Development of Cheaper Embryo Vitrification Device Using the Minimum Volume Method.
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to compare the efficiency of the Cryotop and Calibrated plastic inoculation loop (CPIL) devices for vitrification of rabbit embryos on in vitro development and implantation rate, offspring rate at birth and embryonic and fetal losses. CPIL is a simple tool used mainly by microbiologists to retrieve an inoculum from a culture of microorganisms. In experiment 1, embryos were vitrified using a Cryotop device and a CPIL device. There were no significant differences in hatched/hatching blastocyst stage rates after 48 h of culture among the vitrified groups (62 ± 4.7% and 62 ± 4.9%, respectively); however, the rates were significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of the fresh group (95 ± 3.4%). In experiment 2, vitrified embryos were transferred using laparoscopic technique. The number of implanted embryos was estimated by laparoscopy as number of implantation sites at day 14 of gestation. At birth, total offspring were recorded. Embryonic and fetal losses were calculated as the difference between implanted embryos and embryos transferred and total born at birth and implanted embryos, respectively. The rate of implantation and development to term was similar between both vitrification devices (56 ± 7.2% and 50 ± 6.8% for implantation rate and 40 ± 7.1% and 35 ± 6.5% for offspring rate at birth); but significantly lower than in the fresh group (78 ± 6.6% for implantation rate and 70 ± 7.2% for offspring rate at birth, P<0.05). Likewise, embryonic losses were similar between both vitrification devices (44 ± 7.2% and 50 ± 6.8%), but significantly higher than in the fresh group (23 ± 6.6%, P < 0.05). However, fetal losses were similar between groups (10 ± 4.4%, 15 ± 4.8% and 8 ± 4.2%, for vitrified, Cryotop or CPIL and fresh, respectively). These results indicate that the CPIL device is as effective as the Cryotop device for vitrification of rabbit embryos, but at a cost of €0.05 per device.
Project description:PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitrification on the preimplantation developmental competence of mouse 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stage embryos. METHODS: Mouse 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stage embryos were cryopreserved using the cryotop vitrification method and subsequently warmed on a later date. The embryos were then assessed by their morphology, blastocyst formation and hatching rates. Additionally, trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers were compared in hatched blastocysts from the control and experimental groups. RESULTS: Vitrified embryos at the 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stages appeared morphologically normal after warming. The overall survival rate of vitrified embryos at various stages after warming was 96.7% and there were no significant differences among 2-cell stage (96.0%), 4-cell stage (96.8%) and 8-cell stage (97.1%) embryos (P > 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate (69.4%) and hatching rate (52.6%) of vitrified 2-cell embryos were significantly lower than that from the control group and vitrified 8-cell embryos (P < 0.05). In the vitrified 4-cell embryo group, the blastocyst formation rate (90.3%) was similar to the 8-cell group (91.2%), but the hatching rate (60.0%) was significantly lower than that of the non-vitrified control ( 84.1%) and vitrified 8-cell embryo (78.4%) groups (P < 0.05). When further development to the fully hatched blastocyst stage was compared, hatched blastocysts derived from vitrified 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell embryos had significantly lower cell counts both in the ICM and TE, as compared to fresh blastocysts (P < 0.05). Among the vitrified 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell embryo groups, there were no significant differences in the cell counts of ICM and TE (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although cryotop vitrification was suitable for the cryopreservation of mouse embryos from the 2-cell stage, 4-cell stage and 8-cell stage without significant loss of survival, vitrification had an adverse effect on the development of 2-cell embryos. Mouse embryos at the 8-cell stage had the best tolerance for vitrification and would yield the highest level of post-vitrification developmental competence among early cleavage stage embryos. Nevertheless, it is unclear how these findings can be extrapolated to human embryos.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nowadays, oocytes and embryos vitrification has become a routine technique. Based on clinical judgment, re-vitrification maybe required. But little is known about re-vitrification impact on genes expression. OBJECTIVE:The impact of re-vitrification on apoptotic and implanting genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4, at compaction stage embryos were evaluated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this experimental study, 8 cell embryos (n=240) were collected from female mature mice, 60-62 hr post HCG injection. The embryos were divided randomly to 3 groups included: fresh (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage thawed and re-vitrified at compaction stage (n=80). Embryos were vitrified by using cryolock, (open system) described by Kuwayama. Q-PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax, Bcl2 ErbB4 genes in derived blastocysts. RESULTS:Our result showed that expanded blastocyst rate was similar between vitrified and re-vitrified groups, while re-vitrified embryos showed significant decrease in expanded blastocyst rate comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.03). In addition, significant difference was observed on apoptotic gene expression when comparing re-vitrified and fresh embryos (p=0.004), however expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (apoptotic) genes didn't demonstrate a significant difference between re-vitrified and vitrified groups. The expression rate of ErbB4, an implantation gene was decreased in re-vitrified embryos comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.003), but it was similar between re-vitrified and vitrified embryos. CONCLUSION:Re-vitrification can alter the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4 genes and developmental rate of mouse embryos in compaction stage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Embryo cryopreservation is the process that water is removed from the cell by cryoprotectant materials, and embryos are stored at temperature below zero. This process may affect the viability and developmental potential of embryos. OBJECTIVE:In this study, the effect of the vitrification cryotop method on the expression level of Oct4 and Mest developmental genes in mouse blastocysts was examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The collected 2-cell embryos of superovulated mouse by oviduct flushing were divided into non-vitrified and vitrified groups. These embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage directly in the non-vitrified group and in the vitrified group, these embryos were cultured to 4-8 cell embryos, vitrified with cryotop in these stages and after 2-6 months, warmed and cultured to blastocyst embryos. Quantitative expression of two developmental genes, namely Oct4 and Mest, were performed in these groups, using RNA purification and Real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS:Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression level of both genes, Oct4 and Mest, was reduced significantly in the vitrified-warmed group relative to the control group (p=0.046 and p=0.001). CONCLUSION:This study revealed that morphologically normal embryos show a reduced amount of Oct4 and Mest transcripts which indicate that the vitrification method negatively effects the expression level of these two developmental genes.
Project description:Changes in gene expression induced by the Cryotop vitrification procedure in bovine blastocysts using Agilent EmbryoGENE microarray slides. Bovine in vitro-produced embryos at the blastocyst stage (144 to 156 hours post insemination) were vitrified using the Cryotop system and compared with non-vitrified (control) embryos. After vitrification, the embryos were warmed and cultured for an additional 4 hours. Embryos that re-expanded or developed to the expanded blastocyst stage were used for microarray analysis. Four pools of vitrified embryos were hybridized against four pools of control embryos in a dye-swap design.
Project description:PURPOSE:In a preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy (PGD-A) program, the more embryos available for biopsy, consequently increases the chances of obtaining euploid embryos to transfer. The aim was to increase the number of viable euploid blastocysts in patients undergoing PGD-A using fresh oocytes together with previously accumulated vitrified oocytes. METHODS:Sixty-nine patients with normal ovarian reserve underwent PGD-A for repeated implantation failure or recurrent pregnancy loss indication. After several cycles of ovarian stimulation, 591 accumulated vitrified oocytes and 463 fresh oocytes were micro-injected with the same partner's semen sample. PGD-A was completed on 134 blastocysts from vitrified/warmed oocytes and 130 blastocysts from fresh oocytes. RESULTS:A mean of 9.6% euploid blastocyst per micro-injected vitrified/warmed oocytes and 11.4% euploid blastocyst per micro-injected fresh oocyte were obtained (p?>?0.05). The euploidy and aneuploidy rates were comparable in blastocysts obtained from micro-injected vitrified/warmed oocytes and fresh oocytes (42.5 versus 40.8% and 57.5 versus 59.2%, p?>?0.05). Implantation rates of euploid blastocysts were comparable between the two sources of oocytes (56.0% from vitrified/warmed oocytes versus 60.9% from fresh oocytes, p?>?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Oocyte vitrification and warming do not generate aneuploidy in blastocysts. The number of viable euploid embryos for transfer can be increased by using accumulated vitrified oocytes together with fresh oocytes in ICSI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02820415 ClinicalTrials.gov.
Project description:Vitrification is commonly used in the cryopreservation of mammalian blastocysts to overcome the temporal and spatial limitations of embryo transfer. Previous studies have shown that the implantation ability of vitrified blastocysts is impaired and that microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the critical genes for embryo implantation. However, little information is available about the effect of vitrification on the miRNA transcriptome in blastocysts. In the present study, the miRNA transcriptomes in fresh and vitrified mouse blastocysts were analyzed by miRNA Taqman assay based method, and the results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Then, the differentially expressed miRNAs were assessed using the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Overall, 760 known mouse miRNAs were detected in the vitrified and fresh mouse blastocysts. Of these, the expression levels of five miRNAs differed significantly: in the vitrified blastocysts, four miRNAs (mmu-miR-199a-5p, mmu-miR-329-3p, mmu-miR-136-5p and mmu-miR-16-1-3p) were upregulated, and one (mmu-miR-212-3p) was downregulated. The expression levels of all miRNAs measured by the miRNA Taqman assay based method and qRT-PCR were consistent. The four upregulated miRNAs were predicted to regulate 877 candidate target genes, and the downregulated miRNA was predicted to regulate 231 genes. The biological analysis further showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs mainly regulated the implantation of embryos. In conclusion, the results of our study showed that vitrification significantly altered the miRNA transcriptome in mouse blastocysts, which may decrease the implantation potential of vitrified blastocysts.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Re-vitrification of embryos immediately after thawing or after a culture period could be used to preserve the extra embryos after embryo transfer. This study aims to clarify the effect of re-vitrification on Bax and Bcl-2 gene expressions of compact and early blastocyst stage embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This experimental study was performed on mouse embryos. We collected 8-cell stage embryos (n=400) from female mature mice, 60-62 hoursafter injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The embryos were divided into 5 groups: fresh (n=80), vitrified at the 8-cell stage (n=80), vitrified at the blastocyst stage (n=80), vitrified at the 8-cell stage, and re-vitrified at the compact (n=80) and early blastocyst stages (n=80). Embryos were vitrified by cryolock. We analyzed the developmental rates of the vitrified-warmed embryos with the chi-square test. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data were analyzed with SPSS version 16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test. P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS:The expanded blastocyst formation rate showed a significant difference in re-vitrified embryos compared with fresh embryos (P<0.05). However, this result was similar between the two re-vitrified groups. Our data showed a significant difference in expression of the Bax and Bcl-2 genes between re-vitrified and fresh embryos (P<0.05). Expressions of the Bax and Bcl-2 genes showed no significant difference between the two re-vitrified groups. CONCLUSIONS:Based on our study, re-vitrification could affect developmental rate and expressions of the Bax and Bcl2 genes.
Project description:This study aimed to examine whether the addition of glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-OEt) to the in vitro maturation (IVM) medium would improve the resilience of bovine oocytes to withstand vitrification. The effects of GSH-OEt on spindle morphology, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial activity and distribution, and embryo developmental potential were assessed together with the expression of genes with a role in apoptosis (BAX, BCL2), oxidative-stress pathways (GPX1, SOD1), water channels (AQP3), implantation (IFN-?) and gap junctions (CX43) in oocytes and their derived blastocysts. Vitrification gave rise to abnormal spindle microtubule configurations and elevated ROS levels. Supplementation of IVM medium with GSH-OEt before vitrification preserved mitochondrial distribution pattern and diminished both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ROS contents and percentages of embryos developing beyond the 8-cell stage were similar to those recorded in fresh non-vitrified oocytes. Although not significantly different from control vitrified oocytes, vitrified oocytes after GSH-OEt treatment gave rise to similar day 8-blastocyst and hatching rates to fresh non-vitrified oocytes. No effects of GSH-OEt supplementation were noted on the targeted gene expression of oocytes and derived blastocysts, with the exception of GPX1, AQP3 and CX43 in derived blastocysts. The addition of GSH-OEt to the IVM medium before vitrification may be beneficial for embryo development presumably as the consequence of additional anti-oxidant protection during IVM.
Project description:Vitrification is an economically effective method for embryo cryopreservation in human and livestock animals; however, it carries the risk of damage by the exposure to severe oxidative stress. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of leptin at different levels on the in vitro development of fresh and vitrified preimplantation embryos in a rabbit model. Normal embryos at morulae stage were randomly cultured for 2 h with 0, 10, 20 or 100 ng/mL of leptin, then were cultured for further 48 h as freshly or after vitrification. Thereafter, developed blastocysts form the best leptin level in fresh and vitrified embryos along with their controls were allocated to analyze the pro-oxidant (malondialdehyde, MDA; nitric oxide, NO), antioxidant (total antioxidant capacity, TAC; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPx), apoptotic (Bcl-2 associated X protein, BAX; heat shock 60kD protein member 1, HSP60; tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF?) and developmental (sex determining region Y box protein 2, SOX2; Nanog homeobox protein, NANOG; Octamer-binding protein 4, OCT4) biomarkers. Results indicate that expanding and hatching rates of embryos were significantly higher at 20 ng/mL leptin than the other levels, while vitrification had an independent suppression effect on the in vitro development rates. The MDA and NO were significantly higher, while TAC, SOD and GPx were significantly lower in the vitrified than fresh embryos. In contrast, leptin treatment significantly decreased the pro-oxidant biomarkers and increased the antioxidant biomarkers in both fresh and vitrified embryos. Vitrification significantly increased the antiapoptotic biomarkers, and decreased the developmental biomarkers in embryos. In contrast, leptin decreased the BAX and TNF?, increased the HSP60, and moreover, ameliorated the reduction of developmental biomarkers in the vitrified embryos. These results conclude that leptin could be used as antiapoptotic and antioxidant promotor to support the in vitro embryonic development, particularly under oxidative stress emerged from cryopreservation programs.
Project description:The aims of the present study are to identify the mechanism(s) whereby obesity impairs fresh embryos and to clarify the effects of vitrification on lipid droplet content within embryos from maternally obese mice.The diet-induced obesity mouse model was established, and the zygotes were captured and cultured to day 3. The eight-cell embryos were selected and divided into fresh and vitrified groups. The blastocysts derived from fresh embryos were used as a control. The expression profiles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress genes (Atf4, Grp78, and Hsp70) and other genes (MnSOD, p53, Gadd45g, caspase-3, IGF-II, ZO-1, and E-cadherin) on day-3 fresh and post-warming eight-cell embryos from obese and control groups were determined. For day-5 fresh blastocysts and blastocysts previously vitrified on day 3, the expression profiles for all of the above genes were also determined.For the fresh group, obesity significantly upregulated Hsp70, p53, IGF-II, and ZO-1 expression in embryos on day 3 and notably upregulated Atf4, MnSOD, Gadd45g, caspase-3, ZO-1, and E-cadherin expression in blastocysts on day 5. For vitrified ones, obesity significantly upregulated Atf4, MnSOD, and Gadd45g expression in embryos on day 3 and notably upregulated Hsp70 expression and downregulated MnSOD in day 5 blastocysts previously vitrified on day 3.Obesity impairs fresh embryos and aggravates embryonic vitrification injury at a molecular level.