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Low Dose Iron Treatments Induce a DNA Damage Response in Human Endothelial Cells within Minutes.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Spontaneous reports from patients able to report vascular sequelae in real time, and recognition that serum non transferrin bound iron may reach or exceed 10?mol/L in the blood stream after iron tablets or infusions, led us to hypothesize that conventional iron treatments may provoke acute vascular injury. This prompted us to examine whether a phenotype could be observed in normal human endothelial cells treated with low dose iron. METHODOLOGY:Confluent primary human endothelial cells (EC) were treated with filter-sterilized iron (II) citrate or fresh media for RNA sequencing and validation studies. RNA transcript profiles were evaluated using directional RNA sequencing with no pre-specification of target sequences. Alignments were counted for exons and junctions of the gene strand only, blinded to treatment types. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Rapid changes in RNA transcript profiles were observed in endothelial cells treated with 10?mol/L iron (II) citrate, compared to media-treated cells. Clustering for Gene Ontology (GO) performed on all differentially expressed genes revealed significant differences in biological process terms between iron and media-treated EC, whereas 10 sets of an equivalent number of randomly selected genes from the respective EC gene datasets showed no significant differences in any GO terms. After 1 hour, differentially expressed genes clustered to vesicle mediated transport, protein catabolism, and cell cycle (Benjamini p = 0.0016, 0.0024 and 0.0032 respectively), and by 6 hours, to cellular response to DNA damage stimulus most significantly through DNA repair genes FANCG, BLM, and H2AFX. Comet assays demonstrated that 10?M iron treatment elicited DNA damage within 1 hour. This was accompanied by a brisk DNA damage response pulse, as ascertained by the development of DNA damage response (DDR) foci, and p53 stabilization. SIGNIFICANCE:These data suggest that low dose iron treatments are sufficient to modify the vascular endothelium, and induce a DNA damage response.

SUBMITTER: Mollet IG 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4750942 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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