Protection of Human Pancreatic Islets from Lipotoxicity by Modulation of the Translocon.
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and pancreatic beta cell dysfunction. Elevated free fatty acids (FFAs) may impair beta cell function and mass (lipotoxicity). Altered calcium homeostasis may be involved in defective insulin release. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major intracellular calcium store. Lipotoxicity induces ER stress and in parallel an ER calcium depletion through unknown ER calcium leak channels. The main purposes of this study is first to identify one of these channels and secondly, to check the opportunity to restore beta cells function (i.e., insulin secretion) after pharmacological inhibition of ER calcium store depletion. We investigated the functionality of translocon, an ER calcium leak channel and its involvement on FFAs-induced alterations in MIN6B1 cells and in human pancreatic islets. We evidenced that translocon acts as a functional ER calcium leak channel in human beta cells using anisomycin and puromycin (antibiotics), respectively blocker and opener of this channel. Puromycin induced a significant ER calcium release, inhibited by anisomycin pretreatment. Palmitate treatment was used as FFA model to induce a mild lipotoxic effect: ER calcium content was reduced, ER stress but not apoptosis were induced and glucose induced insulin secretion was decreased in our beta cells. Interestingly, translocon inhibition by chronic anisomycin treatment prevented dysfunctions induced by palmitate, avoiding reticular calcium depletion, ER stress and restoring insulin secretion. Our results provide for the first time compelling evidence that translocon actively participates to the palmitate-induced ER calcium leak and insulin secretion decrease in beta cells. Its inhibition reduces these lipotoxic effects. Taken together, our data indicate that TLC may be a new potential target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Vascular smooth muscle cells have a proliferative phenotype that is important in vascular development, adaptation, and disease. Intracellular calcium handling is thought to play pivotal roles in determining the properties of these cells, and thus previously unrecognized mechanisms for transmembrane calcium movement are of potential interest. An unsolved question is the mechanism of constitutive (passive) calcium leak from the intracellular stores. Studies of other cell types have suggested that the translocon is a calcium leak pathway. Here we investigated the contribution of the translocon in proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells. Calcium leak into the cytoplasm was measured using fura-2, and protein synthesis was measured using radioactive methionine. Puromycin, emetine, and anisomycin are chemicals that inhibit protein synthesis, acting via the translocon; all three agents strongly inhibited protein synthesis in the smooth muscle cells within 1 h. Puromycin, which opens the translocon, evoked a transient increase in cytoplasmic calcium that was similar in amplitude to the calcium rise evoked by thapsigargin. The puromycin effect was abolished by thapsigargin. The treatment of cells for 1 h with emetine or anisomycin, which close the translocon, inhibited the calcium release evoked by puromycin but not the calcium release evoked by extracellular ATP, endothelin-1, or the calcium ionophore ionomycin. Thapsigargin-evoked calcium rises were slightly suppressed by emetine but unaffected by puromycin or anisomycin. The data suggest that the translocon has the capacity to act as a calcium leak pathway in the ribosomal endoplasmic reticulum but that it is normally closed and lacks relevance to physiological calcium leak mechanisms.
Project description:Free fatty acids (FFA) cause apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and might contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes via the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We studied here the molecular mechanisms implicated in FFA-induced ER stress initiation and apoptosis in INS-1E cells, FACS-purified primary beta-cells and human islets exposed to oleate and/or palmitate. Treatment with saturated and/or unsaturated FFA led to differential ER stress signaling. Palmitate induced more apoptosis and markedly activated the IRE1, PERK and ATF6 pathways, owing to a sustained depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores, whereas the unsaturated FFA oleate led to milder PERK and IRE1 activation and comparable ATF6 signaling. Non-metabolizable methyl-FFA analogs induced neither ER stress nor beta-cell apoptosis. The FFA-induced ER stress response was not modified by high glucose concentrations, suggesting that ER stress in primary beta-cells is primarily lipotoxic, and not glucolipotoxic. Palmitate, but not oleate, activated JNK. JNK inhibitors reduced palmitate-mediated AP-1 activation and apoptosis. Blocking the transcription factor CHOP delayed palmitate-induced beta-cell apoptosis. In conclusion, saturated FFA induce ER stress via ER Ca(2+) depletion. The IRE1 and resulting JNK activation contribute to beta-cell apoptosis. PERK activation by palmitate also contributes to beta-cell apoptosis via CHOP.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:During the onset of type 2 diabetes, excessive dietary intake of saturated NEFA and fructose lead to impaired insulin production and secretion by insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. The majority of data on the deleterious effects of lipids on functional beta cell mass were obtained either in vivo in rodent models or in vitro using rodent islets and beta cell lines. Translating data from rodent to human beta cells remains challenging. Here, we used the human beta cell line EndoC-?H1 and analysed its sensitivity to a lipotoxic and glucolipotoxic (high palmitate with or without high glucose) insult, as a way to model human beta cells in a type 2 diabetes environment. METHODS:EndoC-?H1 cells were exposed to palmitate after knockdown of genes related to saturated NEFA metabolism. We analysed whether and how palmitate induces apoptosis, stress and inflammation and modulates beta cell identity. RESULTS:EndoC-?H1 cells were insensitive to the deleterious effects of saturated NEFA (palmitate and stearate) unless stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) was silenced. SCD was abundantly expressed in EndoC-?H1 cells, as well as in human islets and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived beta cells. SCD silencing induced markers of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress and also IAPP mRNA. Treatment with the SCD products oleate or palmitoleate reversed inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Upon SCD knockdown, palmitate induced expression of dedifferentiation markers such as SOX9, MYC and HES1. Interestingly, SCD knockdown by itself disrupted beta cell identity with a decrease in mature beta cell markers INS, MAFA and SLC30A8 and decreased insulin content and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The present study delineates an important role for SCD in the protection against lipotoxicity and in the maintenance of human beta cell identity. DATA AVAILABILITY:Microarray data and all experimental details that support the findings of this study have been deposited in in the GEO database with the GSE130208 accession code.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Free fatty acids (FFAs) are known for their dual effects on insulin secretion and pancreatic ?-cell survival. Short-term exposure to FFAs, such as palmitate, increases insulin secretion. On the contrary, long-term exposure to saturated FFAs results in decreased insulin secretion, as well as triggering oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, culminating in cell death. The effects of FFAs can be mediated either via their intracellular oxidation and consequent effects on cellular metabolism or via activation of the membrane receptor GPR40. Both pathways are likely to be activated upon both short- and long-term exposure to FFAs. However, the precise role of GPR40 in ?-cell physiology, especially upon chronic exposure to FFAs, remains unclear. METHODS:We used the GPR40 agonist (GW9508) and antagonist (GW1100) to investigate the impact of chronically modulating GPR40 activity on BRIN-BD11 pancreatic ?-cells physiology and function. RESULTS:We observed that chronic activation of GPR40 did not lead to increased apoptosis, and both proliferation and glucose-induced calcium entry were unchanged compared to control conditions. We also observed no increase in H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> or superoxide levels and no increase in the ER stress markers p-eIF2?, CHOP and BIP. As expected, palmitate led to increased H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> levels, decreased cell viability and proliferation, as well as decreased metabolism and calcium entry. These changes were not counteracted by the co-treatment of palmitate-exposed cells with the GPR40 antagonist GW1100. CONCLUSIONS:Chronic activation of GPR40 using GW9508 does not negatively impact upon BRIN-BD11 pancreatic ?-cells physiology and function. The GPR40 antagonist GW1100 does not protect against the deleterious effects of chronic palmitate exposure. We conclude that GPR40 is probably not involved in mediating the toxicity associated with chronic palmitate exposure.
Project description:Autophagy is the major mechanism involved in degradation and recycling of intracellular components, and its alterations have been proposed to cause beta cell dysfunction. In this study, we explored the effects of autophagy modulation in human islets under conditions associated to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Human pancreatic islets were isolated by enzymatic digestion and density gradient purification from pancreatic samples of non-diabetic (ND; n = 17; age 65 ± 21 years; gender: 5 M/12 F; BMI 23.4 ± 3.3 kg/m2) and T2D (n = 9; age 76 ± 6 years; 4 M/5 F; gender: BMI 25.4 ± 3.7 kg/m2) organ donors. Nine ND organ donors were treated for hypertension and 1 for both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. T2D organ donors were treated with metformin (1), oral hypoglycemic agents (2), diet + oral hypoglycemic agents (3), insulin (3) or insulin plus metformin (3) as for antidiabetic therapy and, of these, 3 were treated also for hypertension and 6 for both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Two days after isolation, they were cultured for 1-5 days with 10 ng/ml rapamycin (autophagy inducer), 5 mM 3-methyladenine or 1.0 nM concanamycin-A (autophagy blockers), either in the presence or not of metabolic (0.5 mM palmitate) or chemical (0.1 ng/ml brefeldin A) ER stressors. In ND islets palmitate exposure induced a 4 to 5-fold increase of beta cell apoptosis, which was significantly prevented by rapamycin and exacerbated by 3-MA. Similar results were observed with brefeldin treatment. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from ND islets was reduced by palmitate (-40 to 50%) and brefeldin (-60 to 70%), and rapamycin counteracted palmitate, but not brefeldin, cytotoxic actions. Both palmitate and brefeldin induced PERK, CHOP and BiP gene expression, which was partially, but significantly prevented by rapamycin. With T2D islets, rapamycin alone reduced the amount of p62, an autophagy receptor that accumulates in cells when macroautophagy is inhibited. Compared to untreated T2D cells, rapamycin-exposed diabetic islets showed improved insulin secretion, reduced proportion of beta cells showing signs of apoptosis and better preserved insulin granules, mitochondria and ER ultrastructure; this was associated with significant reduction of PERK, CHOP and BiP gene expression. This study emphasizes the importance of autophagy modulation in human beta cell function and survival, particularly in situations of ER stress. Tuning autophagy could be a tool for beta cell protection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Palmitate is a potent inducer of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in beta-cells. In type 2 diabetes, glucose amplifies fatty-acid toxicity for pancreatic beta-cells, leading to beta-cell dysfunction and death. Why glucose exacerbates beta-cell lipotoxicity is largely unknown. Glucose stimulates mTORC1, an important nutrient sensor involved in the regulation of cellular stress. Our study tested the hypothesis that glucose augments lipotoxicity by stimulating mTORC1 leading to increased beta-cell ER stress. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that glucose amplifies palmitate-induced ER stress by increasing IRE1alpha protein levels and activating the JNK pathway, leading to increased beta-cell apoptosis. Moreover, glucose increased mTORC1 activity and its inhibition by rapamycin decreased beta-cell apoptosis under conditions of glucolipotoxicity. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin did not affect proinsulin and total protein synthesis in beta-cells incubated at high glucose with palmitate. However, it decreased IRE1alpha expression and signaling and inhibited JNK pathway activation. In TSC2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, in which mTORC1 is constitutively active, mTORC1 regulated the stimulation of JNK by ER stressors, but not in response to anisomycin, which activates JNK independent of ER stress. Finally, we found that JNK inhibition decreased beta-cell apoptosis under conditions of glucolipotoxicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our findings suggest that mTORC1 mediates glucose amplification of lipotoxicity, acting through activation of ER stress and JNK. Thus, mTORC1 is an important transducer of ER stress in beta-cell glucolipotoxicity. Moreover, in stressed beta-cells mTORC1 inhibition decreases IRE1alpha protein expression and JNK activity without affecting ER protein load, suggesting that mTORC1 regulates the beta-cell stress response to glucose and fatty acids by modulating the synthesis and activity of specific proteins involved in the execution of the ER stress response. This novel paradigm may have important implications for understanding beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Chronic exposure of pancreatic beta-cells to saturated free fatty acids (FFAs) causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis and may contribute to beta-cell loss in type 2 diabetes. Here, we evaluated the molecular mechanisms involved in the protection of beta-cells from lipotoxic ER stress by glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 agonists utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.INS-1E or fluorescence-activated cell sorter-purified primary rat beta-cells were exposed to oleate or palmitate with or without the GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 or forskolin. Cyclopiazonic acid was used as a synthetic ER stressor, while the activating transcription factor 4-C/EBP homologous protein branch was selectively activated with salubrinal. The ER stress signaling pathways modulated by GLP-1 agonists were studied by real-time PCR and Western blot. Knockdown by RNA interference was used to identify mediators of the antiapoptotic GLP-1 effects in the ER stress response and downstream mitochondrial cell death mechanisms.Exendin-4 and forskolin protected beta-cells against FFAs via the induction of the ER chaperone BiP and the antiapoptotic protein JunB that mediate beta-cell survival under lipotoxic conditions. On the other hand, exendin-4 and forskolin protected against synthetic ER stressors by inactivating caspase 12 and upregulating Bcl-2 and X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein that inhibit mitochondrial apoptosis.These observations suggest that GLP-1 agonists increase in a context-dependent way the beta-cell defense mechanisms against different pathways involved in ER stress-induced apoptosis. The identification of the pathways modulated by GLP-1 agonists allows for targeted approaches to alleviate beta-cell ER stress in diabetes.
Project description:The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of nucleated human cells harbors the protein translocon, which facilitates membrane integration or translocation of almost every newly synthesized polypeptide targeted to organelles of the endo- and exocytotic pathway. The translocon comprises the polypeptide-conducting Sec61 channel and several additional proteins and complexes that are permanently or transiently associated with the heterotrimeric Sec61 complex. This ensemble of proteins facilitates ER targeting of precursor polypeptides, modification of precursor polypeptides in transit through the Sec61 complex, and Sec61 channel gating, i.e., dynamic regulation of the pore forming subunit to mediate precursor transport and calcium efflux. Recently, cryoelectron tomography of translocons in native ER membrane vesicles, derived from human cell lines or patient fibroblasts, and even intact cells has given unprecedented insights into the architecture and dynamics of the native translocon and the Sec61 channel. These structural data are discussed in light of different Sec61 channel activities including ribosome receptor function, membrane insertion, and translocation of newly synthesized polypeptides as well as the putative physiological roles of the Sec61 channel as a passive ER calcium leak channel. Furthermore, the structural insights into the Sec61 channel are incorporated into an overview and update on Sec61 channel-related diseases-the Sec61 channelopathies-and novel therapeutic concepts for their treatment.
Project description:Hepatocyte lipotoxicity is characterized by aberrant mitochondrial metabolism, which predisposes cells to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Previously, we reported that translocation of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria of palmitate-treated hepatocytes activates anaplerotic flux from glutamine to ?-ketoglutarate (?KG), which subsequently enters the citric acid cycle (CAC) for oxidation. We hypothesized that increased glutamine anaplerosis fuels elevations in CAC flux and oxidative stress following palmitate treatment. To test this hypothesis, primary rat hepatocytes or immortalized H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells were treated with lipotoxic levels of palmitate while modulating anaplerotic pathways leading to ?KG. We found that culture media supplemented with glutamine, glutamate, or dimethyl-?KG increased palmitate lipotoxicity compared with media that lacked these anaplerotic substrates. Knockdown of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase activity significantly reduced the lipotoxic effects of palmitate, whereas knockdown of glutamate dehydrogenase (Glud1) had no effect on palmitate lipotoxicity. 13C flux analysis of H4IIEC3 cells co-treated with palmitate and the pan-transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid confirmed that reductions in lipotoxic markers were associated with decreases in anaplerosis, CAC flux, and oxygen consumption. Taken together, these results demonstrate that lipotoxic palmitate treatments enhance anaplerosis in cultured rat hepatocytes, causing a shift to aberrant transaminase metabolism that fuels CAC dysregulation and oxidative stress.
Project description:Preserving ?-cell function during the development of obesity and insulin resistance would limit the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) depletion induced by saturated free fatty acids and cytokines causes ?-cell ER stress and apoptosis, but the molecular mechanisms behind these phenomena are still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that palmitate-induced sorcin downregulation and subsequent increases in glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-2 (G6PC2) levels contribute to lipotoxicity. Sorcin is a calcium sensor protein involved in maintaining ER Ca(2+) by inhibiting ryanodine receptor activity and playing a role in terminating Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. G6PC2, a genome-wide association study gene associated with fasting blood glucose, is a negative regulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). High-fat feeding in mice and chronic exposure of human islets to palmitate decreases endogenous sorcin expression while levels of G6PC2 mRNA increase. Sorcin-null mice are glucose intolerant, with markedly impaired GSIS and increased expression of G6pc2 Under high-fat diet, mice overexpressing sorcin in the ?-cell display improved glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, and GSIS, whereas G6PC2 levels are decreased and cytosolic and ER Ca(2+) are increased in transgenic islets. Sorcin may thus provide a target for intervention in type 2 diabetes.