PTH/PTHrP Receptor Mediates Cachexia in Models of Kidney Failure and Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Cachexia is a wasting syndrome associated with elevated basal energy expenditure and loss of adipose and muscle tissues. It accompanies many chronic diseases including renal failure and cancer and is an important risk factor for mortality. Our recent work demonstrated that tumor-derived PTHrP drives adipose tissue browning and cachexia. Here, we show that PTH is involved in stimulating a thermogenic gene program in 5/6 nephrectomized mice that suffer from cachexia. Fat-specific knockout of PTHR blocked adipose browning and wasting. Surprisingly, loss of PTHR in fat tissue also preserved muscle mass and improved muscle strength. Similarly, PTHR knockout mice were resistant to cachexia driven by tumors. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP and PTH mediate wasting through a common mechanism involving PTHR, and there exists an unexpected crosstalk mechanism between wasting of fat tissue and skeletal muscle. Targeting the PTH/PTHrP pathway may have therapeutic uses in humans with cachexia.
Project description:Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) are involved in cachexia associated with chronic kidney disease and cancer respectively. Tumor-derived PTHrP triggers adipose tissue browning and thereby leads to wasting of fat tissue in tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, elevated in 5/6 nephrectomized mice, PTH stimulates adipose tissue browning and wasting. Mice lacking the PTH/PTHrP receptor in their fat tissue are resistant to wasting of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Therefore, the PTH/PTHrP signaling in adipocytes should activate various pathways that contribute to hypermetabolism and muscle wasting. Overall design: Inguinal stroma-vascular fractions were cultured and differentiated into primary adipocytes. 8 days after differentiation, cells were treated with PTH(1-34) or PTHrP(1-34) (100 ng/ml each) for 4 hours.
Project description:Cachexia is a wasting disorder of adipose and skeletal muscle tissues that leads to profound weight loss and frailty. About half of all cancer patients suffer from cachexia, which impairs quality of life, limits cancer therapy and decreases survival. One key characteristic of cachexia is higher resting energy expenditure levels than in healthy individuals, which has been linked to greater thermogenesis by brown fat. How tumours induce brown fat activity is unknown. Here, using a Lewis lung carcinoma model of cancer cachexia, we show that tumour-derived parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has an important role in wasting, through driving the expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in adipose tissues. Neutralization of PTHrP in tumour-bearing mice blocked adipose tissue browning and the loss of muscle mass and strength. Our results demonstrate that PTHrP mediates energy wasting in fat tissues and contributes to the broader aspects of cancer cachexia. Thus, neutralization of PTHrP might hold promise for ameliorating cancer cachexia and improving patient survival.
Project description:PTH and PTHrP use the same G protein-coupled receptor, the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR), to mediate their distinct biological actions. The extent to which the mechanisms by which the two ligands bind to the PTHR differ is unclear. We examined this question using several pharmacological and biophysical approaches. Kinetic dissociation and equilibrium binding assays revealed that the binding of [(125)I]PTHrP(1-36) to the PTHR was more sensitive to GTPgammaS (added to functionally uncouple PTHR-G protein complexes) than was the binding of [(125)I]PTH(1-34) ( approximately 75% maximal inhibition vs. approximately 20%). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based kinetic analyses revealed that PTHrP(1-36) bound to the PTHR more slowly and dissociated from it more rapidly than did PTH(1-34). The cAMP signaling response capacity of PTHrP(1-36) in cells decayed more rapidly than did that of PTH(1-34) (t(1/2) = approximately 1 vs. approximately 2 h). Divergent residue 5 in the ligand, Ile in PTH and His in PTHrP, was identified as a key determinant of the altered receptor-interaction responses exhibited by the two peptides. We conclude that whereas PTH and PTHrP bind similarly to the G protein-coupled PTHR conformation (RG), PTH has a greater capacity to bind to the G protein-uncoupled conformation (R(0)) and, hence, can produce cumulatively greater signaling responses (via R(0)-->RG isomerization) than can PTHrP. Such conformational selectivity may relate to the distinct modes by which PTH and PTHrP act biologically, endocrine vs. paracrine, and may help explain reported differences in the effects that the ligands have on calcium and bone metabolism when administered to humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) triggers white adipose tissue (WAT) browning and cachexia in lung cancer mouse models. It remains unknown whether excessive PTH secretion affects WAT browning and to what extent it contributes to body weight change in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). METHODS:Using the adeno-associated virus injection, Pth gene over-expressed mice mimicking PHPT were firstly established to observe their WAT browning and body weight alteration. The association between PTH and body weight was investigated in 496 PHPT patients. The adipose browning activities of 20 PHPT and 60 control subjects were measured with PET/CT scanning. FINDINGS:Elevated plasma PTH triggered adipose tissue browning, leading to increased energy expenditure, reduced fat content, and finally decreased body weight in PHPT mice. Higher circulating PTH levels were associated with lower body weight (β = -0.048, P = .0003) independent of renal function, serum calcium, phosphorus,and albumin levels in PHPT patients. PHPT patients exhibited both higher prevalence of detectable brown/beige adipose tissue (20% vs 3.3%, P = .03) and increased browning activities (SUV in cervical adipose was 0.77 vs 0.49,P = .02) compared with control subjects. INTERPRETATION:Elevated serum PTH drove WAT browning program, which contributed in part to body weight loss in both PHPT mice and patients. These results give insights into the novel pathological effect of PTH and are of importance in understanding the metabolic changes of PHPT. FUND: This research is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Project description:The parathyroid hormone (PTH) type 1 receptor (PTHR) is the canonical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for PTH and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) and the key regulator of calcium homeostasis and bone turnover. PTHR function is critical for human health to maintain homeostatic control of ionized serum Ca2+ levels and has several unusual signaling features, such as endosomal cAMP signaling, that are well-studied but not structurally understood. In this review, we discuss how recently solved high resolution near-atomic structures of hormone-bound PTHR in its inactive and active signaling states and discovery of extracellular Ca2+ allosterism shed light on the structural basis for PTHR signaling and function.
Project description:Bone plays a role in energy metabolism, but the interplay between bone and other organs in this process is not completely understood. Here, we show that upregulated Hh signaling in bones results in increased whole-body energy expenditure, white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, hypoglycemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that Hh signaling induces PTHrP secretion from bones and causes WAT browning. Injection of PTHrP-neutralizing antibody attenuates WAT browning and improves the circulating blood glucose level while high-fat diet treatment only rescues hypoglycemia. Furthermore, bone-derived PTHrP stimulates adiponectin secretion in WAT and results in systemic increase of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake. Mechanistically, PTHrP activates both PKA/cAMP and Akt/Foxo pathways for Ucp1 expression in WAT. PTHrP couples adiponectin actions to activate the AMPK pathway in the skeletal muscles and liver, respectively, for fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new bone-adipose hormonal relay that regulates whole-body energy metabolism.
Project description:Cancer is commonly associated with cachexia, a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by body weight loss, muscle wasting, adipose tissue atrophy and inflammation. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of multiple types of cancer, and enhances cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. To test, C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0% or 20% (w/v) alcohol for 3 months, then inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma cells subcutaneously in the right side of the hip and continued to feed with/without alcohol for 3 or 4 weeks. Alcohol intake upregulated ALDH1A1 expression and elevated retinoic acid (RA) content in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), which led to enhanced iWAT browning and brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation, accelerating fat loss. Moreover, alcohol increased muscle loss through augmenting muscle protein degradation, cell apoptosis and inflammation. In addition, alcohol reduced satellite cell density and impaired myogenesis in skeletal muscle. Taken together, alcohol aggravates cancer-associated cachexia at least partially through elevating adipose browning and muscle atrophy.
Project description:Energy dissipation through the promotion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) or browning of white adipose tissue has recently evolved as novel promising concept in the fight against metabolic disease. New evidence suggests that hormones can contribute to the thermogenic programming of adipocytes through paracrine or endocrine actions. Recent studies in rodents identified parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related peptide as mediators of energy wasting in cachexia models due to adipocyte browning. However, the effects of PTH on human adipocyte thermogenesis and metabolic activity are unknown. Here we isolated subcutaneous white adipocyte precursor cells (APCs) from human donors followed by stimulation with recombinant PTH. Our data show that acute and chronic PTH administration in primary in vitro differentiated human subcutaneous adipocytes induces a molecular thermogenic program with increased mitochondrial activity and oxidative respiratory capacity. PTH also enhances hormone sensitive lipase activity and lipolysis in human adipocytes which may contribute to the observed thermogenic effects. In summary, we demonstrate here that PTH is a novel mediator of human adipocyte browning, suggesting a hitherto unknown endocrine axis between the parathyroid gland and adipose tissue in humans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ctns-/- mice, a mouse model of infantile nephropathic cystinosis, exhibit hypermetabolism with adipose tissue browning and profound muscle wasting. Ctns-/- mice are 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2 D3 insufficient. We investigated whether vitamin D repletion could ameliorate adipose tissue browning and muscle wasting in Ctns-/- mice. METHODS:Twelve-month-old Ctns-/- mice and wild-type controls were treated with 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2 D3 (75 ?g/kg/day and 60 ng/kg/day, respectively) or an ethylene glycol vehicle for 6 weeks. Serum chemistry and parameters of energy homeostasis were measured. We quantitated total fat mass and studied expression of molecules regulating adipose tissue browning, energy metabolism, and inflammation. We measured lean mass content, skeletal muscle fibre size, in vivo muscle function (grip strength and rotarod activity), and expression of molecules regulating muscle metabolism. We also analysed the transcriptome of skeletal muscle in Ctns-/- mice using RNAseq. RESULTS:Supplementation of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2 D3 normalized serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2 D3 in Ctns-/- mice, respectively. Repletion of vitamin D partially or fully normalized food intake, weight gain, gain of fat, and lean mass, improved energy homeostasis, and attenuated perturbations of uncoupling proteins and adenosine triphosphate content in adipose tissue and muscle in Ctns-/- mice. Vitamin D repletion attenuated elevated expression of beige adipose cell biomarkers (UCP-1, CD137, Tmem26, and Tbx1) as well as aberrant expression of molecules implicated in adipose tissue browning (Cox2, Pgf2?, and NF-?B pathway) in inguinal white adipose tissue in Ctns-/- mice. Vitamin D repletion normalized skeletal muscle fibre size and improved in vivo muscle function in Ctns-/- mice. This was accompanied by correcting the increased muscle catabolic signalling (increased protein contents of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? as well as an increased gene expression of Murf-2, atrogin-1, and myostatin) and promoting the decreased muscle regeneration and myogenesis process (decreased gene expression of Igf1, Pax7, and MyoD) in skeletal muscles of Ctns-/- mice. Muscle RNAseq analysis revealed aberrant gene expression profiles associated with reduced muscle and neuron regeneration, increased energy metabolism, and fibrosis in Ctns-/- mice. Importantly, repletion of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2 D3 normalized the top 20 differentially expressed genes in Ctns-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS:We report the novel findings that correction of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2 D3 insufficiency reverses cachexia and may improve quality of life by restoring muscle function in an animal model of infantile nephropathic cystinosis. Mechanistically, vitamin D repletion attenuates adipose tissue browning and muscle wasting in Ctns-/- mice via multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms.
Project description:Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 insufficient. We studied whether vitamin D repletion could correct aberrant adipose tissue and muscle metabolism in a mouse model of CKD-associated cachexia. Intraperitoneal administration of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 (75 ?g/kg/day and 60 ng/kg/day respectively for 6 weeks) normalized serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 in CKD mice. Vitamin D repletion stimulated appetite, normalized weight gain, and improved fat and lean mass content in CKD mice. Vitamin D supplementation attenuated expression of key molecules involved in adipose tissue browning and ameliorated expression of thermogenic genes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in CKD mice. Furthermore, repletion of vitamin D improved skeletal muscle fiber size and in vivo muscle function, normalized muscle collagen content and attenuated muscle fat infiltration as well as pathogenetic molecular pathways related to muscle mass regulation in CKD mice. RNAseq analysis was performed on the gastrocnemius muscle. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the top 12 differentially expressed genes in CKD were correlated with impaired muscle and neuron regeneration, enhanced muscle thermogenesis and fibrosis. Importantly, vitamin D repletion normalized the expression of those 12 genes in CKD mice. Vitamin D repletion may be an effective therapeutic strategy for adipose tissue browning and muscle wasting in CKD patients.