Comprehensive Genomic Analyses of the OM43 Clade, Including a Novel Species from the Red Sea, Indicate Ecotype Differentiation among Marine Methylotrophs.
ABSTRACT: The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs that play important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (here designated MBRS-H7) from the ultraoligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species that forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (Hawaii-Red Sea [H-RS] cluster) that is separate from the cluster represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low-chlorophyll and/or high-temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of the H-RS cluster include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely, the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex I (NUO) system in the H-RS cluster and the nonhomologous NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) system in the HTCC2181 cluster, which might have implications for their overall energetic yields.
Project description:NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) couples NADH oxidation and quinone reduction to proton translocation across an energy-transducing membrane. All complexes I contain a flavin to oxidize NADH, seven iron-sulfur clusters to transfer electrons from the flavin to quinone and an eighth cluster (N1a) on the opposite side of the flavin. The role of cluster N1a is unknown, but Escherichia coli complex I has an unusually high-potential cluster N1a and its reduced flavin produces H2O2, not superoxide, suggesting that cluster N1a may affect reactive oxygen species production. In the present study, we combine protein film voltammetry with mutagenesis in overproduced N1a-binding subunits to identify two residues that switch N1a between its high- (E. coli, valine and asparagine) and low- (Bos taurus and Yarrowia lipolytica, proline and methionine) potential forms. The mutations were incorporated into E. coli complex I: cluster N1a could no longer be reduced by NADH, but H2O2 and superoxide production were unaffected. The reverse mutations (that increase the potential by ~0.16 V) were incorporated into Y. lipolytica complex I, but N1a was still not reduced by NADH. We conclude that cluster N1a does not affect reactive oxygen species production by the complex I flavin; it is probably required for enzyme assembly or stability.
Project description:In aerobic microorganisms, the entry point of respiratory electron transfer is represented by the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase. The enzyme couples the oxidation of NADH with the reduction of quinone. In the type 1 NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Ndh1), this reaction is accompanied by the translocation of cations, such as H(+) or Na(+). In Escherichia coli, cation translocation is accomplished by the subunit NuoL, thus generating membrane potential (??). Some microorganisms achieve NADH oxidation by the alternative, nonelectrogenic type 2 NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Ndh2), which is not cation translocating. Since these enzymes had not been described in Staphylococcus aureus, the goal of this study was to identify proteins operating in the NADH:quinone segment of its respiratory chain. We demonstrated that Ndh2 represents a NADH:quinone oxidoreductase in S. aureus. Additionally, we identified a hypothetical protein in S. aureus showing sequence similarity to the proton-translocating subunit NuoL of complex I in E. coli: the NuoL-like protein MpsA. Mutants with deletion of the nuoL-like gene mpsA and its corresponding operon, mpsABC (mps for membrane potential-generating system), exhibited a small-colony-variant-like phenotype and were severely affected in ?? and oxygen consumption rates. The MpsABC proteins did not confer NADH oxidation activity. Using an Na(+)/H(+) antiporter-deficient E. coli strain, we could show that MpsABC constitute a cation-translocating system capable of Na(+) transport. Our study demonstrates that MpsABC represent an important functional system of the respiratory chain of S. aureus that acts as an electrogenic unit responsible for the generation of ??.
Project description:Na(+) is the second major coupling ion at membranes after protons, and many pathogenic bacteria use the sodium-motive force to their advantage. A prominent example is Vibrio cholerae, which relies on the Na(+)-pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) as the first complex in its respiratory chain. The Na(+)-NQR is a multisubunit, membrane-embedded NADH dehydrogenase that oxidizes NADH and reduces quinone to quinol. Existing models describing redox-driven Na(+) translocation by the Na(+)-NQR are based on the assumption that the pump contains four flavins and one FeS cluster. Here we show that the large, peripheral NqrA subunit of the Na(+)-NQR binds one molecule of ubiquinone-8. Investigations of the dynamic interaction of NqrA with quinones by surface plasmon resonance and saturation transfer difference NMR reveal a high affinity, which is determined by the methoxy groups at the C-2 and C-3 positions of the quinone headgroup. Using photoactivatable quinone derivatives, it is demonstrated that ubiquinone-8 bound to NqrA occupies a functional site. A novel scheme of electron transfer in Na(+)-NQR is proposed that is initiated by NADH oxidation on subunit NqrF and leads to quinol formation on subunit NqrA.
Project description:The primary mobile electron-carrier in the aerobic respiratory chain of Salmonella is ubiquinone. Demethylmenaquinone and menaquinone are alternative electron-carriers involved in anaerobic respiration. Ubiquinone biosynthesis was disrupted in strains bearing deletions of the ubiA or ubiE genes. In soft tryptone agar both mutant strains swam poorly. However, the ubiA deletion mutant strain produced suppressor mutant strains with somewhat rescued motility and growth. Six independent suppressor mutants were purified and comparative genome sequence analysis revealed that they each bore a single new missense mutation, which localized to genes for subunits of NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1. Four mutants bore an identical nuoG(Q297K) mutation, one mutant bore a nuoM(A254S) mutation and one mutant bore a nuoN(A444E) mutation. The NuoG subunit is part of the hydrophilic domain of NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1 and the NuoM and NuoN subunits are part of the hydrophobic membrane-embedded domain. Respiration was rescued and the suppressed mutant strains grew better in Luria-Bertani broth medium and could use l-malate as a sole carbon source. The quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane was characterized by reversed-phase HPLC. Wild-type cells made ubiquinone and menaquinone. Strains with a ubiA deletion mutation made demethylmenaquinone and menaquinone and the ubiE deletion mutant strain made demethylmenaquinone and 2-octaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone; the total quinone pool was reduced. Immunoblotting found increased NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1 levels for ubiquinone-biosynthesis mutant strains and enzyme assays measured electron transfer from NADH to demethylmenaquinone or menaquinone. Under certain growth conditions the suppressor mutations improved electron flow activity of NADH?:?quinone oxidoreductase-1 for cells bearing a ubiA deletion mutation.
Project description:The Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) from the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae couples the exergonic oxidation of NADH by membrane-bound quinone to Na+ translocation across the membrane. Na+-NQR consists of six different subunits (NqrA-NqrF) and contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster, a noncovalently bound FAD, a noncovalently bound riboflavin, two covalently bound FMNs and potentially Q8 as cofactors. Initial crystallization of the entire Na+-NQR complex was achieved by the sitting-drop method using a nanolitre dispenser. Optimization of the crystallization conditions yielded flat yellow-coloured crystals with dimensions of up to 200×80×20?µm. The crystals diffracted to 4.0?Å resolution and belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=94, b=146, c=105?Å, ?=?=90, ?=111°.
Project description:In mitochondria, complex I (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) couples electron transfer to proton translocation across an energy-transducing membrane. It contains a flavin mononucleotide to oxidize NADH, and an unusually long series of iron-sulfur (FeS) clusters that transfer the electrons to quinone. Understanding electron transfer in complex I requires spectroscopic and structural data to be combined to reveal the properties of individual clusters and of the ensemble. EPR studies on complex I from Bos taurus have established that five clusters (positions 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 along the seven-cluster chain extending from the flavin) are (at least partially) reduced by NADH. The other three clusters, positions 4 and 6 plus a cluster on the other side of the flavin, are not observed in EPR spectra from the NADH-reduced enzyme: they may remain oxidized, have unusual or coupled spin states, or their EPR signals may be too fast relaxing. Here, we use Mössbauer spectroscopy on (57)Fe-labeled complex I from the mitochondria of Yarrowia lipolytica to show that the cluster ensemble is only partially reduced in the NADH-reduced enzyme. The three EPR-silent clusters are oxidized, and only the terminal 4Fe cluster (position 7) is fully reduced. Together with the EPR analyses, our results reveal an alternating profile of higher and lower potential clusters between the two active sites in complex I; they are not consistent with the consensus picture of a set of isopotential clusters. The implications for intramolecular electron transfer along the extended chain of cofactors in complex I are discussed.
Project description:Respiratory complex I couples the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane. The reaction starts with NADH oxidation by a flavin cofactor followed by transferring the electrons through a chain of seven iron-sulphur clusters to quinone. An eighth cluster called N1a is located proximally to flavin, but on the opposite side of the chain of clusters. N1a is strictly conserved although not involved in the direct electron transfer to quinone. Here, we show that the NADH:ferricyanide oxidoreductase activity of E. coli complex I is strongly diminished when the reaction is initiated by an addition of ferricyanide instead of NADH. This effect is significantly less pronounced in a variant containing N1a with a 100?mV more negative redox potential. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that the reduced activity is due to a lower dissociation constant of bound NAD+. Thus, reduction of N1a induces local structural rearrangements of the protein that stabilise binding of NAD+. The variant features a considerably enhanced production of reactive oxygen species indicating that bound NAD+ represses this process.
Project description:NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in bovine heart mitochondria has a molecular weight of approximately 1 million Da composed of 45 distinct subunits. It is the largest energy transducing complex so far known. Bacterial complex I is simpler and smaller, but the essential redox components and the basic mechanisms of electron and proton translocation are the same. Over the past three decades, Ohnishi et al. have pursued extensive EPR studies near liquid helium temperatures and characterized most of the iron-sulfur clusters in complex I. Recently, Yakovlev et al. [G. Yakovlev, T. Reda, J. Hirst, Reevaluating the relationship between EPR spectra and enzyme structure for the iron-sulfur clusters in NADH:quinone oxidoreductase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104 (2007) 12720-12725] challenged Ohnishi's group by claiming that there were EPR "misassignments" among clusters N4, N5 and N6b (in order to prevent confusion, we used current consensus nomenclature, as the nickname). They claimed that we misassigned EPR signals arising from cluster N5 to cluster N4, and signals from cluster N6b to cluster N4. They also proposed that cluster N5 has (4Cys)-ligands. Based on the accumulated historical data and recent results of our site-specific mutagenesis experiments, we confirmed that cluster N5 has (1His+3Cys)-ligands as we had predicted. We revealed that E. coli cluster N5 signals could be clearly detected at the sample temperature around 3 K with microwave power higher than 5 mW. Thus Hirst's group could not detect N5 signals under any of their EPR conditions, reported in their PNAS paper. It seems that they misassigned the signals from cluster N4 to N5. As to the claim of "misassignment" between clusters N4 and N6b, that was not a possibility because our mutagenesis systems did not contain cluster N6b. Therefore, we believe that we have not made any "misassignment" in our work.
Project description:Lipids play a pivotal role in cellular respiration, providing the natural environment in which an oxidoreductase interacts with the quinone pool. To date, it is generally accepted that negatively charged lipids play a major role in the activity of quinone oxidoreductases. By changing lipid compositions when assaying a type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase, we demonstrate that phosphatidylethanolamine has an essential role in substrate binding and catalysis. We also reveal the importance of acyl chain composition, specifically c14:0, on membrane-bound quinone-mediated catalysis. This demonstrates that oxidoreductase lipid specificity is more diverse than originally thought and that the lipid environment plays an important role in the physiological catalysis of membrane-bound oxidoreductases.
Project description:Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), the first enzyme of the electron-transport chain, captures the free energy released by NADH oxidation and ubiquinone reduction to translocate protons across an energy-transducing membrane and drive ATP synthesis during oxidative phosphorylation. The cofactor that transfers the electrons directly to ubiquinone is an iron-sulfur cluster (N2) located in the NDUFS2/NUCM subunit. A nearby arginine residue (R121), which forms part of the second coordination sphere of the N2 cluster, is known to be posttranslationally dimethylated but its functional and structural significance are not known. Here, we show that mutations of this arginine residue (R121M/K) abolish the quinone-reductase activity, concomitant with disappearance of the N2 signature from the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum. Analysis of the cryo-EM structure of NDUFS2-R121M complex I at 3.7 Å resolution identified the absence of the cubane N2 cluster as the cause of the dysfunction, within an otherwise intact enzyme. The mutation further induced localized disorder in nearby elements of the quinone-binding site, consistent with the close connections between the cluster and substrate-binding regions. Our results demonstrate that R121 is required for the formation and/or stability of the N2 cluster and highlight the importance of structural analyses for mechanistic interpretation of biochemical and spectroscopic data on complex I variants.