Whole-exome sequencing and genome-wide methylation analyses identify novel disease associated mutations and methylation patterns in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome.
ABSTRACT: A thorough understanding of the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) and further optimization of diagnostic work-up procedures are warranted. We analyzed purified eosinophils from patients with IHES by next-generation whole-exome sequencing and compared DNA methylation profiles from reactive eosinophilic conditions to known clonal and suspected clonal eosinophilia. Somatic missense mutations in cancer-related genes were detected in three IHES patients. These included the spliceosome gene PUF60 and the cadherin gene CDH17. Furthermore, reactive eosinophilia samples could be differentiated from known- and suspected clonal eosinophilia samples based on 285 differentially methylated CpG sites corresponding to 128 differentially methylated genes. Using Ingenuity pathway analysis, we found that differentially methylated genes were highly enriched in functional pathways such as cancer, cell death and survival, and hematological disease. Our data show that a subset of IHES may be of clonal origin not related to the classical molecular aberrations of FGFR, PDGFRA/B, or T-cells, and that the initiating hits could be point mutations in a variety of genes, including spliceosome mutations or hypermethylated tumor suppressor genes. In addition, we identified a DNA methylation signature that is relevant for distinguishing clonal and suspected clonal eosinophilia from reactive eosinophilia per se, which may be useful in daily clinical work.
Project description:Idiopathic hypereosinophilia (IHE)/idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) has been defined by a persistent elevation of the blood eosinophil count exceeding 1.5×103/?L, without evidence of reactive or clonal causes. While T-cell clonality assessment has been recommended for unexplained hypereosinophilia, this approach is not often applied to routine practice in the clinic. We hypothesized that the clonality would exist in a subset of IHE/IHES patients. We aimed to investigate the candidate mutations and T-cell clonality in IHE/IHES and to explore the role of mutations in eosinophil proliferation. We performed targeted capture sequencing for 88 genes using next-generation sequencing, T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement assays, and pathway network analysis in relation to eosinophil proliferation. By targeted sequencing, 140 variants in 59 genes were identified. Sixteen out of 30 patients (53.3%) harbored at least one candidate mutation. The most frequently affected genes were NOTCH1 (26.7%), SCRIB and STAG2 (16.7%), and SH2B3 (13.3%). Network analysis revealed that our 21 candidate genes (BIRC3, BRD4, CSF3R, DNMT3A, EGR2, EZH2, FAT4, FLT3, GATA2, IKZF, JAK2, MAPK1, MPL, NF1, NOTCH1, PTEN, RB1, RUNX1, TET2, TP53 and WT1) are functionally linked to the eosinophilopoietic pathway. Among the 21 candidate genes, five genes (MAPK1, RUNX1, GATA2, NOTCH1 and TP53) with the highest number of linkages were considered major genes. A TCR assay revealed that four patients (13.3%) had a clonal TCR rearrangement. NOTCH1 was the most frequently mutated gene and was shown to be a common node for eosinophilopoiesis in our network analysis, while the possibility of hidden T cell malignancy was indwelling in the presence of NOTCH1 mutation, though not revealed by aberrant T cell study. Collectively, these results provide new evidence that mutations affecting eosinophilopoiesis underlie a subset of IHE/IHES, and the candidate genes are inferred to act their potential roles in the eosinophilopoietic pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the second leading cause of deaths due to cancer in the United States in men. The aim of this study was to perform an integrative epigenetic analysis of prostate adenocarcinoma to explore the epigenetic abnormalities involved in the development and progression of prostate adenocarcinoma. The key DNA methylation-driven genes were also identified. METHODS:Methylation and RNA-seq data were downloaded for The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methylation and gene expression data from TCGA were incorporated and analyzed using MethylMix package. Methylation data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were assessed by R package limma to obtain differentially methylated genes. Pathway analysis was performed on genes identified by MethylMix criteria using ConsensusPathDB. Gene Ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were also applied for the identification of pathways in which DNA methylation-driven genes significantly enriched. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analysis in Cytoscape software were used to find the hub genes. Two methylation profile (GSE112047 and GSE76938) datasets were utilized to validate screened hub genes. Immunohistochemistry of these hub genes were evaluated by the Human Protein Atlas. RESULTS:A total of 553 samples in TCGA database, 32 samples in GSE112047 and 136 samples in GSE76938 were included in this study. There were a total of 266 differentially methylated genes were identified by MethylMix. Plus, a total of 369 differentially methylated genes and 594 differentially methylated genes were identified by the R package limma in GSE112047 and GSE76938, respectively. GO term enrichment analysis suggested that DNA methylation-driven genes significantly enriched in oxidation-reduction process, extracellular exosome, electron carrier activity, response to reactive oxygen species, and aldehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity. KEGG pathway analysis found DNA methylation-driven genes significantly enriched in five pathways including drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, phenylalanine metabolism, histidine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and tyrosine metabolism. The validated hub genes were MAOB and RTP4. CONCLUSIONS:Methylated hub genes, including MAOB and RTP4, can be regarded as novel biomarkers for accurate PCa diagnosis and treatment. Further studies are needed to draw more attention to the roles of these hub genes in the occurrence and development of PCa.
Project description:The propagation via clonal stem cuttings is a frequent practice in tree plantations. Despite their clonal origin, the trees establish differently according to weather, temperature and nutrient availability, as well as the presence of various stresses. Here, clonal Populus trichocarpa (cv. Muhle Larson) cuttings from different sites were transferred into a common, fully nutrient supplied environment. Despite identical underlying genetics, stem cuttings derived from sites with lower phosphorus availability established worse, independent of phosphorus