Sur8/Shoc2 promotes cell motility and metastasis through activation of Ras-PI3K signaling.
ABSTRACT: Sur8 (also known as Shoc2) is a Ras-Raf scaffold protein that modulates signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Although Sur8 has been shown to be a scaffold protein of the Ras-ERK pathway, its interaction with other signaling pathways and its involvement in tumor malignancy has not been reported. We identified that Sur8 interacts with the p110? subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as well as with Ras and Raf, and these interactions are increased in an epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and oncogenic Ras-dependent manner. Sur8 regulates cell migration and invasion via activation of Rac and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Interestingly, using inhibitors of MEK and PI3K we found Sur8 mediates these cellular behaviors predominantly through PI3K pathway. We further found that human metastatic melanoma tissues had higher Sur8 content followed by activations of Akt, ERK, and Rac. Lentivirus-mediated Sur8-knockdown attenuated metastatic potential of highly invasive B16-F10 melanoma cells indicating the role of Sur8 in melanoma metastasis. This is the first report to identify the role of scaffold protein Sur8 in regulating cell motility, invasion, and metastasis through activation of both ERK and PI3K pathways.
Project description:Shoc2/SUR-8 positively regulates Ras/ERK MAP kinase signaling by serving as a scaffold for Ras and Raf. Here, we examined the role of Shoc2 in the spatio-temporal regulation of Ras by using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor, together with computational modeling. In epidermal growth factor-stimulated HeLa cells, RNA-mediated Shoc2 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation of MEK and ERK with half-maximal inhibition, but not the activation of Ras. For the live monitoring of Ras binding to Raf, we utilized a FRET biosensor wherein Ras and the Ras-binding domain of Raf were connected tandemly and sandwiched with acceptor and donor fluorescent proteins for the FRET measurement. With this biosensor, we found that Shoc2 was required for the rapid interaction of Ras with Raf upon epidermal growth factor stimulation. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying the kinetics, we developed two computational models that might account for the action of Shoc2 in the Ras-ERK signaling. One of these models, the Shoc2 accelerator model, provided a reasonable explanation of the experimental observations. In this Shoc2 accelerator model, Shoc2 accelerated both the association and dissociation of Ras-Raf interaction. We propose that Shoc2 regulates the spatio-temporal patterns of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway primarily by accelerating the Ras-Raf interaction.
Project description:Despite the crucial role of RAF kinases in cell signaling and disease, we still lack a complete understanding of their regulation. Heterodimerization of RAF kinases as well as dephosphorylation of a conserved "S259" inhibitory site are important steps for RAF activation but the precise mechanisms and dynamics remain unclear. A ternary complex comprised of SHOC2, MRAS, and PP1 (SHOC2 complex) functions as a RAF S259 holophosphatase and gain-of-function mutations in SHOC2, MRAS, and PP1 that promote complex formation are found in Noonan syndrome. Here we show that SHOC2 complex-mediated S259 RAF dephosphorylation is critically required for growth factor-induced RAF heterodimerization as well as for MEK dissociation from BRAF. We also uncover SHOC2-independent mechanisms of RAF and ERK pathway activation that rely on N-region phosphorylation of CRAF. In DLD-1 cells stimulated with EGF, SHOC2 function is essential for a rapid transient phase of ERK activation, but is not required for a slow, sustained phase that is instead driven by palmitoylated H/N-RAS proteins and CRAF. Whereas redundant SHOC2-dependent and -independent mechanisms of RAF and ERK activation make SHOC2 dispensable for proliferation in 2D, KRAS mutant cells preferentially rely on SHOC2 for ERK signaling under anchorage-independent conditions. Our study highlights a context-dependent contribution of SHOC2 to ERK pathway dynamics that is preferentially engaged by KRAS oncogenic signaling and provides a biochemical framework for selective ERK pathway inhibition by targeting the SHOC2 holophosphatase.
Project description:Collective cell migration is required for normal embryonic development and contributes to various biological processes, including wound healing and cancer cell invasion. The M-Ras GTPase and its effector, the Shoc2 scaffold, are proteins mutated in the developmental RASopathy Noonan syndrome, and, here, we report that activated M-Ras recruits Shoc2 to cell surface junctions where M-Ras/Shoc2 signaling contributes to the dynamic regulation of cell-cell junction turnover required for collective cell migration. MCF10A cells expressing the dominant-inhibitory M-RasS27N variant or those lacking Shoc2 exhibited reduced junction turnover and were unable to migrate effectively as a group. Through further depletion/reconstitution studies, we found that M-Ras/Shoc2 signaling contributes to junction turnover by modulating the E-cadherin/p120-catenin interaction and, in turn, the junctional expression of E-cadherin. The regulatory effect of the M-Ras/Shoc2 complex was mediated at least in part through the phosphoregulation of p120-catenin and required downstream ERK cascade activation. Strikingly, cells rescued with the Noonan-associated, myristoylated-Shoc2 mutant (Myr-Shoc2) displayed a gain-of-function (GOF) phenotype, with the cells exhibiting increased junction turnover and reduced E-cadherin/p120-catenin binding and migrating as a faster but less cohesive group. Consistent with these results, Noonan-associated C-Raf mutants that bypass the need for M-Ras/Shoc2 signaling exhibited a similar GOF phenotype when expressed in Shoc2-depleted MCF10A cells. Finally, expression of the Noonan-associated Myr-Shoc2 or C-Raf mutants, but not their WT counterparts, induced gastrulation defects indicative of aberrant cell migration in zebrafish embryos, further demonstrating the function of the M-Ras/Shoc2/ERK cascade signaling axis in the dynamic control of coordinated cell movement.
Project description:Shoc2 is the putative scaffold protein that interacts with RAS and RAF, and positively regulates signaling to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). To elucidate the mechanism by which Shoc2 regulates ERK1/2 activation by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), we studied subcellular localization of Shoc2. Upon EGFR activation, endogenous Shoc2 and red fluorescent protein tagged Shoc2 were translocated from the cytosol to a subset of late endosomes containing Rab7. The endosomal recruitment of Shoc2 was blocked by overexpression of a GDP-bound H-RAS (N17S) mutant and RNAi knockdown of clathrin, suggesting the requirement of RAS activity and clathrin-dependent endocytosis. RNAi depletion of Shoc2 strongly inhibited activation of ERK1/2 by low, physiological EGF concentrations, which was rescued by expression of wild-type recombinant Shoc2. In contrast, the Shoc2 (S2G) mutant, that is myristoylated and found in patients with the Noonan-like syndrome, did not rescue ERK1/2 activation in Shoc2-depleted cells. Shoc2 (S2G) was not located in late endosomes but was present on the plasma membrane and early endosomes. These data suggest that targeting of Shoc2 to late endosomes may facilitate EGFR-induced ERK activation under physiological conditions of cell stimulation by EGF, and therefore, may be involved in the spatiotemporal regulation of signaling through the RAS-RAF module.
Project description:Dephosphorylation of the inhibitory "S259" site on RAF kinases (S259 on CRAF, S365 on BRAF) plays a key role in RAF activation. The MRAS GTPase, a close relative of RAS oncoproteins, interacts with SHOC2 and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to form a heterotrimeric holoenzyme that dephosphorylates this S259 RAF site. MRAS and SHOC2 function as PP1 regulatory subunits providing the complex with striking specificity against RAF. MRAS also functions as a targeting subunit as membrane localization is required for efficient RAF dephosphorylation and ERK pathway regulation in cells. SHOC2's predicted structure shows remarkable similarities to the A subunit of PP2A, suggesting a case of convergent structural evolution with the PP2A heterotrimer. We have identified multiple regions in SHOC2 involved in complex formation as well as residues in MRAS switch I and the interswitch region that help account for MRAS's unique effector specificity for SHOC2-PP1. MRAS, SHOC2, and PPP1CB are mutated in Noonan syndrome, and we show that syndromic mutations invariably promote complex formation with each other, but not necessarily with other interactors. Thus, Noonan syndrome in individuals with SHOC2, MRAS, or PPPC1B mutations is likely driven at the biochemical level by enhanced ternary complex formation and highlights the crucial role of this phosphatase holoenzyme in RAF S259 dephosphorylation, ERK pathway dynamics, and normal human development.
Project description:Targeted inhibition of the ERK-MAPK pathway, upregulated in a majority of human cancers, has been hindered in the clinic by drug resistance and toxicity. The MRAS-SHOC2-PP1 (SHOC2 phosphatase) complex plays a key role in RAF-ERK pathway activation by dephosphorylating a critical inhibitory site on RAF kinases. Here we show that genetic inhibition of SHOC2 suppresses tumorigenic growth in a subset of KRAS-mutant NSCLC cell lines and prominently inhibits tumour development in autochthonous murine KRAS-driven lung cancer models. On the other hand, systemic SHOC2 ablation in adult mice is relatively well tolerated. Furthermore, we show that SHOC2 deletion selectively sensitizes KRAS- and EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells to MEK inhibitors. Mechanistically, SHOC2 deletion prevents MEKi-induced RAF dimerization, leading to more potent and durable ERK pathway suppression that promotes BIM-dependent apoptosis. These results present a rationale for the generation of SHOC2 phosphatase targeted therapies, both as a monotherapy and to widen the therapeutic index of MEK inhibitors.
Project description:Scaffold proteins play a critical role in controlling the activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. Shoc2 is a leucine-rich repeat scaffold protein that acts as a positive modulator of ERK1/2 signaling. However, the precise mechanism by which Shoc2 modulates the activity of the ERK1/2 pathway is unclear. Here we report the identification of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 as a binding partner and regulator of Shoc2 function. HUWE1 mediates ubiquitination and, consequently, the levels of Shoc2. Additionally, we show that both Shoc2 and HUWE1 are necessary to control the levels and ubiquitination of the Shoc2 signaling partner, RAF-1. Depletion of HUWE1 abolishes RAF-1 ubiquitination, with corresponding changes in ERK1/2 pathway activity occurring. Our results indicate that the HUWE1-mediated ubiquitination of Shoc2 is the switch that regulates the transition from an active to an inactive state of the RAF-1 kinase. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HUWE1 is a novel player involved in regulating ERK1/2 signal transmission through the Shoc2 scaffold complex.
Project description:Shoc2 is a positive regulator of signaling to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Shoc2 is also proposed to interact with RAS and Raf-1 in order to accelerate ERK1/2 activity. To understand the mechanisms by which Shoc2 regulates ERK1/2 activation by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we dissected the role of Shoc2 structural domains in binding to its signaling partners and its role in regulating ERK1/2 activity. Shoc2 is comprised of two main domains: the 21 leucine rich repeats (LRRs) core and the N-terminal non-LRR domain. We demonstrated that the N-terminal domain mediates Shoc2 binding to both M-Ras and Raf-1, while the C-terminal part of Shoc2 contains a late endosomal targeting motif. We found that M-Ras binding to Shoc2 is independent of its GTPase activity. While overexpression of Shoc2 did not change kinetics of ERK1/2 activity, both the N-terminal and the LRR-core domain were able to rescue ERK1/2 activity in cells depleted of Shoc2, suggesting that these Shoc2 domains are involved in modulating ERK1/2 activity.
Project description:Rasopathies are a group of genetic disorders caused by germline mutations in multiple genes of the Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway. The only previously identified missense mutation in SHOC2, a scaffold protein of the ERK1/2 pathway, led to Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair. Here, we report a novel mutation in SHOC2(c.519G>A; p.M173I) that leads to a Rasopathy with clinical features partially overlapping those occurring in Noonan and cardiofaciocutaneous syndromes. Studies to clarify the significance of this SHOC2 variant revealed that the mutant protein has impaired capacity to interact with protein phosphatase 1c (PP1c), leading to insufficient activation of RAF-1 kinase. This SHOC2 variant thus is unable to fully rescue ERK1/2 activity in cells depleted of endogenous SHOC2. We conclude that SHOC2 mutations can cause a spectrum of Rasopathy phenotypes in heterozygous individuals. Importantly, our work suggests that individuals with mild Rasopathy symptoms may be underdiagnosed.
Project description:FBXW7 is a tumor suppressive E3 ligase, whereas RAS-ERK and mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTORC1) are two major oncogenic pathways. Whether and how FBXW7 regulates these two oncogenic pathways are unknown. Here, we showed that SHOC2, a RAS activator, is a FBXW7 substrate. Growth stimuli trigger SHOC2 phosphorylation on Thr507 by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal, which facilitates FBXW7 binding for ubiquitylation and degradation. FBXW7-mediated SHOC2 degradation terminates the RAS-MAPK signals and inhibits proliferation. Furthermore, SHOC2 selectively binds to Raptor to competitively inhibit the Raptor-mTOR binding to inactivate mTORC1 and induce autophagy, whereas Raptor binding of SHOC2 inhibits the SHOC2-RAS binding to block the MAPK pathway and proliferation. Finally, SHOC2 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which correlated with poor patient survival. SHOC2 mutations were found in lung cancer tissues with gain-of-function activity. Collectively, the SHOC2-Raptor interaction triggers negative cross-talk between RAS-ERK and mTORC1 pathways, whereas FBXW7 regulates both pathways by targeting SHOC2 for ubiquitylation and degradation.