Pancreatic cancer-derived exosomes transfer miRNAs to dendritic cells and inhibit RFXAP expression via miR-212-3p.
ABSTRACT: It has been reported tumor-derived exosomes can transfer miRNAs to recipient cells in the tumor microenvironment, promoting tumor invasion and metastasis. The present research aimed to explore how pancreatic cancer (PC) derived exosomal miRNAs inhibited mRNA expression of dendritic cells and induced immune tolerance. Our study revealed that 9 PC-related miRNAs were increased and 208 mRNAs were inhibited in exosome-stimulated dendritic cells (exo-iDCs) compared to immature dendritic cells (iDCs). A target prediction between the 9 miRNAs and 208 mRNAs was performed by bioinformatics database analysis. From the target prediction, it was predicted and validated that regulatory factor X-associated protein (RFXAP), an important transcription factor for MHC II, was inhibited by miR-212-3p transferred from PC-secreted exosomes, resulting in decreased MHC II expression. Moreover, a clinical study showed a negative correlation between miR-212-3p and RFXAP in PC tissue. From these data, we concluded that PC-related miRNAs can be transferred to dendritic cells via exosome and inhibit target mRNA expression. More importantly, PC-derived exosomes inhibit RFXAP expression via miR-212-3p, which decrease MHC II expression and induce immune tolerance of dendritic cells. RFXAP deficiency has never been reported in solid tumors. The functions and mechanisms of RFXAP in tumors deserve future explorations.
Project description:Pancreatic cancer (PC) has posed a great health threat to a growing number of people all over the world. Detection of serum miRNAs, being sensitive, noninvasive, and easy to obtain, has a great potential of being a novel screening method for PC patients. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression levels in serum by qRT-PCR. The study was divided into four phases: the screening, training, testing, and external validation stage. We firstly chose candidate miRNAs using Exiqon panels in the screening phase. Then, a total of 129 PC serum samples and 107 normal controls (NCs) were further analyzed in the following training and testing phases to identify differently expressed miRNAs. A cohort of 30 PC serum samples vs 30 NCs was used to confirm the diagnostic value of the identified miRNAs in the external validation phase. Moreover, miRNA expressions in additional 44 PC tumor tissue samples and the matched adjacent normal tissue samples as well as 32 pairs of serum-derived exosomes samples were also further explored. As a result, we identified six significantly upregulated miRNAs in the serum of PC: let-7b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-223-3p, and miR-25-3p. A six-miRNA panel in serum was then established. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for the panel was 0.910 for the combined training and testing phases, which showed higher diagnostic value than the individual miRNA. Prognostic value prediction using Cox's proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curves showed that increased serum miR-19a-3p was closely related to worse overall survival (OS). In addition, significant upregulation of miR-192-5p, miR-19a-3p, and miR-19b-3p was observed in both PC tissue and serum-derived exosomes samples. In conclusion, we identified a six-miRNA (let-7b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-223-3p, and miR-25-3p) panel in the serum for PC early and noninvasive diagnosis.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and thereby influence cell fate and function. Recent studies suggest that an abundant class of miRNAs play important roles in immune cells, such as T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, B cells, and dendritic cells (DCs). Interleukin (IL)-27 is a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines with broad anti-viral effects. It is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells and macrophages, as well as monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (iDCs). This pilot study compared miRNA profiles between iDCs and IL-27-treated iDCs (27DCs) using deep sequencing methods and identified 46 known miRNAs that were significantly differentially expressed in 27DCs: 36 were upregulated and 10 downregulated by IL-27. Many of the potential target genes of these miRNAs are involved in IL-27 associated pathways, such as JAK/STAT, MAPKs, and PI3K and several were also previously reported to be involved in the regulation of human DC function. This study found that these miRNAs also potentially target several viral genomes and therefore may have antiviral effects. Four of these differential miRNAs (miR-99a-5p, miR-222-3p, miR-138-5p, and miR-125b-5p) were validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Twenty-two novel miRNAs were discovered from deep sequencing and confirmed using RT-qPCR. This study furthers the understanding of the role of IL-27 in immunity and lays a foundation for future characterization of the role of specific miRNAs in DCs.
Project description:Exosome-mediated microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to the occurrence, development, invasion, metastasis, therapeutic resistance, diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. Guide-strand miRNA and passenger-strand miRNA (miRNA*) exist in miRNA processing, but the function of passenger-strand miRNA is often overlooked. In this study, we attempted to identify functional miRNA*s in exosomes derived from human colon cancer SW620 cells. miRNA expression profiles of human normal colonic epithelial cells NCM460 and colon cancer cells SW620 were compared by high-throughput sequencing. According to the sequencing results, we defined two sets of differentially expressed miRNAs: "high in exosome and high in cell" (HEHC) and "high in exosome but low in cell" (HELC). As passenger-strand miRNAs, miR-2277-3p and miR-26b-3p, which belong to different sets, have diametrically opposite functions. MiR-2277-3p promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of SW620 cells by targeting NUPR1L, while miR-26b-3p exerts an inhibitory effect by targeting PFDN1. Using exosomes as transport vectors, the effect of exosomes rich in miR-2277-3p on cells is consistent with the effect of liposome-transfected overexpressed miR-2277-3p, resulting in a cancer-promoting effect. However, exosomes rich in miR-26b-3p did not have a tumor suppressor effect. Further analysis revealed that exosomes rich in miR-2277-3p also had a high abundance of integrin ?4. Altering the abundance of integrin ?4 in exosomes changes the ability of exosomes to be taken up by cells, thereby altering the paracrine effects of exosomes. In summary, we revealed the fact that a large number of passenger-strand miRNAs exist in exosomes of colon cancer cells, these miRNAs are preliminarily categorized into two sets, and miR-2277-3p and miR-26b-3p, as representatives of each set, showed opposite functions. In addition, we revealed that integrin ?4 is a marker of exosome heterogeneity in colon cancer cells, which directly correlates with the ability of exosomes to be uptaken by cells of the same kind, thus regulating the paracrine effect of exosomes.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a critical part of the RNA silencing machinery, are known to play important regulatory roles in cancer. However, the consequence of miRNA deregulation in cancer is unknown for many miRNAs. Here, we define that miRNAs, miR-17-5p, miR-132-3p/-212-3p, and miR-337-3p are significantly up-regulated in the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) compared to the normal and benign tissues. Furthermore, by using PANC-1 cells, we demonstrate that overexpressed miR-337-3p and miR-17-5p/miR-132-3p/-212-3p can regulate executioner caspases-3 and -7, respectively. In addition, over-expression of miRNAs, especially miR-337-3p, attenuates tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Our findings unveil an important biological function for miRNAs up-regulated in PDAC in coordinately regulating caspases, potentially contributing to the malignant progression of PDAC.
Project description:Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is a promising strategy in the treatment of ?-thalassemia major (?-TM). The present study shows that plasma exosomal miRNAs (exo-miRs) are involved in ?-globin regulation. Exosomes shuttle miRNAs and mediate cell-cell communication. MiRNAs are regulators of biological processes through post-transcriptional targeting. Compared to HD (Healthy Donor), ?-TM patients showed increased levels of plasma exosomes and the majority of exosomes had cellular origin from CD34+ cells. Further, HD and ?-TM exosomes showed differential miRNA expressions. Among them, deregulated miR-223-3p and miR-138-5p in ?-TM exosomes and HD had specific targets for ?-globin regulator and repressor respectively. Functional studies in K562 cells showed that HD exosomes and miR-138-5p regulated ?-globin expression by targeting BCL11A. ?-TM exosomes and miR-223-3p down regulated ?-globin expression through LMO2 targeting. Importantly, miR-223-3p targeting through sponge repression resulted in ?-globin activation. Further, hnRNPA1 bound to stem-loop structure of pre-miR-223 and we found that hnRNPA1 knockdown or mutagenesis at miR-223-3p stem-loop sequence resulted in less mature exo-miR-223-3p levels. Altogether, the study shows for the first time on the important clinical evidence that differentially expressed exo-miRNAs reciprocally control ?-globin expressions. Further, the hnRNPA1-exo-miR-223-LMO2 axis may be critical to ?-globin silencing in ?-TM.
Project description:The activation of liver macrophages is closely related to liver injury after HBV infection. Our previous results demonstrated that HBeAg played a key role in inducing macrophage activation. As we all know, miRNAs are involved in the regulation of multiple immune cell functions. Meanwhile, we have shown that miR-155 positively regulates HBeAg-induced macrophage activation and accelerates liver injury. Subsequently, based on our previous miRNA sequencing results, we further evaluated the role of miR-212-3p called 'neurimmiR' in HBeAg-induced macrophages in this study. First, miR-212-3p expression was significantly elevated in HBeAg-treated macrophages. Meanwhile, we found up-regulation of miR-212-3p significantly decreased the production of cytokines, whereas knockdown of miR-212-3p held the opposite effect by gains and losses of function. Mechanically, although MAPK signal pathway, including ERK, JNK and p38, was activated in HBeAg-induced macrophages, only ERK promoted the expression of miR-212-3p via transcription factor CREB, which was able to bind to the promoter of miR-212-3p verified by ChIP assay. Moreover, we further indicated that up-regulated miR-212-3p inhibited HBeAg-induced inflammatory cytokine production through targeting MAPK1. In conclusion, miR-212-3p was augmented in HBeAg-stimulated macrophages via ERK/CREB signal pathway and the elevated miR-212-3p suppressed inflammatory cytokine production induced by HBeAg through targeting MAPK1.
Project description:Secreted microRNAs (miRNAs) enclosed within extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a pivotal role in intercellular communication by regulating recipient cell gene expression and affecting target cell function. Here, we report the isolation of three distinct EV subtypes from the human colon carcinoma cell line LIM1863--shed microvesicles (sMVs) and two exosome populations (immunoaffinity isolated A33-exosomes and EpCAM-exosomes). Deep sequencing of miRNA libraries prepared from parental LIM1863 cells/derived EV subtype RNA yielded 254 miRNA identifications, of which 63 are selectively enriched in the EVs--miR-19a/b-3p, miR-378a/c/d, and miR-577 and members of the let-7 and miR-8 families being the most prominent. Let-7a-3p*, let-7f-1-3p*, miR-451a, miR-574-5p*, miR-4454 and miR-7641 are common to all EV subtypes, and 6 miRNAs (miR-320a/b/c/d, miR-221-3p, and miR-200c-3p) discern LIM1863 exosomes from sMVs; miR-98-5p was selectively represented only in sMVs. Notably, A33-Exos contained the largest number (32) of exclusively-enriched miRNAs; 14 of these miRNAs have not been reported in the context of CRC tissue/biofluid analyses and warrant further examination as potential diagnostic markers of CRC. Surprisingly, miRNA passenger strands (star miRNAs) for miR-3613-3p*, -362-3p*, -625-3p*, -6842-3p* were the dominant strand in A33-Exos, the converse to that observed in parental cells. This finding suggests miRNA biogenesis may be interlinked with endosomal/exosomal processing.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally control the expression of their target genes via RNA interference. There is increasing evidence that expression of miRNAs is dysregulated in neuronal disorders, including epilepsy, a chronic neurological disorder characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common type of focal epilepsy in which disease-induced abnormalities of hippocampal neurogenesis in the subgranular zone as well as gliosis and neuronal cell loss in the cornu ammonis area are reported. We hypothesized that in MTLE altered miRNA-mediated regulation of target genes could be involved in hippocampal cell remodeling. A miRNA screen was performed in hippocampal focal and non-focal brain tissue samples obtained from the temporal neocortex (both n=8) of MTLE patients. Out of 215 detected miRNAs, two were differentially expressed (hsa-miR-34c-5p: mean increase of 5.7 fold (p=0.014), hsa-miR-212-3p: mean decrease of 76.9% (p=0.0014)). After in-silico target gene analysis and filtering, reporter gene assays confirmed RNA interference for hsa-miR-34c-5p with 3'-UTR sequences of GABRA3, GRM7 and GABBR2 and for hsa-miR-212-3p with 3'-UTR sequences of SOX11, MECP2, ADCY1 and ABCG2. Reporter gene assays with mutated 3'-UTR sequences of the transcription factor SOX11 identified two different binding sites for hsa-miR-212-3p and its primary transcript partner hsa-miR-132-3p. Additionally, there was an inverse time-dependent expression of Sox11 and miR-212-3p as well as miR-132-3p in rat neonatal cortical neurons. Transfection of neurons with anti-miRs for miR-212-3p and miR-132-3p suggest that both miRNAs work synergistically to control Sox11 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that differential miRNA expression in neurons could contribute to an altered function of the transcription factor SOX11 and other genes in the setting of epilepsy, resulting not only in impaired neural differentiation, but also in imbalanced neuronal excitability and accelerated drug export.
Project description:Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). There is currently no single definitive test for MS. Circulating exosomes represent promising candidate biomarkers for a host of human diseases. Exosomes contain RNA, DNA, and proteins, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and are secreted from almost all cell types including cells of the CNS. We hypothesized that serum exosomal miRNAs could present a useful blood-based assay for MS disease detection and monitoring. Exosome-associated microRNAs in serum samples from MS patients (n?=?25) and matched healthy controls (n?=?11) were profiled using small RNA next generation sequencing. We identified differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs in both relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) (miR-15b-5p, miR-451a, miR-30b-5p, miR-342-3p) and progressive MS patient sera (miR-127-3p, miR-370-3p, miR-409-3p, miR-432-5p) in relation to controls. Critically, we identified a group of nine miRNAs (miR-15b-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-30b-5p, miR-433-3p, miR-485-3p, miR-342-3p, miR-432-5p) that distinguished relapsing-remitting from progressive disease. Eight out of nine miRNAs were validated in an independent group (n?=?11) of progressive MS cases. This is the first demonstration that microRNAs associated with circulating exosomes are informative biomarkers not only for the diagnosis of MS, but in predicting disease subtype with a high degree of accuracy.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common tumor malignances with poor chemotherapeutic efficiency due to chemoresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have essential roles in regulating chemoresistance. However, the mechanism underlying the involvement of miR-212-3p in paclitaxel (PTX) resistance in HCC remains unclear. PTX resistance was investigated in the present study by assessing cell viability, the half maximal inhibitory concentration of PTX, resistance-associated protein levels and apoptosis. The expression levels of miR-212-3p and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion were evaluated by western blotting and transwell assay. The association between miR-212-3p and ZEB2 was investigating by the luciferase activity. The results showed that treatment of HCC cells with PTX inhibited cell viability and miR-212-3p level. Moreover, miR-212-3p was reduced and its overexpression resulted in decreased cell viability, half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PTX and levels of P-glycoprotein and glutathione S-transferase ?, but increased cell apoptosis, in Huh7/PTX cells. However, miR-212-3p knockdown induced opposite effects in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, EMT, migration and invasion were induced in Huh7/PTX cells and the addition of miR-212-3p inhibited EMT, migration and invasion. Meanwhile, miR-212-3p abrogation caused the opposite effects in Huh7 cells. Additionally, ZEB2 was directly targeted by miR-212-3p and its restoration or silencing abated the effect of miR-221-3p overexpression or knockdown in Huh7/PTX or Huh7 cells, respectively. The data from the present study suggest that miR-212-3p attenuates PTX resistance, by regulating EMT, migration and invasion via targeting ZEB2 in HCC cells, indicating a novel target for HCC chemotherapy.