Recent Trends in Hospitalization for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Beijing: Increasing Overall Burden and a Transition From ST-Segment Elevation to Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study.
ABSTRACT: Comparable data on trends of hospitalization rates for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) remain unavailable in representative Asian populations.To examine the temporal trends of hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and its subtypes in Beijing.Patients hospitalized for AMI in Beijing from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2012 were identified from the validated Hospital Discharge Information System. Trends in hospitalization rates, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and hospitalization costs were analyzed by regression models for total AMI and for STEMI and NSTEMI separately. In total, 77,943 patients were admitted for AMI in Beijing during the 6 years, among whom 67.5% were males and 62.4% had STEMI. During the period, the rate of AMI hospitalization per 100,000 population increased by 31.2% (from 55.8 to 73.3 per 100,000 population) after age standardization, with a slight decrease in STEMI but a 3-fold increase in NSTEMI. The ratio of STEMI to NSTEMI decreased dramatically from 6.5:1.0 to 1.3:1.0. The age-standardized in-hospital mortality decreased from 11.2% to 8.6%, with a significant decreasing trend evident for STEMI in males and females (P?
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Whether there is a difference in prognosis between elderly patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) remains mysterious. <b>Methods:</b> We conducted a retrospective cohort study by analyzing the data in the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) in Taiwan to explore differences between STEMI and NSTEMI with respect to in-hospital and long-term (3-year) outcomes among older adult patients (aged ≥65 years). Patients were further stratified based on whether they received coronary revascularization. <b>Results:</b> In total, 5,902 patients aged ≥65 years with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent revascularization (2,254) or medical therapy alone (3,648) were included. In the revascularized group, no difference was observed in cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality during hospitalization or at 3-year follow-up between the two AMIs. Conversely, in the non-revascularized group, patients with NSTEMI had higher crude odds ratio (cOR) for all-cause death during hospitalization [cOR: 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.65] and at 3-year follow-up (cOR: 1.47, 95% CI = 1.21-1.91) relative to patients with STEMI. However, after multivariable adjustments, only NSTEMI indicated fewer in-hospital CV death [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.98] than STEMI in non-revascularized group. Moreover, major bleeding was not different between patients with STEMI or NSTEMI aged ≥65 years old. <b>Conclusion:</b> Classification of AMI is not associated with the difference of in-hospital or 3-year CV and all-cause death in older adult patients received revascularization. In a 3-year follow-up period, STEMI was an independent predictor of a higher incidence of revascularization after the index event. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction had more incidence of MACE than patients with STEMI did in both treatment groups.
Project description:Lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels form the cornerstone approach of cardiovascular risk reduction, and a higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) is thought to be protective. However, in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, higher admission LDL-C and TG levels have been shown to be associated with better clinical outcomes - termed the 'lipid paradox'. We studied the relationship between lipid profile obtained within 72?hours of presentation, and all-cause mortality (during hospitalization, at 30-days and 12-months), and rehospitalization for heart failure and non-fatal AMI at 12-months in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We included 11543 STEMI and 8470 NSTEMI patients who underwent PCI in the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry between 2008-2015. NSTEMI patients were older (60.3 years vs 57.7 years, p?<?0.001) and more likely to be female (22.4% vs 15.0%, p?<?0.001). In NSTEMI, a lower LDL-C was paradoxically associated with worse outcomes for death during hospitalization, within 30-days and within 12-months (all p?<?0.001), but adjustment eliminated this paradox. In contrast, the paradox for LDL-C persisted for all primary outcomes after adjustment in STEMI. For NSTEMI patients, a lower HDL-C was associated with a higher risk of death during hospitalization but in STEMI patients a lower HDL-C was paradoxically associated with a lower risk of death during hospitalization. For this endpoint, the interaction term for HDL-C and type of MI was significant even after adjustment. An elevated TG level was not protective after adjustment. These observations may be due to differing characteristics and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in NSTEMI and STEMI.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The strain parameters of Real-Time Three-Dimensional Spot Tracking Echocardiography (RT3D-STE) are GLS, GAS, GRS, and GCS, while each index can significantly diagnose Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) patients, but none of them can distinguish between NSTEMI and STEMI. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), but little is known about the value of exosome miRNA combined with Real-Time Three-Dimensional Spot Tracking Echocardiography (RT3D-STE) between ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and Non-ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI).<h4>Aim</h4>To estimate the exosomal miRNAs related to strain parameters of RT3D-STE as biomarkers for early detection of STEMI and NSTEMI.<h4>Methods</h4>The present study collected plasma samples from thirty-four (34) patients with AMI (including STEMI and NSTEMI) and employed high-throughput sequence technology and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to identify the differentially expressed miRNAs. The Pearson correlation coefficient is used to measure the strength of a linear association between differentially expressed miRNAs and strain parameters of RT3D-STE.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-eight (28) differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs were universally identified between STEMI, NSTEM, and normal groups. Among them, there are 10 miRNAs (miR-152-5p, miR-3681-5p, miR-193a-5p, miR-193b-5p miR-345-5p, miR-125a-5p, miR-365a-3p, miR-4520-2-3p, hsa-miR-193b-3p and hsa-miR-5579-5p) with a Pearson correlation greater than 0.6 with RT3D-STE strain parameters. Especially, miR-152-5p and miR-3681-5p showed the most significant correlation with RT3D-STE strain parameters. Target genes of these 10 miRNAs are analyzed for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways enrichment, and they were found to be mainly involved in the cellular metabolism processes and HIF-1 signaling pathway. RT-qPCR verified the significant differential expression of miR-152-5p and miR-3681-5p between STEMI and NSTEM groups.<h4>Conclusion</h4>RT3D-STE and exosome miRNAs can be used as a hierarchical diagnostic system in AMI. If the RT3D-STE is abnormal, the exosome miRNAs can be detected again to obtain more detailed and accurate diagnostic results between STEMI and NSTEM groups. Exosomal miR-152-5p and miR-3681-5p may serve as potential biomarkers for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
Project description:It is assumed that platelets in diseased conditions share similar properties to platelets in healthy conditions, although this has never been examined in detail for myocardial infarction (MI). We examined platelets from patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) compared with platelets from healthy volunteers to evaluate for differences in platelet phenotype and function. Platelet activation was examined and postreceptor signal transduction pathways were assessed. Platelet-derived plasma biomarkers were evaluated by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. Maximum platelet activation through the thromboxane receptor was greater in STEMI than in NSTEMI but less through protease-activated receptor 1. Extracellular-signal related-kinase 5 activation, which can activate platelets, was increased in platelets from subjects with STEMI and especially in platelets from patients with NSTEMI. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) protein content and enzymatic activity were several-fold greater in platelets with MI than in control. Mean plasma MMP9 concentration in patients with MI distinguished between STEMI and NSTEMI (area under curve [AUC] 75% [confidence interval (CI) 60-91], P?=?0.006) which was superior to troponin T (AUC 66% [CI 48-85, P?=?0.08), predicting STEMI with 80% sensitivity (95% CI 56-94), 90% specificity (CI 68-99), 70% AUC (CI 54-86, P?<?0.0001), and NSTEMI with 50% sensitivity (CI 27-70), 90% specificity (CI 68-99), 70% AUC (CI 54-86, P?=?0.03). Platelets from patients with STEMI and NSTEMI show differences in platelet surface receptor activation and postreceptor signal transduction, suggesting the healthy platelet phenotype in which antiplatelet agents are often evaluated in preclinical studies is different from platelets in patients with MI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Approximately 70% patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) presented without ST-segment elevation on electrocardiogram. Patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) often presented with atypical symptoms, which may be related to pre-hospital delay and increased risk of mortality. However, up to date few studies reported detailed symptomatology of NSTEMI, particularly among Asian patients. The objective of this study was to describe and compare symptoms and presenting characteristics of NSTEMI vs. STEMI patients. METHODS:We enrolled 21,994 patients diagnosed with AMI from China Acute Myocardial Infarction (CAMI) Registry between January 2013 and September 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to ST-segment elevation: ST-segment elevation (STEMI) group and NSTEMI group. We extracted data on patients' characteristics and detailed symptomatology and compared these variables between two groups. RESULTS:Compared with patients with STEMI (N?=?16,315), those with NSTEMI (N?=?5679) were older, more often females and more often have comorbidities. Patients with NSTEMI were less likely to present with persistent chest pain (54.3% vs. 71.4%), diaphoresis (48.6% vs. 70.0%), radiation pain (26.4% vs. 33.8%), and more likely to have chest distress (42.4% vs. 38.3%) than STEMI patients (all P?<?0.0001). Patients with NSTEMI were also had longer time to hospital. In multivariable analysis, NSTEMI was independent predictor of presentation without chest pain (odds ratio: 1.974, 95% confidence interval: 1.849-2.107). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with NSTEMI were more likely to present with chest distress and pre-hospital patient delay compared with patients with STEMI. It is necessary for both clinicians and patients to learn more about atypical symptoms of NSTEMI in order to rapidly recognize myocardial infarction. TRIAL REGISTRATION:www.clinicaltrials.gov (No. NCT01874691).
Project description:Whether ST-segment (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) should be regarded as distinct pathophysiological entities is a matter of debate. We tested the hypothesis that peripheral blood gene-expression profiles at presentation distinguish STEMI from NSTEMI. We performed a case-control study collecting whole-blood from 60 STEMI and 58 NSTEMI (defined according to the third universal definition of MI) consecutive patients on hospital admission. We used RNA-sequencing for the discovery phase, comparing 15 STEMI vs. 15 NSTEMI patients, matched for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors, and quantitative PCR in the remaining unmatched patients for validating top-significant genes. Gene-level differential expression analysis identified significant differences in the expression of 323 genes: 153 genes withstood correction for admission cardiac troponin I (cTnI), differentiating the two conditions independently of myocardial necrosis extent. Functional annotation analysis uncovered divergent modulation in leukocyte and platelet activation, cell migration, and mitochondrial respiratory processes. Linear regression analysis revealed gene expression patterns on admission predicting infarct size, as indexed by cTnI peak (R2?=?0.58-0.75). Our results unveil distinctive pathological traits for these two MI subtypes and provide insights into the early assessment of injury extent. This could translate into RNA-based disease-specific biomarkers for precision diagnosis and risk stratification.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Differences in plasma and whole blood expression microRNAs (miRNAs) in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have been determined in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Although most circulating miRNAs are located in the cellular components of whole blood, little is known about the miRNA profiles of whole blood subcomponents, including plasma, platelets and leukocytes in patients with myocardial ischemia. METHODS:Thirteen patients with a ST-segment-elevation (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation (NSTEMI) myocardial infarction were identified in the University of Massachusetts Medical Center Emergency Department (ED) or cardiac catheterization laboratory between February and June of 2012. Whole blood was obtained from arterial blood samples at the time of cardiac catheterization and cell-specific miRNA profiling was performed. Expression of 343 miRNAs was quantified from whole blood, plasma, platelets, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells using a high-throughput, quantitative Real-Time polymerase-chain reaction system (qRT-PCR). RESULTS:MiRNAs associated with STEMI as compared to NSTEMI patients included miR-25-3p, miR-221-3p, and miR-374b-5p. MiRNA 30d-5p was associated with plasma, platelets, and leukocytes in both STEMI and NSTEMI patients; miRNAs 221-3p and 483-5p were correlated with plasma and platelets only in NSTEMI patients. CONCLUSIONS:Cell-specific miRNA profiles differed between patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. The miRNA distribution is also unique amongst plasma, platelets, and leukocytes in patients with ischemic heart disease or ACS. Our findings suggest unique miRNA profiles among the circulating subcomponents in patients presenting with myocardial ischemia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Under conditions of oxidative stress, hydroxyl radicals can oxidize phenylalanine (Phe) into various tyrosine (Tyr) isomers (meta-, ortho-, and para-tyrosine; m-, o-, and p-Tyr), depending on the location of the hydroxyl group on the oxidized benzyl ring. This study aimed to compare patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and the serum levels of Phe and Tyr isomers at the aortic root and distal to the culprit lesion in both groups.<h4>Methods</h4>Forty-four patients participated in the study: 23 with STEMI and 21 with NSTEMI. Arterial blood samples were taken from the aortic root through a guiding catheter and from the culprit vessel segment distal from the primary lesion with an aspiration catheter, during the percutaneous coronary intervention. Serum levels of Phe, p-Tyr, m-Tyr, and o-Tyr were determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.<h4>Results</h4>Serum levels of Phe were significantly higher distal to the culprit lesion compared to the aortic root in patients with STEMI. Serum p-Tyr/Phe and m-Tyr/Phe concentration ratios were both lower distal to the culprit lesion than at the aortic root in patients with STEMI. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to changes in serum Phe and Tyr isomers distal to the culprit lesion compared to the aortic root in patients with NSTEMI.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data suggest that changes in serum levels of different Tyr isomers can mediate the effects of oxidative stress during myocardial infarction.
Project description:Background Chronic kidney disease is a recognized independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but whether the risks of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction ( STEMI ) and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction ( NSTEMI ) differ in the chronic kidney disease population is unknown. Methods and Results Using administrative data from Ontario, Canada, we examined patients ?66 years of age with an outpatient estimated glomerular filtration rate ( eGFR ) and albuminuria measure for incident myocardial infarction from 2002 to 2015. Adjusted Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard models accounting for the competing risk of death were used. In 248 438 patients with 1.2 million person-years of follow-up, STEMI , NSTEMI , and death occurred in 1436 (0.58%), 4431 (1.78%), and 30 015 (12.08%) patients, respectively. The highest level of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (>30 mg/mmol) was associated with a 2-fold higher adjusted risk of both STEMI and NSTEMI among patients with eGFR ?60 mL/(min·1.73 m2) compared to albumin-to-creatinine ratio <3 mg/mmol. The lowest level of eGFR (<30 mL/[min·1.73 m2]) was not associated with higher STEMI risk but with a 4-fold higher risk of NSTEMI compared to those with eGFR ?60 mL/(min·1.73 m2). The lowest eGFR (<30 mL/[min·1.73 m2]) and highest albumin-to-creatinine ratio (>30 mg/mmol) were associated with a greater than 4-fold higher risk of both STEMI and NSTEMI (subdistribution hazard models [95% confidence interval] 4.53 [3.30-6.21] and 4.42 [3.67-5.32], respectively) compared to albumin-to-creatinine ratio <3 mg/mmol and eGFR ?60 mL/(min·1.73 m2). Conclusions Elevations in albuminuria are associated with a higher risk of both NSTEMI and STEMI , regardless of kidney function, whereas reduced kidney function alone is associated with a higher NSTEMI risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It has recently been reported that atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). However, the mechanism underlying this association is currently unknown. Further study of the relationship of AF with the type of MI (ST-segment-elevation MI [STEMI] versus non-ST-segment-elevation MI [NSTEMI]) might shed light on the potential mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS:We examined the association between AF and incident MI in 14?462 participants (mean age, 54 years; 56% women; 26% blacks) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who were free of coronary heart disease at baseline (1987-1989) with follow-up through December 31, 2010. AF cases were identified from study visit ECGs and by review of hospital discharge records. Incident MI and its types were ascertained by an independent adjudication committee. Over a median follow-up of 21.6 years, 1374 MI events occurred (829 NSTEMIs, 249 STEMIs, 296 unclassifiable MIs). In a multivariable-adjusted model, AF (n=1545) as a time-varying variable was associated with a 63% increased risk of MI (hazard ratio,1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-2.02). However, AF was associated with NSTEMI (hazard ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.31) but not STEMI (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-1.34; P for hazard ratio comparison=0.004). Combining the unclassifiable MI group with either STEMI or NSTEMI did not change this conclusion. The association between AF and MI, total and NSTEMI, was stronger in women than in men (P for interaction <0.01 for both). CONCLUSIONS:AF is associated with an increased risk of incident MI, especially in women. However, this association is limited to NSTEMI.