Anti-?-enolase is a prognostic marker in postoperative lung cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: Our previous studies suggest that antibodies against ENO1 (anti-ENO1 Ab) have a protective role in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of anti-ENO1 Ab levels in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients undergoing surgery. Circulating levels of anti-ENO1 Ab were assessed in 85 non-small cell lung carcinoma patients before and after surgery, and were correlated with clinical outcome. After surgery, patients with a higher increase of anti-ENO1 Ab had a lower hazard ratio and a better progression-free survival. Using animal models, we demonstrated that tumor cells reduce the circulating levels of anti-ENO1 Ab through physical absorption and neutralization of anti-ENO1 Ab with surface-expressed and secreted ENO1, respectively. Mice transplanted with ENO1-overexpressing tumors generated ENO1-specific regulatory T cells to suppress the production of anti-ENO1 Ab. Our results suggest that the increase of anti-ENO1 Ab may reflect anti-tumor immune responses and serve as a prognostic marker in postoperative lung cancer patients.
Project description:Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy characterized by rapid progression, invasiveness and resistance to treatment. We have previously demonstrated that most PDAC patients have circulating antibodies against the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1), which correlates with a better response to therapy and survival. ENO1 is a metabolic enzyme, also expressed on the cell surface where it acts as a plasminogen receptor. ENO1 play a crucial role in cell invasion and metastasis by promoting plasminogen activation into plasmin, a serine-protease involved in extracellular matrix degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ENO1 in PDAC cell invasion. We observed that ENO1 was expressed on the cell surface of most PDAC cell lines. Mouse anti-human ENO1 monoclonal antibodies inhibited plasminogen-dependent invasion of human PDAC cells, and their metastatic spreading in immunosuppressed mice was inhibited. Notably, a single administration of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)-expressing cDNA coding for 72/1 anti-ENO1 mAb reduced the number of lung metastases in immunosuppressed mice injected with PDAC cells. Overall, these data indicate that ENO1 is involved in PDAC cell invasion, and that administration of an anti-ENO1 mAb can be exploited as a novel therapeutic option to increase the survival of metastatic PDAC patients.
Project description:Bone marrow plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) promote tumor growth, survival, drug resistance, and immune suppression. Understanding the molecular signaling crosstalk among the tumor cells, pDCs and immune cells will identify novel therapeutic approaches to enhance anti-MM immunity. Using oligonucleotide arrays, we found that pDC-MM interactions induce metabolic enzyme Alpha-Enolase (ENO1) in both pDCs and MM cells. Analysis of MM patient gene expression profiling database showed that ENO1 expression inversely correlates with overall survival. Protein expression analysis showed that ENO1 is expressed in pDC and MM cells; and importantly, that pDC-MM coculture further increases ENO1 expression in both MM cells and pDCs. Using our coculture models of patient autologous pDC-T-NK-MM cells, we examined whether targeting ENO1 can enhance anti-MM immunity. Biochemical inhibition of ENO1 with ENO1 inhibitor (ENO1i) activates pDCs, as well as increases pDC-induced MM-specific CD8+ CTL and NK cell activity against autologous tumor cells. Combination of ENO1i and anti-PD-L1 Ab or HDAC6i ACY-241 enhances autologous MM-specific CD8+ CTL activity. Our preclinical data therefore provide the basis for novel immune-based therapeutic approaches targeting ENO1, alone or in combination with anti-PD-L1 Ab or ACY241, to restore anti-MM immunity, enhance MM cytotoxicity, and improve patient outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is quite disappointing and the benefits of adjuvant therapy are relatively small. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Lung adenocarcinoma has distinct clinical-pathological characteristics and novel therapeutic strategies are under active evaluation in the adjuvant setting. Here, we investigated the prognostic impact of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and gene and miRNA tissue expression in resectable NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We assessed the association between CTC subpopulations and the outcome of resected early stage lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients at three different time-points (CTC1-3) (before surgery, after one month, and after six months) in comparison to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Furthermore, gene and miRNA tissue expression, immunoprofiling, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were correlated with outcome. RESULTS:ADC (n = 47) and SCC (n = 50) revealed different tissue expression profiles, resulting in the presence of different CTC subpopulations. In ADC, miR-155 correlated with AXL and IL6R expression, which were related to the presence of EMT CTC1 (p = 0.014 and p = 0.004). In the multivariate analysis, CTC2 was an independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival, and CTC3 and AXL were independent prognostic for overall survival only in ADC. Neither the surgery nor the adjuvant treatment influenced the prognosis of these patients. CONCLUSIONS:Our study elucidate the prognostic impact of tissue AXL expression and the presence of CTCs after surgery in adenocarcinoma patients. Tissue AXL expression and CTC EMT activation could potentially represent biomarkers for the stratification of ADC patients that might benefit from new adjuvant therapies.
Project description:Background:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy with high incidence rate and poor prognosis. Enolase-1 (ENO1), a key glycolytic enzyme, has been implicated in the tumorigenesis of various cancers. However, its diagnostic value and clinical significance in HCC are unclear. Methods:Data of 374 HCC tissues and 50 nontumor tissues were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, and the expression level of ENO1 mRNA in HCC was evaluated. In addition, a meta-analysis of 12 HCC cohorts deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus database was conducted to determine ENO1 expression levels. The diagnostic power of ENO1 in distinguishing HCC tissues from non-HCC tissues was confirmed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A tissue microarray comprising 93 HCC specimens and 87 adjacent normal specimens was used to validate ENO1 expression, and its prognostic value in HCC was ascertained by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models. In addition, the gene set enrichment analysis was performed to predict the molecular mechanism of ENO1 action in HCC. Results:ENO1 was overexpressed in HCC tissues and associated with worse outcomes in terms of overall survival (OS) (P<0.01) and disease-free survival (P<0.01). ENO1 expression (P<0.01) was an independent prognostic variable for the OS of HCC patients. Moreover, as per the ROC curve analysis, it had good diagnostic power as well. In addition, elevated expression of ENO1 was significantly correlated with the cell cycle and DNA replication pathway, consistent with its association with pro-proliferative genes such as MKI67, PCNA, CDK4, CDK2, and MELK. Conclusion:ENO1 was markedly upregulated and was an oncogene-associated protein in HCC. It is a promising prognostic and diagnostic biomarker for HCC.
Project description:This study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms of genes involved in glycolysis are associated with the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection. Forty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 17 genes in glycolytic pathway were investigated in a total of 782 patients with NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Among the 44 SNPs investigated, four SNPs (ENO1 rs2274971A?>?G, PFKM rs11168417C?>?T, PFKP rs1132173C?>?T, PDK2 rs3785921G?>?A) were significantly associated with survival outcomes in multivariate analyses. When stratified by tumor histology, three SNPs (ENO1 rs2274971A?>?G, PFKM rs11168417C?>?T, and PDK2 rs3785921G?>?A) were significantly associated with OS and/or DFS only in squamous cell carcinoma, whereas PFKP rs1132173C?>?T exhibited a significant association with survival outcomes only in adenocarcinoma. When the four SNPs were combined, OS and DFS decreased as the number of bad genotypes increased (Ptrend?=?8?×?10-4 and 3?×?10-5, respectively). Promoter assays showed that ENO1 rs2274971G allele had significantly higher promoter activity compared to the rs2274971A allele. The four SNPs, especially ENO1 rs2274971A?>?G, may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in patients with surgically resected NSCLC.
Project description:Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a very aggressive tumor for which effective therapeutical strategies are still lacking. Globally, the 5 y survival rate is 5-7% and surgery is the only potentially curative treatment. Immunotherapy represents a novel possibility for treating PDA, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which are increased in cancer patients and correlate with metastatic burden and cancer stage, offer a new target in cancer therapy. We have previously shown that antibodies against the PDA-associated antigen ?-enolase (ENO1) are detected in more than 60% of PDA patients and correlate with a better prognosis. Furthermore, ENO1-DNA vaccination in mice induced anti-ENO1 antibodies that mediated antitumor activity. In this study, the effects of anti-ENO1 binding on MDSC functions and on the T cell response were evaluated. Here, we show that MDSC express ENO1 on their surface, which increased after LPS stimulation. Moreover, anti-ENO1 mAb inhibited adhesion to endothelial cells, as well as in vitro and in vivo migration. Similarly, after ENO1 mAb treatment of MDSC, arginase activity decreased, while the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (particularly IL-6) increased, and co-stimulatory molecule expression and suppression functions were only partially affected. Finally, we found that activated T cells in the presence of anti-ENO1 mAb-treated MDSC increased IFN? and IL-17 secretion and decreased IL-10 and TGF? secretion compared to control MDSC. In conclusion, anti-ENO1 antibodies may inhibit in vivo the infiltration into the tumor microenvironment of MDSC, and attenuate their restraining of effector T cell response, opening a new perspective to render PDA immunotherapy more effective.
Project description:Iron-loaded tumor-associated macrophages (iTAMs) show a pro-inflammatory phenotype, hallmarked by anti-tumorigenic activity and an ability to attenuate tumor growth. Here we explored the relevance of these findings in lung cancer patients by investigating the impact of the iTAM content in the tumor microenvironment (TME) on patient survival. We analyzed 102 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) paraffin-embedded archival tissue samples for iron levels and macrophage numbers. Interestingly, patients with lung adenocarcinoma accumulating iron in the TME show higher numbers of M1-like pro-inflammatory TAMs and a survival advantage compared to iron-negative patients. By contrast, in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma iron in the TME does not affect survival, suggesting a unique influence of iron on different histological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conclude that in lung adenocarcinoma iron may serve as a prognostic marker for patient survival and as a potential therapeutic target for anti-cancer therapy.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the primary cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a low 5-year survival rate even in fully resected early-stage disease. Novel biomarkers to identify patients at higher risk of relapse are needed. We studied the prognostic value of 84 circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in 182 patients with resected early-stage NSCLC (99 adenocarcinoma (ADC), 83 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) from whom peripheral blood samples were collected pre-surgery. miRNA expression was analyzed in relation to disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In univariable analyses, five miRNAs (miR-26a-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-130b-3p, miR-205-5p, and miR-21-5p) were significantly associated with DFS in SCC, and four (miR-130b-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-126-3p, and miR-205-5p) remained significantly associated with OS. In ADC, miR-222-3p, miR-22-3p, and mir-93-5p were significantly associated with DFS, miR-22-3p remaining significant for OS. Given the high-dimensionality of the dataset, multivariable models were obtained using a regularized Cox regression including all miRNAs and clinical covariates. After adjustment for disease stage, only miR-126-3p showed an independent prognostic role, with higher values associated with longer DFS in SCC patients. With regard to ADC and OS, no miRNA remained significant in multivariable analysis. Further investigation into the role of miR-126 as a prognostic marker in early-stage NSCLC is warranted.
Project description:Objective:This study aimed to investigate the diagnosis and prediction of serum platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) level in patients with lung cancer (LC). Methods:Serum concentrations of PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB/BB were determined via Luminex assay in 210 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 33 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and 168 healthy controls. Results:The serum levels of PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB/BB were lower in patients with NSCLC (P < 0.05) and SCLC (P < 0.05), compared to healthy controls. The concentration of PDGF-AA or PDGF-AB/BB continued to markedly decrease in NSCLC after therapy with platinum-based chemotherapy (P < 0.05). The median survival times were 29 and 38 months in patients with NSCLC who received PDGF-AA < 30 ng/mL and PDGF-AA ? 30 ng/mL (P = 0.0078), and 26 and 38 months in patients with NSCLC who received PDGF-AB/BB < 42 ng/mL and PDGF-AB/BB ? 42 ng/mL (P = 0.0001), respectively. At the individual protein level, PDGF-AA and PDGF-AB/BB had better diagnostic values for NSCLC (AUC = 0.905, AUC = 0.922, respectively). Conclusion:Serum PDGF may be a potential biomarker for diagnosis of patients with NSCLC and SCLC. However, the prognostic value of serum PDGF in patients with NSCLC harboring mutations and different therapies requires additional investigation.
Project description:Accurate assessment of a patient's risk of recurrence and treatment response is an important prerequisite of personalized therapy in lung cancer. This study extends a previously described non-small cell lung cancer prognostic model by the addition of chemotherapy and co-morbidities through the use of linked SEER-Medicare data.Data on 34,203 lung adenocarcinoma and 26,967 squamous cell lung carcinoma patients were used to determine the contribution of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) to prognostication in 30 treatment combinations. A Cox model including COPD was estimated on 1,000 bootstrap samples, with the resulting model assessed on ROC, Brier Score, Harrell's C, and Nagelkerke's R2 metrics in order to evaluate improvements in prognostication over a model without COPD. The addition of COPD to the model incorporating cancer stage, age, gender, race, and tumor grade was shown to improve prognostication in multiple patient groups. For lung adenocarcinoma patients, there was an improvement on the prognostication in the overall patient population and in patients without receiving chemotherapy, including those receiving surgery only. For squamous cell carcinoma, an improvement on prognostication was seen in both the overall patient population and in patients receiving multiple types of chemotherapy. COPD condition was able to stratify patients receiving the same treatments into significantly (log-rank p<0.05) different prognostic groups, independent of cancer stage.Combining patient information on COPD, cancer stage, age, gender, race, and tumor grade could improve prognostication and prediction of treatment response in individual non-small cell lung cancer patients. This model enables refined prognosis and estimation of clinical outcome of comprehensive treatment regimens, providing a useful tool for personalized clinical decision-making.