ASPP1/2-PP1 complexes are required for chromosome segregation and kinetochore-microtubule attachments.
ABSTRACT: Regulated interactions between kinetochores and spindle microtubules are critical for maintaining genomic stability during chromosome segregation. Defects in chromosome segregation are widespread phenomenon in human cancers that are thought to serve as the fuel for tumorigenic progression. Tumor suppressor proteins ASPP1 and ASPP2, two members of the apoptosis stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family, are frequently down-regulated in human cancers. Here we report that ASPP1/2 are required for proper mitotic progression. In ASPP1/2 co-depleted cells, the persistence of unaligned chromosomes and the reduction of tension across sister kinetochores on aligned chromosomes resulted in persistent spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation. Using protein affinity purification methods, we searched for functional partners of ASPP1/2, and found that ASPP1/2 were associated with a subset of kinetochore proteins (Hec1, KNL-1, and CENP-F). It was found that ASPP1/2 act as PP1-targeting subunits to facilitate the interaction between PP1 and Hec1, and catalyze Hec1 (Ser165) dephosphorylation during late mitosis. These observations revealed a previously unrecognized function of ASPP1/2 in chromosome segregation and kinetochore-microtubule attachments that likely contributes to their roles in chromosome stability and tumor suppression.
Project description:The spindle assemble checkpoint (SAC) is critical for accurate chromosome segregation. Hec1 contributes to chromosome segregation in part by mediating SAC signaling and chromosome alignment. However, the molecular mechanism by which Hec1 modulates checkpoint signaling and alignment remains poorly understood. We found that Hec1 serine 165 (S165) is preferentially phosphorylated at kinetochores. Phosphorylated Hec1 serine 165 (pS165) specifically localized to kinetochores of misaligned chromosomes, showing a spatiotemporal distribution characteristic of SAC molecules. Expressing an RNA interference (RNAi)-resistant S165A mutant in Hec1-depleted cells permitted normal progression to metaphase, but accelerated the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The S165A cells were defective in Mad1 and Mad2 localization to kinetochores, regardless of attachment status. These cells often entered anaphase with lagging chromosomes and elicited increased segregation errors and cell death. In contrast, expressing S165E mutant in Hec1-depleted cells triggered defective chromosome alignment and severe mitotic arrest associated with increased Mad1/Mad2 signals at prometaphase kinetochores. A small portion of S165E cells eventually bypassed the SAC but showed severe segregation errors. Nek2 is the primary kinase responsible for kinetochore pS165, while PP1 phosphatase may dephosphorylate pS165 during SAC silencing. Taken together, these results suggest that modifications of Hec1 S165 serve as an important mechanism in modulating SAC signaling and chromosome alignment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Highly Expressed in Cancer protein 1 (Hec1) is a constituent of the Ndc80 complex, a kinetochore component that has been shown to have a fundamental role in stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment, chromosome alignment and spindle checkpoint activation at mitosis. HEC1 RNA is found up-regulated in several cancer cells, suggesting a role for HEC1 deregulation in cancer. In light of this, we have investigated the consequences of experimentally-driven Hec1 expression on mitosis and chromosome segregation in an inducible expression system from human cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overexpression of Hec1 could never be obtained in HeLa clones inducibly expressing C-terminally tagged Hec1 or untagged Hec1, suggesting that Hec1 cellular levels are tightly controlled. On the contrary, a chimeric protein with an EGFP tag fused to the Hec1 N-terminus accumulated in cells and disrupted mitotic division. EGFP- Hec1 cells underwent altered chromosome segregation within multipolar spindles that originated from centriole splitting. We found that EGFP-Hec1 assembled a mutant Ndc80 complex that was unable to rescue the mitotic phenotypes of Hec1 depletion. Kinetochores harboring EGFP-Hec1 formed persisting lateral microtubule-kinetochore interactions that recruited the plus-end depolymerase MCAK and the microtubule stabilizing protein HURP on K-fibers. In these conditions the plus-end kinesin CENP-E was preferentially retained at kinetochores. RNAi-mediated CENP-E depletion further demonstrated that CENP-E function was required for multipolar spindle formation in EGFP-Hec1 expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that modifications on Hec1 N-terminal tail can alter kinetochore-microtubule attachment stability and influence Ndc80 complex function independently from the intracellular levels of the protein. N-terminally modified Hec1 promotes spindle pole fragmentation by CENP-E-mediated plus-end directed kinetochore pulling forces that disrupt the fine balance of kinetochore- and centrosome-associated forces regulating spindle bipolarity. Overall, our findings support a model in which centrosome integrity is influenced by the pathways regulating kinetochore-microtubule attachment stability.
Project description:Accurate chromosome segregation depends on the proper attachment of kinetochores to spindle microtubules before anaphase onset. The Ipl1/Aurora B kinase corrects improper attachments by phosphorylating kinetochore components and so releasing aberrant kinetochore-microtubule interactions. The localization of Ipl1 to kinetochores in budding yeast depends upon multiple pathways, including the Bub1-Bub3 pathway. We show here that in meiosis, Bub3 is crucial for correction of attachment errors. Depletion of Bub3 results in reduced levels of kinetochore-localized Ipl1 and concomitant massive chromosome missegregation caused by incorrect chromosome-spindle attachments. Depletion of Bub3 also results in shorter metaphase I and metaphase II due to premature localization of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to kinetochores, which antagonizes Ipl1-mediated phosphorylation. We propose a new role for the Bub1-Bub3 pathway in maintaining the balance between kinetochore localization of Ipl1 and PP1, a balance that is essential for accurate meiotic chromosome segregation and timely anaphase onset.
Project description:A major goal in the study of vertebrate mitosis is to identify proteins that create the kinetochore-microtubule attachment site. Attachment sites within the kinetochore outer plate generate microtubule dependent forces for chromosome movement and regulate spindle checkpoint protein assembly at the kinetochore. The Ndc80 complex, comprised of Ndc80 (Hec1), Nuf2, Spc24, and Spc25, is essential for metaphase chromosome alignment and anaphase chromosome segregation. It has also been suggested to have roles in kinetochore microtubule formation, production of kinetochore tension, and the spindle checkpoint. Here we show that Nuf2 and Hec1 localize throughout the outer plate, and not the corona, of the vertebrate kinetochore. They are part of a stable "core" region whose assembly dynamics are distinct from other outer domain spindle checkpoint and motor proteins. Furthermore, Nuf2 and Hec1 are required for formation and/or maintenance of the outer plate structure itself. Fluorescence light microscopy, live cell imaging, and electron microscopy provide quantitative data demonstrating that Nuf2 and Hec1 are essential for normal kinetochore microtubule attachment. Our results indicate that Nuf2 and Hec1 are required for organization of stable microtubule plus-end binding sites in the outer plate that are needed for the sustained poleward forces required for biorientation at kinetochores.
Project description:Kinetochores are the macromolecular complexes that interact with microtubules to mediate chromosome segregation. Accurate segregation requires that kinetochores make bioriented attachments to microtubules from opposite poles. Attachments between kinetochores and microtubules are monitored by the spindle checkpoint, a surveillance system that prevents anaphase until every pair of chromosomes makes proper bioriented attachments. Checkpoint activity is correlated with the recruitment of checkpoint proteins to the kinetochore. Mps1 is a conserved protein kinase that regulates segregation and the spindle checkpoint, but few of the targets that mediate its functions have been identified. Here, we show that Mps1 is the major kinase activity that copurifies with budding yeast kinetochore particles and identify the conserved Spc105/KNL-1/blinkin kinetochore protein as a substrate. Phosphorylation of conserved MELT motifs within Spc105 recruits the Bub1 protein to kinetochores, and this is reversed by protein phosphatase I (PP1). Spc105 mutants lacking Mps1 phosphorylation sites are defective in the spindle checkpoint and exhibit growth defects. Together, these data identify Spc105 as a key target of the Mps1 kinase and show that the opposing activities of Mps1 and PP1 regulate the kinetochore localization of the Bub1 protein.
Project description:We have studied Sds22, a conserved regulator of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity, and determined its role in modulating the activity of aurora B kinase and kinetochore-microtubule interactions. Sds22 is required for proper progression through mitosis and localization of PP1 to mitotic kinetochores. Depletion of Sds22 increases aurora B T-loop phosphorylation and the rate of recovery from monastrol arrest. Phospho-aurora B accumulates at kinetochores in Sds22-depleted cells juxtaposed to critical kinetochore substrates. Sds22 modulates sister kinetochore distance and the interaction between Hec1 and the microtubule lattice and, thus, the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. These results demonstrate that Sds22 specifically defines PP1 function and localization in mitosis. Sds22 regulates PP1 targeting to the kinetochore, accumulation of phospho-aurora B, and force generation at the kinetochore-microtubule interface.
Project description:Accurate chromosome segregation during cell division requires the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which detects unattached kinetochores, and an error correction mechanism that destabilizes incorrect kinetochore-microtubule attachments. While the SAC and error correction are both regulated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), which silences the SAC and stabilizes kinetochore-microtubule attachments, how these distinct PP1 functions are coordinated remains unclear. Here, we investigate the contribution of PP1, docked on its conserved kinetochore receptor Spc105/Knl1, to SAC silencing and attachment regulation. We find that Spc105-bound PP1 is critical for SAC silencing but dispensable for error correction; in fact, reduced PP1 docking on Spc105 improved chromosome segregation and viability of mutant/stressed states. We additionally show that artificially recruiting PP1 to Spc105/Knl1 before, but not after, chromosome biorientation interfered with error correction. These observations lead us to propose that recruitment of PP1 to Spc105/Knl1 is carefully regulated to ensure that chromosome biorientation precedes SAC silencing, thereby ensuring accurate chromosome segregation.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays anaphase onset until kinetochores accomplish bioriented microtubule attachments . Although several centromeric and kinetochore kinases, including Aurora B, regulate kinetochore-microtubule attachment and/or SAC activation [2-4], the molecular mechanism that translates bioriented attachment into SAC silencing remains unclear . Employing a method to rapidly induce exact gene replacement in budding yeast , we show here that the binding of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1/Glc7) to the evolutionarily conserved RVSF motif of the kinetochore protein Spc105 (KNL1/Blinkin/CASC5) is essential for viability by silencing the SAC, while it plays an auxiliary nonessential role for physical chromosome segregation. Although Aurora B may inhibit this binding, persistent PP1-Spc105 interaction does not affect chromosome segregation and is insufficient to silence the SAC in the absence of microtubules, indicating that dynamic regulation of this interaction is dispensable. However, the amount of PP1 targeted to kinetochores must be finely tuned, because recruitment of either no or one extra copy of PP1 to Spc105 is detrimental, illustrating the vital impact of targeting an exiguous fraction of PP1 to the kinetochore. We propose that the PP1-Spc105 interaction enables local regulation of dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at the kinetochore to couple microtubule attachment and SAC silencing.
Project description:Type 1 phosphatase (PP1) antagonizes Aurora B kinase to stabilize kinetochore-microtubule attachments and to silence the spindle checkpoint. We screened for factors that exacerbate the growth defect of ?dis2 cells, which lack one of two catalytic subunits of PP1 in fission yeast, and identified Nsk1, a novel protein required for accurate chromosome segregation. During interphase, Nsk1 resides in the nucleolus but spreads throughout the nucleoplasm as cells enter mitosis. Following dephosphorylation by Clp1 (Cdc14-like) phosphatase and at least one other phosphatase, Nsk1 localizes to the interface between kinetochores and the inner face of the spindle pole body during anaphase. In the absence of Nsk1, some kinetochores become detached from spindle poles during anaphase B. If this occurs late in anaphase B, then the sister chromatids of unclustered kinetochores segregate to the correct daughter cell. These unclustered kinetochores are efficiently captured, retrieved, bioriented, and segregated during the following mitosis, as long as Dis2 is present. However, if kinetochores are detached from a spindle pole early in anaphase B, then these sister chromatids become missegregated. These data suggest Nsk1 ensures accurate chromosome segregation by promoting the tethering of kinetochores to spindle poles during anaphase B.
Project description:Accurate chromosome segregation is dependent upon stable attachment of kinetochores to spindle microtubules during mitosis. A long-standing question is how kinetochores maintain stable attachment to the plus ends of dynamic microtubules that are continually growing and shortening. The Ndc80 complex is essential for persistent end-on kinetochore-microtubule attachment in cells [1, 2], but how the Ndc80 complex forms functional microtubule-binding sites remains unknown. We show that the 80 amino acid N-terminal unstructured "tail" of Hec1 is required for generating stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments. PtK1 cells depleted of endogenous Hec1 and rescued with Hec1-GFP fusion proteins deleted of the entire N terminus or the disordered N-terminal 80 amino acid tail domain fail to generate stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Mutation of nine amino acids within the Hec1 tail to reduce its positive charge also abolishes stable attachment. Furthermore, the mitotic checkpoint remains functional after deletion of the N-terminal 80 amino acid tail, but not after deletion of the N-terminal 207 amino acid region containing both the tail domain and a calponin homology (CH) domain. These results demonstrate that kinetochore-microtubule binding is dependent on electrostatic interactions mediated through the disordered N-terminal 80 amino acid tail domain and mitotic-checkpoint function is dependent on the CH domain of Hec1.