Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induces Senescence with a Distinct Secretory Phenotype.
ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence permanently arrests cell proliferation, often accompanied by a multi-faceted senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Loss of mitochondrial function can drive age-related declines in the function of many post-mitotic tissues, but little is known about how mitochondrial dysfunction affects mitotic tissues. We show here that several manipulations that compromise mitochondrial function in proliferating human cells induce a senescence growth arrest with a modified SASP that lacks the IL-1-dependent inflammatory arm. Cells that underwent mitochondrial dysfunction-associated senescence (MiDAS) had lower NAD+/NADH ratios, which caused both the growth arrest and prevented the IL-1-associated SASP through AMPK-mediated p53 activation. Progeroid mice that rapidly accrue mtDNA mutations accumulated senescent cells with a MiDAS SASP in vivo, which suppressed adipogenesis and stimulated keratinocyte differentiation in cell culture. Our data identify a distinct senescence response and provide a mechanism by which mitochondrial dysfunction can drive aging phenotypes.
Project description:Senescence phenotypes and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in aging and in premature aging diseases, including ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). Loss of mitochondrial function can drive age-related decline in the brain, but little is known about whether improving mitochondrial homeostasis alleviates senescence phenotypes. We demonstrate here that mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular senescence with a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) occur in A-T patient fibroblasts, and in ATM-deficient cells and mice. Senescence is mediated by stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and involves ectopic cytoplasmic DNA. We further show that boosting intracellular NAD<sup>+</sup> levels with nicotinamide riboside (NR) prevents senescence and SASP by promoting mitophagy in a PINK1-dependent manner. NR treatment also prevents neurodegeneration, suppresses senescence and neuroinflammation, and improves motor function in Atm<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Our findings suggest a central role for mitochondrial dysfunction-induced senescence in A-T pathogenesis, and that enhancing mitophagy as a potential therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a potent tumor suppressor mechanism but also contributes to aging and aging-related diseases. Senescence is characterized by a stable cell cycle arrest and a complex proinflammatory secretome, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We recently discovered that cytoplasmic chromatin fragments (CCFs), extruded from the nucleus of senescent cells, trigger the SASP through activation of the innate immunity cytosolic DNA sensing cGAS-STING pathway. However, the upstream signaling events that instigate CCF formation remain unknown. Here, we show that dysfunctional mitochondria, linked to down-regulation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes, trigger a ROS-JNK retrograde signaling pathway that drives CCF formation and hence the SASP. JNK links to 53BP1, a nuclear protein that negatively regulates DNA double-strand break (DSB) end resection and CCF formation. Importantly, we show that low-dose HDAC inhibitors restore expression of most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes, improve mitochondrial function, and suppress CCFs and the SASP in senescent cells. In mouse models, HDAC inhibitors also suppress oxidative stress, CCF, inflammation, and tissue damage caused by senescence-inducing irradiation and/or acetaminophen-induced mitochondria dysfunction. Overall, our findings outline an extended mitochondria-to-nucleus retrograde signaling pathway that initiates formation of CCF during senescence and is a potential target for drug-based interventions to inhibit the proaging SASP.
Project description:Senescence is a form of cell cycle arrest induced by stress such as DNA damage and oncogenes. However, while arrested, senescent cells secrete a variety of proteins collectively known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which can reinforce the arrest and induce senescence in a paracrine manner. However, the SASP has also been shown to favor embryonic development, wound healing, and even tumor growth, suggesting more complex physiological roles than currently understood. Here we uncover timely new functions of the SASP in promoting a proregenerative response through the induction of cell plasticity and stemness. We show that primary mouse keratinocytes transiently exposed to the SASP exhibit increased expression of stem cell markers and regenerative capacity in vivo. However, prolonged exposure to the SASP causes a subsequent cell-intrinsic senescence arrest to counter the continued regenerative stimuli. Finally, by inducing senescence in single cells in vivo in the liver, we demonstrate that this activates tissue-specific expression of stem cell markers. Together, this work uncovers a primary and beneficial role for the SASP in promoting cell plasticity and tissue regeneration and introduces the concept that transient therapeutic delivery of senescent cells could be harnessed to drive tissue regeneration.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a stable growth arrest that is implicated in tissue ageing and cancer. Senescent cells are characterized by an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, which is termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). NAD+ metabolism influences both tissue ageing and cancer. However, the role of NAD+ metabolism in regulating the SASP is poorly understood. Here, we show that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme of the NAD+ salvage pathway, governs the proinflammatory SASP independent of senescence-associated growth arrest. NAMPT expression is regulated by high mobility group A (HMGA) proteins during senescence. The HMGA-NAMPT-NAD+ signalling axis promotes the proinflammatory SASP by enhancing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. HMGA proteins and NAMPT promote the proinflammatory SASP through NAD+-mediated suppression of AMPK kinase, which suppresses the p53-mediated inhibition of p38 MAPK to enhance NF-?B activity. We conclude that NAD+ metabolism governs the proinflammatory SASP. Given the tumour-promoting effects of the proinflammatory SASP, our results suggest that anti-ageing dietary NAD+ augmentation should be administered with precision.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a tumor-suppressive mechanism which leads to near irreversible proliferative arrest. However, senescent cells can cause tissue dysfunction, in large part because they express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) involving secretion of, amongst other factors, proinflammatory cytokines known to compromise neuronal health. Therefore, established neurotoxicants may cause neurotoxicity in vivo, in part by triggering mitotic cells in the brain to undergo senescence and adopt an inflammatory SASP which in turn could cause deleterious effects to surrounding neurons. To begin to address this hypothesis, we examined whether we could screen known neurotoxicants for their ability to cause astrocytes (a mitotic cell type especially important for maintaining neuronal health) to undergo senescence. For this purpose, we utilized inducible pluripotent stem cell-derived human astrocytes and screened an 80 compound neurotoxicant library provided by the Biomolecular Screening Branch of the NIEHS National Toxicology Program. Here we present a screening method based on induction of the senescent marker, senescent-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-?-gal). We describe in detail an automated method for the unbiased quantitation of percentage of SA-?-gal + astrocytes. Although our results suggest that conducting an SA-?-gal senescence screen using human inducible pluripotent stem cell-derived astrocytes may be feasible, they also highlight challenges that likely preclude its adaptation to high-throughput. We also explore the possibility of using primary mouse astrocytes for this purpose and explain why this platform is problematic and very unlikely to yield meaningful results, even in small screens with compound replicates.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a primary aging process and tumor suppressive mechanism characterized by irreversible growth arrest, apoptosis resistance, production of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), mitochondrial dysfunction, and alterations in DNA and chromatin. In preclinical aging models, accumulation of senescent cells is associated with multiple chronic diseases and disorders, geriatric syndromes, multimorbidity, and accelerated aging phenotypes. In animals, genetic and pharmacologic reduction of senescent cell burden results in the prevention, delay, and/or alleviation of a variety of aging-related diseases and sequelae. Early clinical trials have thus far focused on safety and target engagement of senolytic agents that clear senescent cells. We hypothesize that these pharmacologic interventions may have transformative effects on geriatric medicine.
Project description:Advanced age is one of the most important risk factors for osteoporosis. Accumulation of oxidative DNA damage has been proposed to contribute to age-related deregulation of osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. Excision repair cross complementary group 1-xeroderma pigmentosum group F (ERCC1-XPF) is an evolutionarily conserved structure-specific endonuclease that is required for multiple DNA repair pathways. Inherited mutations affecting expression of ERCC1-XPF cause a severe progeroid syndrome in humans, including early onset of osteopenia and osteoporosis, or anomalies in skeletal development. Herein, we used progeroid ERCC1-XPF-deficient mice, including Ercc1-null (Ercc1(-/-)) and hypomorphic (Ercc1(-/?)) mice, to investigate the mechanism by which DNA damage leads to accelerated bone aging. Compared to their wild-type littermates, both Ercc1(-/-) and Ercc1(-/?) mice display severe, progressive osteoporosis caused by reduced bone formation and enhanced osteoclastogenesis. ERCC1 deficiency leads to atrophy of osteoblastic progenitors in the bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) population. There is increased cellular senescence of BMSCs and osteoblastic cells, as characterized by reduced proliferation, accumulation of DNA damage, and a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). This leads to enhanced secretion of inflammatory cytokines known to drive osteoclastogenesis, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), and receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), and thereby induces an inflammatory bone microenvironment favoring osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, we found that the transcription factor NF-?B is activated in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells of the Ercc1 mutant mice. Importantly, we demonstrated that haploinsufficiency of the p65 NF-?B subunit partially rescued the osteoporosis phenotype of Ercc1(-/?) mice. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of the NF-?B signaling via an I-?B kinase (IKK) inhibitor reversed cellular senescence and SASP in Ercc1(-/?) BMSCs. These results demonstrate that DNA damage drives osteoporosis through an NF-?B-dependent mechanism. Therefore, the NF-?B pathway represents a novel therapeutic target to treat aging-related bone disease.
Project description:Mammalian sirtuins are involved in the control of metabolism and life-span regulation. Here, we link the mitochondrial sirtuin SIRT4 with cellular senescence, skin aging, and mitochondrial dysfunction. SIRT4 expression significantly increased in human dermal fibroblasts undergoing replicative or stress-induced senescence triggered by UVB or gamma-irradiation. In-vivo, SIRT4 mRNA levels were upregulated in photoaged vs. non-photoaged human skin. Interestingly, in all models of cellular senescence and in photoaged skin, upregulation of SIRT4 expression was associated with decreased levels of miR-15b. The latter was causally linked to increased SIRT4 expression because miR-15b targets a functional binding site in the SIRT4 gene and transfection of oligonucleotides mimicking miR-15b function prevented SIRT4 upregulation in senescent cells. Importantly, increased SIRT4 negatively impacted on mitochondrial functions and contributed to the development of a senescent phenotype. Accordingly, we observed that inhibition of miR-15b, in a SIRT4-dependent manner, increased generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and modulated mRNA levels of nuclear encoded mitochondrial genes and components of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Thus, miR-15b is a negative regulator of stress-induced SIRT4 expression thereby counteracting senescence associated mitochondrial dysfunction and regulating the SASP and possibly organ aging, such as photoaging of human skin.
Project description:Cellular senescence is a unique cell fate characterized by stable proliferative arrest and the extensive production and secretion of various inflammatory proteins, a phenomenon known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The molecular mechanisms responsible for generating a SASP in response to senescent stimuli remain largely obscure. Here, using unbiased gene expression profiling, we discover that the scavenger receptor CD36 is rapidly upregulated in multiple cell types in response to replicative, oncogenic, and chemical senescent stimuli. Moreover, ectopic CD36 expression in dividing mammalian cells is sufficient to initiate the production of a large subset of the known SASP components via activation of canonical Src-p38-NF-?B signaling, resulting in the onset of a full senescent state. The secretome is further shown to be ligand-dependent, as amyloid-beta (A?) is sufficient to drive CD36-dependent NF-?B and SASP activation. Finally, loss-of-function experiments revealed a strict requirement for CD36 in secretory molecule production during conventional senescence reprogramming. Taken together, these results uncover the A?-CD36-NF-?B signaling axis as an important regulator of the senescent cell fate via induction of the SASP.
Project description:Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by preventing the proliferation of cells that experience potentially oncogenic stimuli. Senescent cells often express p16(INK4a), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, tumor suppressor, and biomarker of aging, which renders the senescence growth arrest irreversible. Senescent cells also acquire a complex phenotype that includes the secretion of many cytokines, growth factors, and proteases, termed a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP is proposed to underlie age-related pathologies, including, ironically, late life cancer. Here, we show that ectopic expression of p16(INK4a) and another cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(CIP1/WAF1), induces senescence without a SASP, even though they induced other features of senescence, including a stable growth arrest. Additionally, human fibroblasts induced to senesce by ionizing radiation or oncogenic RAS developed a SASP regardless of whether they expressed p16(INK4a). Cells induced to senesce by ectopic p16(INK4a) expression lacked paracrine activity on epithelial cells, consistent with the absence of a functional SASP. Nonetheless, expression of p16(INK4a) by cells undergoing replicative senescence limited the accumulation of DNA damage and premature cytokine secretion, suggesting an indirect role for p16(INK4a) in suppressing the SASP. These findings suggest that p16(INK4a)-positive cells may not always harbor a SASP in vivo and, furthermore, that the SASP is not a consequence of p16(INK4a) activation or senescence per se, but rather is a damage response that is separable from the growth arrest.