues. By using lysine-deficient receptor mutants and chemical approaches we concluded that ubiquitination on cysteine, serine and/or threonine is possible. DIFFERENTIAL UBIQUITINATION OF THE DOPAMINE D4 RECEPTOR POLYMORPHIC VARIANTS:Additionally, we show that the dopamine D4.7 receptor variant, which is associated with a predisposition to develop attention deficient hyperactivity disorder, is differentially ubiquitinated compared to the other common receptor variants D4.2 and D4.4. Together, our study suggests that GPCR ubiquitination is a complex and variable process.
Project description:1. This study was undertaken to elucidate dopaminergic mechanisms underlying bladder hyperactivity in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by a unilateral 6-OHDA injection into the substantia nigra pars compacta. 2. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, voided volume per micturition (0.41+/-0.04 ml, mean+/-s.e.m.) measured during 24 h in a metabolic cage was significantly smaller than in sham-operated rats (0.67+/-0.07 ml). 3. Cystrometrograms (CMG) in conscious animals revealed significantly smaller bladder capacity (BC) (0.46+/-0.03 ml) in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats than in sham rats (0.72+/-0.06 ml). 4. SKF38393 (D1/D5 receptor agonist, i.v.) significantly increased BC in 6-OHDA rats without apparent effects in sham rats. SKF38393 applied intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) under urethane anesthesia also increased BC in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats and by a smaller increment in sham rats. 5. In contrast, quinpirole (D2/D3/D4 receptor agonist, i.v.) significantly reduced BC in sham and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Intrathecal injection of quinpirole similarly reduced BC in sham and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. 6. PD128907 (D(3)-receptor agonist) did not have significant effects on BC in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. 7. These results indicate that a rat model of PD exhibited bladder hyperactivity as observed in patients with PD, and that stimulation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors at a supraspinal site can suppress bladder hyperactivity in PD, whereas stimulation of D2/D4, but not D3, dopamine receptors had the opposite effect to reduce bladder capacity. Thus, D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonists might be effective in treating neurogenic bladder hyperactivity in PD.
Project description:Why do humans cooperate and often punish norm violations of others? In the present study, we sought to investigate the genetic bases of altruistic punishment (AP), which refers to the costly punishment of norm violations with potential benefit for other individuals. Recent evidence suggests that norm violations and unfairness are indexed by the feedback-related negativity (FRN), an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) generated neural response to expectancy violations. Given evidence on the role of serotonin and dopamine in AP as well as in FRN-generation, we explored the impact of genetic variation of serotonin and dopamine function on FRN and AP behavior in response to unfair vs. fair monetary offers in a Dictator Game (DG) with punishment option. In a sample of 45 healthy participants we observed larger FRN amplitudes to unfair DG assignments both for 7-repeat allele carriers of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) exon III polymorphism and for l/l-genotype carriers of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLRP). Moreover, 5-HTTLPR l/l-genotype carriers punished unfair offers more strongly. These findings support the role of serotonin and dopamine in AP, potentially via their influence on neural mechanisms implicated in the monitoring of expectancy violations and their relation to impulsive and punishment behavior.
Project description:Genetic variation may influence initial sensitivity to nicotine (i.e. during early tobacco exposure), perhaps helping to explain differential vulnerability to nicotine dependence. This study explored associations of functional candidate gene polymorphisms with initial sensitivity to nicotine in 101 young adult nonsmokers of European ancestry. Nicotine (0, 5, 10 microg/kg) was administered through nasal spray followed by mood, nicotine reward (e.g. 'liking') and perception (e.g. 'feel effects') measures, physiological responses, sensory processing (prepulse inhibition of startle), and performance tasks. Nicotine reinforcement was assessed in a separate session using a nicotine versus placebo spray choice procedure. For the dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR)], presence of the 7-repeat allele was associated with greater aversive responses to nicotine (decreases in 'vigor', positive affect, and rapid information processing; increased cortisol) and reduced nicotine choice. Individuals with at least one DRD4 7-repeat allele also reported increased 'feel effects' and greater startle response, but in men only. Other genetic associations were also observed in men but not women, such as greater 'feel effects' and anger, and reduced fatigue, in the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 C957T single nucleotide polymorphism) TT versus CT or CC genotypes. Very few or no significant associations were seen for the DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism, the serotonin transporter promoter VNTR or 5HTTLPR (SLC6A4), the dopamine transporter 3' VNTR (SLC6A3), and the mu opioid receptor A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (mu opioid receptor polymorphism 1). Although these results are preliminary, this study is the first to suggest that genetic polymorphisms related to function in the dopamine D4, and perhaps D2, receptor may modulate initial sensitivity to nicotine before the onset of dependence and may do so differentially between men and women.
Project description:Dopamine hypotheses of several psychiatric disorders are based upon the clinical benefits of drugs affecting dopamine transporter or receptors, and have prompted intensive candidate gene research within the dopaminergic system during the last two decades. The aim of this review is to survey the most important findings concerning dopaminergic gene polymorphisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette syndrome (TS), obsessive compulsive disorder, and substance abuse. Also, genetic findings of related phenotypes, such as inattention, impulsivity, aggressive behavior, and novelty seeking personality trait are presented, because recent studies have applied quantitative trait measures using questionnaires, symptom scales, or other objective endophenotypes. Unfortunately, genetic variants with minor effects are problematic to detect in these complex inheritance disorders, often leading to contradictory results. The most consistent association findings relate to ADHD and the dopamine transporter and the dopamine D4 receptor genes. Meta-analyses also support the association between substance abuse and the D2 receptor gene. The dopamine catabolizing enzyme genes, such as monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes, have been linked to aggressive behaviors.
Project description:Associations of the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both the personality trait of novelty seeking and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder have been reported. Recently, on the basis of the unusual DNA sequence organization of the DRD4 7R 48-bp tandem repeat (VNTR), we proposed that the 7R allele originated as a rare mutational event that increased to high frequency by positive selection. We now have resequenced the entire DRD4 locus from 103 individuals homozygous for 2R, 4R, or 7R variants of the VNTR, a method developed to directly estimate haplotype diversity. DNA from individuals of African, European, Asian, North and South American, and Pacific Island ancestry were used. 4R/4R homozygotes exhibit little linkage disequilibrium (LD) over the region examined, with more polymorphisms observed in DNA samples from African individuals. In contrast, the evidence for strong LD surrounding the 7R allele is dramatic, with all 7R/7R individuals (including those from Africa) exhibiting the same alleles at most polymorphic sites. By intra-allelic comparison at 18 high-heterozygosity sites spanning the locus, we estimate that the 7R allele arose prior to the upper Paleolithic era (approximately 40000-50000 years ago). Further, the pattern of recombination at these polymorphic sites is the pattern expected for selection acting at the 7R VNTR itself, rather than at an adjacent site. We propose a model for selection at the DRD4 locus consistent with these observed LD patterns and with the known biochemical and physiological differences between receptor variants.
Project description:Despite intense interest in expanding chemical space, libraries containing hundreds-of-millions to billions of diverse molecules have remained inaccessible. Here we investigate structure-based docking of 170 million make-on-demand compounds from 130 well-characterized reactions. The resulting library is diverse, representing over 10.7 million scaffolds that are otherwise unavailable. For each compound in the library, docking against AmpC ?-lactamase (AmpC) and the D4 dopamine receptor were simulated. From the top-ranking molecules, 44 and 549 compounds were synthesized and tested for interactions with AmpC and the D4 dopamine receptor, respectively. We found a phenolate inhibitor of AmpC, which revealed a group of inhibitors without known precedent. This molecule was optimized to 77 nM, which places it among the most potent non-covalent AmpC inhibitors known. Crystal structures of this and other AmpC inhibitors confirmed the docking predictions. Against the D4 dopamine receptor, hit rates fell almost monotonically with docking score, and a hit-rate versus score curve predicted that the library contained 453,000 ligands for the D4 dopamine receptor. Of 81 new chemotypes discovered, 30 showed submicromolar activity, including a 180-pM subtype-selective agonist of the D4 dopamine receptor.
Project description:There are no objective, biological markers that can robustly predict methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study aimed to examine whether applying machine learning approaches to pretreatment demographic, clinical questionnaire, environmental, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and genetic information can predict therapeutic response following methylphenidate administration.The present study included 83 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder youth. At baseline, parents completed the ADHD Rating Scale-IV and Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale, and participants undertook the continuous performance test, Stroop color word test, and resting-state functional MRI scans. The dopamine transporter gene, dopamine D4 receptor gene, alpha-2A adrenergic receptor gene (ADRA2A) and norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphisms, and blood lead and urine cotinine levels were also measured. The participants were enrolled in an 8-week, open-label trial of methylphenidate. Four different machine learning algorithms were used for data analysis.Support vector machine classification accuracy was 84.6% (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.84) for predicting methylphenidate response. The age, weight, ADRA2A MspI and DraI polymorphisms, lead level, Stroop color word test performance, and oppositional symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Disorder rating scale were identified as the most differentiating subset of features.Our results provide preliminary support to the translational development of support vector machine as an informative method that can assist in predicting treatment response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, though further work is required to provide enhanced levels of classification performance.
Project description:The G?i/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all G?i/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and ? arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ? D2SR ? D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the G?i/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with G?i2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR >> D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic ?2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays.
Project description:Polymorphic variants of the dopamine D(4) receptor have been consistently associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the functional significance of the risk polymorphism (variable number of tandem repeats in exon 3) is still unclear. Here, we show that whereas the most frequent 4-repeat (D(4.4)) and the 2-repeat (D(4.2)) variants form functional heteromers with the short isoform of the dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2S)), the 7-repeat risk allele (D(4.7)) does not. D(2) receptor activation in the D(2S)-D(4) receptor heteromer potentiates D(4) receptor-mediated MAPK signaling in transfected cells and in the striatum, which did not occur in cells expressing D(4.7) or in the striatum of knockin mutant mice carrying the 7 repeats of the human D(4.7) in the third intracellular loop of the D(4) receptor. In the striatum, D(4) receptors are localized in corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals, where they selectively modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by interacting with D(2S) receptors. This interaction shows the same qualitative characteristics than the D(2S)-D(4) receptor heteromer-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and D(2S) receptor activation potentiates D(4) receptor-mediated inhibition of striatal glutamate release. It is therefore postulated that dysfunctional D(2S)-D(4.7) heteromers may impair presynaptic dopaminergic control of corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission and explain functional deficits associated with ADHD.
Project description:Associations have been reported of the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the personality trait of novelty seeking. This polymorphism occurs in a 48-bp tandem repeat in the coding region of DRD4, with the most common allele containing four repeats (4R) and rarer variants containing 2-11. Here we show by DNA resequencing/haplotyping of 600 DRD4 alleles, representing a worldwide population sample, that the origin of 2R-6R alleles can be explained by simple one-step recombination/mutation events. In contrast, the 7R allele is not simply related to the other common alleles, differing by greater than six recombinations/mutations. Strong linkage disequilibrium was found between the 7R allele and surrounding DRD4 polymorphisms, suggesting that this allele is at least 5-10-fold "younger" than the common 4R allele. Based on an observed bias toward nonsynonymous amino acid changes, the unusual DNA sequence organization, and the strong linkage disequilibrium surrounding the DRD4 7R allele, we propose that this allele originated as a rare mutational event that nevertheless increased to high frequency in human populations by positive selection.