An RNAi-Based Candidate Screen for Modifiers of the CHD1 Chromatin Remodeler and Assembly Factor in Drosophila melanogaster.
ABSTRACT: The conserved chromatin remodeling and assembly factor CHD1 (chromodomains, helicase, DNA-binding domain) is present at active genes where it participates in histone turnover and recycling during transcription. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the mechanism of action of CHD1 during development, we created a novel genetic assay in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate potential functional interactions between CHD1 and other chromatin factors. We found that overexpression of CHD1 results in defects in wing development and utilized this fully penetrant and reliable phenotype to conduct a small-scale RNAi-based candidate screen to identify genes that functionally interact with chd1 in vivo. Our results indicate that CHD1 may act in opposition to other remodeling factors, including INO80, and that the recruitment of CHD1 to active genes by RTF1 is conserved in flies.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers catalyze dynamic packaging of the genome by carrying out nucleosome assembly/disassembly, histone exchange, and nucleosome repositioning. Remodeling results in evenly spaced nucleosomes, which requires probing both sides of the nucleosome, yet the way remodelers organize sliding activity to achieve this task is not understood. Here, we show that the monomeric Chd1 remodeler shifts DNA back and forth by dynamically alternating between different segments of the nucleosome. During sliding, Chd1 generates unstable remodeling intermediates that spontaneously relax to a pre-remodeled position. We demonstrate that nucleosome sliding is tightly controlled by two regulatory domains: the DNA-binding domain, which interferes with sliding when its range is limited by a truncated linking segment, and the chromodomains, which play a key role in substrate discrimination. We propose that active interplay of the ATPase motor with the regulatory domains may promote dynamic nucleosome structures uniquely suited for histone exchange and chromatin reorganization during transcription.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers are ATP-driven machines that assemble, slide, and remove nucleosomes from DNA, but how the ATPase motors of remodelers are regulated is poorly understood. Here we show that the double chromodomain unit of the Chd1 remodeler blocks DNA binding and activation of the ATPase motor in the absence of nucleosome substrates. The Chd1 crystal structure reveals that an acidic helix joining the chromodomains can pack against a DNA-binding surface of the ATPase motor. Disruption of the chromodomain-ATPase interface prevents discrimination between nucleosomes and naked DNA and reduces the reliance on the histone H4 tail for nucleosome sliding. We propose that the chromodomains allow Chd1 to distinguish between nucleosomes and naked DNA by physically gating access to the ATPase motor, and we hypothesize that related ATPase motors may employ a similar strategy to discriminate among DNA-containing substrates.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers are ATP-dependent enzymes that are critical for reorganizing and repositioning nucleosomes in concert with many basic cellular processes. For the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 1 (Chd1) remodeler, nucleosome sliding has been shown to depend on the DNA flanking the nucleosome, transcription factor binding at the nucleosome edge, and the presence of the histone H2A/H2B dimer on the entry side. Here, we report that Chd1 is also sensitive to the sequence of DNA within the nucleosome and slides nucleosomes made with the 601 Widom positioning sequence asymmetrically. Kinetic and equilibrium experiments show that poly(dA:dT) tracts perturb remodeling reactions if within one and a half helical turns of superhelix location 2 (SHL2), where the Chd1 ATPase engages nucleosomal DNA. These sequence-dependent effects do not rely on the Chd1 DNA-binding domain and are not due to differences in nucleosome affinity. Using site-specific cross-linking, we show that internal poly(dA:dT) tracts do not block the engagement of the ATPase motor with SHL2, yet they promote multiple translational positions of DNA with respect to both Chd1 and the histone core. We speculate that Chd1 senses the sequence-dependent response of DNA as the remodeler ATPase perturbs the duplex at SHL2. These results suggest that the sequence sensitivity of histones and remodelers occur at unique segments of DNA on the nucleosome, allowing them to work together or in opposition to determine nucleosome positions throughout the genome.
Project description:Although yeast PHO5 promoter chromatin opening is a founding model for chromatin remodeling, the complete set of involved remodelers remained unknown for a long time. The SWI/SNF and INO80 remodelers cooperate here, but nonessentially, and none of the many tested single or combined remodeler gene mutations could prevent PHO5 promoter opening. RSC, the most abundant and only remodeler essential for viability, was a controversial candidate for the unrecognized remodeling activity but unassessed in vivo. Now we show that remodels the structure of chromatin (RSC) is crucially involved in PHO5 promoter opening. Further, the isw1 chd1 double deletion also delayed chromatin remodeling. Strikingly, combined absence of RSC and Isw1/Chd1 or Snf2 abolished for the first time promoter opening on otherwise sufficient induction in vivo. Together with previous findings, we recognize now a surprisingly complex network of five remodelers (RSC, SWI/SNF, INO80, Isw1 and Chd1) from four subfamilies (SWI/SNF, INO80, ISWI and CHD) as involved in PHO5 promoter chromatin remodeling. This is likely the first described complete remodeler set for a physiological chromatin transition. RSC was hardly involved at the coregulated PHO8 or PHO84 promoters despite cofactor recruitment by the same transactivator and RSC's presence at all three promoters. Therefore, promoter-specific chromatin rather than transactivators determine remodeler requirements.
Project description:The molecular motor protein CHD1 has been implicated in the regulation of transcription and in the transcription-independent genome-wide incorporation of H3.3 into paternal chromatin in Drosophila melanogaster. A key feature of CHD1 is the presence of two chromodomains, which can bind to histone H3 methylated at lysine 4 and thus might serve to recruit and/or maintain CHD1 at the chromatin. Here, we describe genetic and biochemical approaches to the study of the Drosophila CHD1 chromodomains. We found that overall localization of CHD1 on polytene chromosomes does not appreciably change in chromodomain-mutant flies. In contrast, the chromodomains are important for transcription-independent activities of CHD1 during early embryonic development as well as for transcriptional regulation of several heat shock genes. However, neither CHD1 nor its chromodomains are needed for RNA polymerase II localization and H3K4 methylation but loss of CHD1 decreases transcription-induced histone eviction at the Hsp70 gene in vivo. Chromodomain mutations negatively affect the chromatin assembly activities of CHD1 in vitro, and they appear to be involved in linking the ATP-dependent motor to the chromatin assembly function of CHD1.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers use a helicase-like ATPase motor to reposition and reorganize nucleosomes along genomic DNA. Yet, how the ATPase motor communicates with other remodeler domains in the context of the nucleosome has so far been elusive. Here, we report for the Chd1 remodeler a unique organization of domains on the nucleosome that reveals direct domain-domain communication. Site-specific cross-linking shows that the chromodomains and ATPase motor bind to adjacent SHL1 and SHL2 sites, respectively, on nucleosomal DNA and pack against the DNA-binding domain on DNA exiting the nucleosome. This domain arrangement spans the two DNA gyres of the nucleosome and bridges both ends of a wrapped, ?90-bp nucleosomal loop of DNA, suggesting a means for nucleosome assembly. This architecture illustrates how Chd1 senses DNA outside the nucleosome core and provides a basis for nucleosome spacing and directional sliding away from transcription factor barriers.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers are ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-powered motors that reposition nucleosomes throughout eukaryotic chromosomes. Remodelers possess autoinhibitory elements that control the direction of nucleosome sliding, but underlying mechanisms of inhibition have been unclear. Here, we show that autoinhibitory elements of the yeast Chd1 remodeler block nucleosome sliding by preventing initiation of twist defects. We show that two autoinhibitory elements-the chromodomains and bridge-reinforce each other to block sliding when the DNA-binding domain is not bound to entry-side DNA. Our data support a model where the chromodomains and bridge target nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states of the ATPase motor, favoring a partially disengaged state of the ATPase motor on the nucleosome. By bypassing distortions of nucleosomal DNA prior to ATP binding, we propose that autoinhibitory elements uncouple the ATP binding/hydrolysis cycle from DNA translocation around the histone core.
Project description:Double chromodomains occur in CHD proteins, which are ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors implicated in RNA polymerase II transcription regulation. Biochemical studies suggest important differences in the histone H3 tail binding of different CHD chromodomains. In human and Drosophila, CHD1 double chromodomains bind lysine 4-methylated histone H3 tail, which is a hallmark of transcriptionally active chromatin in all eukaryotes. Here, we present the crystal structure of the yeast CHD1 double chromodomains, and pinpoint their differences with that of the human CHD1 double chromodomains. The most conserved residues in these double chromodomains are the two chromoboxes that orient adjacently. Only a subset of CHD chromoboxes can form an aromatic cage for methyllysine binding, and methyllysine binding requires correctly oriented inserts. These factors preclude yeast CHD1 double chromodomains from interacting with the histone H3 tail. Despite great sequence similarity between the human CHD1 and CHD2 chromodomains, variation within an insert likely prevents CHD2 double chromodomains from binding lysine 4-methylated histone H3 tail as efficiently as in CHD1. By using the available structural and biochemical data we highlight the evolutionary specialization of CHD double chromodomains, and provide insights about their targeting capacities.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers are ATP-dependent motors that reorganize DNA packaging by disrupting canonical histone-DNA contacts within the nucleosome. Here, we show that the Chd1 chromatin remodeler stimulates DNA unwrapping from the edge of the nucleosome in a nucleotide-dependent and DNA sequence-sensitive fashion. Nucleosome binding, monitored by stopped flow, was complex and sensitive to nucleotide, with AMP-PNP promoting faster binding than ADP·BeF3-. Nucleosome unwrapping by Chd1, examined by bulk FRET, occurred in the presence and absence of nucleotide and did not require the Chd1 DNA-binding domain. In AMP-PNP conditions, Chd1 unwrapped one side of the Widom 601 DNA more easily than the other, consistent with previous observations of 601 asymmetry and indicating that Chd1 amplifies intrinsic sequence properties of nucleosomal DNA. Using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with contrast variation, we found distinct DNA conformations depending on the nucleotide analog bound to Chd1: with AMP-PNP, DNA primarily unwrapped in-plane with the nucleosomal disk, whereas with ADP·BeF3-, a significant fraction showed distinctive out-of-plane unwrapping as well. Taken together, our findings show tight coupling between entry/exit DNA of the nucleosome and the Chd1 ATPase motor, suggesting that dynamic nucleosome unwrapping is coupled to nucleosome binding and remodeling by Chd1.
Project description:Despite their canonical two-fold symmetry, nucleosomes in biological contexts are often asymmetric: functionalized with post-translational modifications (PTMs), substituted with histone variants, and even lacking H2A/H2B dimers. Here we show that the Widom 601 nucleosome positioning sequence can produce hexasomes in a specific orientation on DNA, providing a useful tool for interrogating chromatin enzymes and allowing for the generation of nucleosomes with precisely defined asymmetry. Using this methodology, we demonstrate that the Chd1 chromatin remodeler from Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires H2A/H2B on the entry side for sliding, and thus, unlike the back-and-forth sliding observed for nucleosomes, Chd1 shifts hexasomes unidirectionally. Chd1 takes part in chromatin reorganization surrounding transcribing RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and using asymmetric nucleosomes we show that ubiquitin-conjugated H2B on the entry side stimulates nucleosome sliding by Chd1. We speculate that biased nucleosome and hexasome sliding due to asymmetry contributes to the packing of arrays observed in vivo.