KIR haplotypes are associated with late-onset type 1 diabetes in European-American families.
ABSTRACT: Classical human leukocyte antigens (HLA) genes confer the strongest, but not the only, genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), on natural killer (NK) cells, bind ligands including class I HLA. We examined presence or absence, with copy number, of KIR loci in 1698 individuals, from 339 multiplex type 1 diabetes families, from the Human Biological Data Interchange, previously genotyped for HLA. Combining family data with KIR copy number information allowed assignment of haplotypes using identity by descent. This is the first disease study to use KIR copy number typing and unambiguously define haplotypes by gene transmission. KIR A1 haplotypes were positively associated with T1D in the subset of patients without the high T1D risk HLA genotype, DR3/DR4 (odds ratio=1.29, P=0.0096). The data point to a role for KIR in type 1 diabetes risk in late-onset patients. In the top quartile (age of onset>14), KIR A2 haplotype was overtransmitted (63.4%, odds ratio=1.73, P=0.024) and KIR B haplotypes were undertransmitted (41.1%, odds ratio=0.70, P=0.0052) to patients. The data suggest that inhibitory 'A' haplotypes are predisposing and stimulatory 'B' haplotypes confer protection in both DR3/DR4-negative and late-onset patient groups.
Project description:Several studies have reported the implication of HLA-DR/DQ loci in the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Since no such study has yet been performed in Benin, this pilot one aimed at assessing HLA class II allele, haplotype, and genotype associations with T1D.Class II HLA genotyping was performed in 51 patients with T1D and 51 healthy unrelated controls by means of the PCR-SSP method. The diagnosis of T1D was set up according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to assess the associations between T1D and HLA alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes.Participants were aged 1-24 years. T1D was significantly associated with DR3, DQA1∗05:01, DQB1∗02:01, and DR3-DR4. No significant associations were observed with DR4, DQB1∗03:02, and DQB1∗06:02.Certain HLA class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were related to T1D and may be used as genetic susceptibility markers to T1D in Benin.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most widely studied complex genetic disorders, and the genes in HLA are reported to account for approximately 40-50% of the familial aggregation of T1D. The major genetic determinants of this disease are polymorphisms of class II HLA genes encoding DQ and DR. The DR-DQ haplotypes conferring the highest risk are DRB1*03:01-DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (abbreviated "DR3") and DRB1*04:01/02/04/05/08-DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02/04 (or DQB1*02; abbreviated "DR4"). The risk is much higher for the heterozygote formed by these two haplotypes (OR?=?16.59; 95% CI, 13.7-20.1) than for either of the homozygotes (DR3/DR3, OR?=?6.32; 95% CI, 5.12-7.80; DR4/DR4, OR?=?5.68; 95% CI, 3.91). In addition, some haplotypes confer strong protection from disease, such as DRB1*15:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 (abbreviated "DR2"; OR?=?0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.07). After adjusting for the genetic correlation with DR and DQ, significant associations can be seen for HLA class II DPB1 alleles, in particular, DPB1*04:02, DPB1*03:01, and DPB1*02:02. Outside of the class II region, the strongest susceptibility is conferred by class I allele B*39:06 (OR =10.31; 95% CI, 4.21-25.1) and other HLA-B alleles. In addition, several loci in the class III region are reported to be associated with T1D, as are some loci telomeric to class I. Not surprisingly, current approaches for the prediction of T1D in screening studies take advantage of genotyping HLA-DR and HLA-DQ loci, which is then combined with family history and screening for autoantibodies directed against islet-cell antigens. Inclusion of additional moderate HLA risk haplotypes may help identify the majority of children with T1D before the onset of the disease.
Project description:Patients with high-risk human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR-DQ genotypes for type 1 diabetes (T1D) were compared with HLA-matched controls to evaluate T1D risk for other HLA loci, including HLA-A, -B, -Cw, and DPB1. Patients (n = 133) with high-risk genotypes (DR3/DR3, DR3/DR4, DR4/DR4) were selected from the Lazio (Rome) region of Italy. Screening of more than 9000 patients from the Lazio region and northern Italy yielded 162 controls with high-T1D-risk haplotypes. Although the overall distributions did not differ significantly, allele frequency differences were discovered between the controls from Lazio and controls from northern Italy for some alleles previously determined to affect T1D risk, such as A*3002, DPB1*0301, and DPB1*0402. Therefore, Lazio patient data were compared both with the Lazio subset of controls (n = 53) and with the entire group of controls for association analyses. Significant allele frequency differences between patients and DR-DQ-matched controls existed for specific alleles at all loci. Data for the DR3/DR3 subset of patients and controls demonstrated an increase of Cw*0702 in patients. Compared with controls, reduced patient frequencies were seen for several alleles, including A*0101, B*0801, and Cw*0701, all on the highly conserved, extended DR3 haplotype known as 8.1 in DR3/DR3, but not DR3/DR4, subgroup. DPB1*0101, often reported on 8.1 haplotypes, was also less frequent in DR3/DR3 patients than controls. Analysis of family-based data from the HBDI repository was consistent with the observed results from the Italian patients, indicating the presence of a T1D-protective locus at or near A*0101 and a second T1D-protective locus at or near DPB1*0101. These data indicate that T1D risk conferred by the 8.1 haplotype is genotype dependent.
Project description:The Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) has collected thousands of multiplex and simplex families with type I diabetes (T1D) with the goal of identifying genes involved in T1D susceptibility. These families have all been genotyped for the HLA class I and class II loci and a subset of samples has been typed for an major histocompatibility complex (MHC) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel. In addition, the T1DGC has genotyped SNPs in candidate genes to evaluate earlier reported T1D associations. Individual SNPs and SNP haplotypes in IL4R, which encodes the alpha-chain of the IL4 and IL13 receptors, have been associated with T1D in some reports, but not in others. In this study, 38 SNPs in IL4R were genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX Gold MassARRAY technology in 2042 multiplex families from nine cohorts. Association analyses (transmission-disequilibrium test and parental-disequilibrium test) were performed on individual SNPs and on three-SNP haplotypes. Analyses were also stratified on the high-risk HLA DR3/DR4-DQB1*0302 genotype. A modest T1D association in HBDI families (n=282) was confirmed in this larger collection of HBDI families (n=424). The variant alleles at the non-synonymous SNPs (rs1805011 (E400A), rs1805012 (C431R), and rs1801275 (Q576R)), which are in strong linkage disequilibrium, were negatively associated with T1D risk. These SNPs were more associated with T1D among non-DR3/DR4-DQB1*0302 genotypes than DR3/DR4-DQB1*0302 genotypes. This association was stronger, both in terms of odds ratio and P-values, than the initial report of the smaller collection of HBDI families. However, the IL4R SNPs and the three-SNP haplotype containing the variant alleles were not associated with T1D in the total data. Thus, in the overall families, these results do not show evidence for an association of SNPs in IL4R with T1D.
Project description:Evaluating risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on determining an individual's HLA type, especially of the HLA DRB1 and DQB1 alleles. Individuals positive for HLA-DRB1*03 (DR3) or HLA-DRB1*04 (DR4) with DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) have the highest risk of developing T1D. Currently, HLA typing methods are relatively expensive and time consuming. We sought to determine the minimum number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could rapidly define the HLA-DR types relevant to T1D, namely, DR3/4, DR3/3, DR4/4, DR3/X, DR4/X, and DRX/X (where X is neither DR3 nor DR4), and could distinguish the highest-risk DR4 type (DR4-DQ8) as well as the non-T1D-associated DR4-DQB1*03:01 type. We analyzed 19,035 SNPs of 10,579 subjects (7,405 from a discovery set and 3,174 from a validation set) from the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium and developed a novel machine learning method to select as few as three SNPs that could define the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ types accurately. The overall accuracy was 99.3%, area under curve was 0.997, true-positive rates were >0.99, and false-positive rates were <0.001. We confirmed the reliability of these SNPs by 10-fold cross-validation. Our approach predicts HLA-DR/DQ types relevant to T1D more accurately than existing methods and is rapid and cost-effective.
Project description:Ethnic admixtures may interfere with the definition of type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk determinants. The role of HLA, PTPN22, INS-VNTR, and CTLA4 in T1D predisposition was analyzed in Brazilian T1D patients (n?=?915), with 81.7% self-reporting as white and 789 controls (65.6% white). The results were corrected for population stratification by genotyping 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) (BeadXpress platform). Ancestry composition and structural association were characterized using Structure 2.3 and STRAT. Ethnic diversity resulted in T1D determinants that were partially discordant from those reported in Caucasians and Africans. The greatest contributor to T1D was the HLA-DR3/DR4 genotype (OR?=?16.5) in 23.9% of the patients, followed by -DR3/DR3 (OR?=?8.9) in 8.7%, -DR4/DR4 (OR?=?4.7) in 6.0% and -DR3/DR9 (OR?=?4.9) in 2.6%. Correction by ancestry also confirmed that the DRB1*09-DQB1*0202 haplotype conferred susceptibility, whereas the DRB1*07-DQB1*0202 and DRB1*11-DQB1*0602 haplotypes were protective, which is similar to reports in African-American patients. By contrast, the DRB1*07-DQB1*0201 haplotype was protective in our population and in Europeans, despite conferring susceptibility to Africans. The DRB1*10-DQB1*0501 haplotype was only protective in the Brazilian population. Predisposition to T1D conferred by PTPN22 and INS-VNTR and protection against T1D conferred by the DRB1*16 allele were confirmed. Correcting for population structure is important to clarify the particular genetic variants that confer susceptibility/protection for T1D in populations with ethnic admixtures.
Project description:Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DRB1 and DQB1 represent the major type I diabetes (T1D) genetic susceptibility loci; however, other genes in the HLA region are also involved in T1D risk. We analyzed 1411 pedigrees (2865 affected individuals) from the type I diabetes genetics consortium genotyped for HLA classical loci and for 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the class III region previously shown to be associated with T1D in a subset of 886 pedigrees. Using the transmission disequilibrium test, we compared the proportion of SNP alleles transmitted from within the high-risk DR3 and DR4 haplotypes to affected offspring. Markers rs4151659 (mapping to CFB) and rs7762619 (mapping 5' of LTA) were the most strongly associated with T1D on DR3 (P=1.2 x 10(-9) and P=2 x 10(-12), respectively) and DR4 (P=4 x 10(-15) and P=8 x 10(-8), respectively) haplotypes. They remained significantly associated after stratifying individuals in analyses for B*1801, A*0101-B*0801, DPB1*0301, DPB1*0202, DPB1*0401 or DPB1*0402. Rs7762619 and rs4151659 are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r(2)=0.82) with each other, but a joint analysis showed that the association for each SNP was not solely because of LD. Our data support a role for more than one locus in the class III region contributing to risk of T1D.
Project description:The Type I Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) has collected thousands of multiplex and simplex families with type I diabetes (T1D) with the goal of identifying genes involved in T1D susceptibility. These families have been genotyped for the HLA class I and class II loci and, recently, for a genome-wide panel of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, multiple SNPs in specific candidate genes have been genotyped in these families in an attempt to evaluate previously reported T1D associations, including the C883A (Pro-Thr) polymorphism in exon 2 of TCF7, a T-cell transcription factor. The TCF7 883A allele was associated with T1D in subjects with T1D not carrying the high-risk HLA genotype DR3/DR4. A panel of 11 SNPs in TCF7 was genotyped in 2092 families from 9 cohorts of the T1DGC. SNPs at two positions in TCF7 were associated with T1D. One associated SNP, C883A (rs5742913), was reported earlier to have a T1D association. A second SNP, rs17653687, represents a novel T1D susceptibility allele in TCF7. After stratification on the high T1D risk DR3/DR4 genotype, the variant (A) allele of C883A was significantly associated with T1D among non-DR3/DR4 cases (transmission=55.8%, P=0.004; OR=1.26) but was not significantly associated in the DR3/DR4 patient subgroup, replicating the earlier report. The reference A allele of intronic SNP rs17653687 was modestly associated with T1D in both DR3/DR4 strata (transmission=54.4% in DR3/DR4; P=0.03; transmission=52.9% in non-DR3/DR4; P=0.03). These results support the previously reported association of the non-synonymous Pro-Thr SNP in TCF7 with T1D, and suggest that other alleles at this locus may also confer risk.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:The aim of this study was to determine if retention of C-peptide following immunotherapy using recombinant GAD65 conjugated to aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) is influenced by HLA risk haplotypes DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8. METHODS:HLA-dependent treatment effect of GAD-alum therapy on C-peptide retention in individuals with recent-onset type 1 diabetes was evaluated using individual-level patient data from three placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trials using a mixed repeated measures model. RESULTS:A significant and dose-dependent effect was observed in individuals positive for the genotypes that include HLA-DR3-DQ2 but not HLA-DR4-DQ8 and in the broader subgroup of individuals positive for all genotypes that include HLA-DR3-DQ2 (i.e. including those also positive for HLA-DR4-DQ8). Higher doses (three or four injections) showed a treatment effect ratio of 1.596 (95% CI 1.132, 2.249; adjusted p?=?0.0035) and 1.441 (95% CI 1.188, 1.749; adjusted p?=?0.0007) vs placebo for the two respective HLA subgroups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:GAD65-specific immunotherapy has a significant effect on C-peptide retention in individuals with recent-onset type 1 diabetes who have the DR3-DQ2 haplotype. Graphical abstract.
Project description:Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA-129) dimorphism was investigated in 73 autoimmune diabetes patients (type 1 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults) and 75 controls from Algeria. Only MICA-129 Val allele and MICA-129 Val/Val genotype frequencies were higher among patients than in the control group. Statistical analysis of the estimated extended HLA-DR-DQ-MICA haplotypes shown that individual effects of MICA alleles on HLA-DQ2-DR3-MICA-129 Val/Val and HLA-DQ8-DR4-MICA-129 Val/Val haplotypes were significantly higher in patients than in the control groups. These preliminary data might suggest a relevant role of MICA-129 Val/Val single nucleotide polymorphism (weak/weak binders of NKG2D receptor) in the pathogenesis of T1D and LADA.