Radical-mediated ring contraction in the biosynthesis of 7-deazapurines.
ABSTRACT: Pyrrolopyrimidine containing natural products are widely distributed in Nature. The biosynthesis of the 7-deazapurine moiety that is common to all pyrrolopyrimidines entails multiple steps, one of which is a complex radical-mediated ring contraction reaction catalyzed by CDG synthase. Herein we review the biosynthetic pathways of deazapurines, focusing on the biochemical and structural insights into CDG synthase.
Project description:We developed and presented here a ferrocene-catalyzed C-H imidation of 7-deazapurines (pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines) with N-imidyl peroxyesters. The reactions occur regioselectively at position 8 in 7-deazapurines, leading to a series of 8-succinimido-, phtalimido-, or naphthalimido-7-deazapurine derivatives. Attempted hydrazinolysis of resulting 8-imidyl-7-deazapurines led to corresponding 8-amino-7-deazapurine, which was very unstable and quickly decomposed.
Project description:Pyrrolopyrimidine nucleosides analogs, collectively referred to as deazapurines, are an important class of structurally diverse compounds found in a wide variety of biological niches. In this report, a cluster of genes from Streptomyces rimosus (ATCC 14673) involved in production of the deazapurine antibiotics sangivamycin and toyocamycin was identified. The cluster includes toyocamycin nitrile hydratase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of toyocamycin to sangivamycin. In addition to this rare nitrile hydratase, the cluster encodes a GTP cyclohydrolase I, linking the biosynthesis of deazapurines to folate biosynthesis, and a set of purine salvage/biosynthesis genes, which presumably convert the guanine moiety from GTP to the adenine-like deazapurine base found in toyocamycin and sangivamycin. The gene cluster presented here could potentially serve as a model to allow identification of deazapurine biosynthetic pathways in other bacterial species.
Project description:Deazapurine-containing secondary metabolites comprise a broad range of structurally diverse nucleoside analogues found throughout biology, including various antibiotics produced by species of Streptomyces bacteria and the hypermodified tRNA bases queuosine and archaeosine. Despite early interest in deazapurines as antibiotic, antiviral, and antineoplastic agents, the biosynthetic route toward deazapurine production has remained largely elusive for more than 40 years. Here we present the first in vitro preparation of the deazapurine base preQ(0), by the successive action of four enzymes. The pathway includes the conversion of the recently identified biosynthetic intermediate, 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin, to a novel intermediate, 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG), by an unusual transformation catalyzed by Bacillus subtilis QueE, a member of the radical SAM enzyme superfamily. The carboxylate moiety on CDG is converted subsequently to a nitrile to yield preQ(0) by either B. subtilis QueC or Streptomyces rimosus ToyM in an ATP-dependent reaction, in which ammonia serves as the nitrogen source. The results presented here are consistent with early radiotracer studies on deazapurine biosynthesis and provide a unified pathway for the production of deazapurines in nature.
Project description:7-Carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG) synthase (QueE) catalyzes the complex heterocyclic radical-mediated conversion of 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin (CPH(4)) to CDG in the third step of the biosynthetic pathway to all 7-deazapurines. Here we present a detailed characterization of QueE from Bacillus subtilis to delineate the mechanism of conversion of CPH(4) to CDG. QueE is a member of the radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) superfamily, all of which use a bound [4Fe-4S](+) cluster to catalyze the reductive cleavage of the SAM cofactor to generate methionine and a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical (5'-dAdo(•)), which initiates enzymatic transformations requiring hydrogen atom abstraction. The ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Mössbauer spectroscopic features of the homodimeric QueE point to the presence of a single [4Fe-4S] cluster per monomer. Steady-state kinetic experiments indicate a K(m) of 20 ± 7 ?M for CPH(4) and a k(cat) of 5.4 ± 1.2 min(-1) for the overall transformation. The kinetically determined K(app) for SAM is 45 ± 1 ?M. QueE is also magnesium-dependent and exhibits a K(app) for the divalent metal ion of 0.21 ± 0.03 mM. The SAM cofactor supports multiple turnovers, indicating that it is regenerated at the end of each catalytic cycle. The mechanism of rearrangement of QueE was probed with CPH(4) isotopologs containing deuterium at C-6 or the two prochiral positions at C-7. These studies implicate 5'-dAdo(•) as the initiator of the ring contraction reaction catalyzed by QueE by abstraction of the H atom from C-6 of CPH(4).
Project description:The synthesis of novel fluorescent N(9)-alkylated 2-amino-6-triazolylpurine and 7-deazapurine derivatives is described. A new C(2)-regioselectivity in the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions of 9-alkylated-2,6-diazidopurines and 7-deazapurines with secondary amines has been disclosed. The obtained intermediates, 9-alkylated-2-amino-6-azido-(7-deaza)purines, were transformed into the title compounds by CuAAC reaction. The designed compounds belong to the push-pull systems and possess promising fluorescence properties with quantum yields in the range from 28% to 60% in acetonitrile solution. Due to electron-withdrawing properties of purine and 7-deazapurine heterocycles, which were additionally extended by triazole moieties, the compounds with electron-donating groups showed intramolecular charge transfer character (ICT/TICT) of the excited states which was proved by solvatochromic dynamics and supported by DFT calculations. In the 7-deazapurine series this led to increased fluorescence quantum yield (74%) in THF solution. The compounds exhibit low cytotoxicity and as such are useful for the cell labelling studies in the future.
Project description:7-Carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG) synthase (QueE), a member of the radical S-deoxyadenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) superfamily of enzymes, catalyzes a radical-mediated ring rearrangement required to convert 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin (CPH4) into CDG, forming the 7-dezapurine precursor to all pyrrolopyrimidine metabolites. Members of the radical SAM superfamily bind SAM to a [4Fe-4S] cluster, leveraging the reductive cleavage of SAM by the cluster to produce a highly reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical which initiates chemistry by H atom abstraction from the substrate. QueE has recently been shown to use 6-carboxypterin (6-CP) as an alternative substrate, forming 6-deoxyadenosylpterin as the product. This reaction has been proposed to occur by radical addition between 5'-dAdo· and 6-CP, which upon oxidative decarboxylation yields the modified pterin. Here, we present spectroscopic evidence for a 6-CP-dAdo radical. The structure of this intermediate is determined by characterizing its electronic structure by continuous wave and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Project description:Radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes are widely distributed and catalyze diverse reactions. SAM binds to the unique iron atom of a site-differentiated [4Fe-4S] cluster and is reductively cleaved to generate a 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical, which initiates turnover. 7-Carboxy-7-deazaguanine (CDG) synthase (QueE) catalyzes a key step in the biosynthesis of 7-deazapurine containing natural products. 6-Carboxypterin (6-CP), an oxidized analogue of the natural substrate 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin (CPH4), is shown to be an alternate substrate for CDG synthase. Under reducing conditions that would promote the reductive cleavage of SAM, 6-CP is turned over to 6-deoxyadenosylpterin (6-dAP), presumably by radical addition of the 5'-deoxyadenosine followed by oxidative decarboxylation to the product. By contrast, in the absence of the strong reductant, dithionite, the carboxylate of 6-CP is esterified to generate 6-carboxypterin-5'-deoxyadenosyl ester (6-CP-dAdo ester). Structural studies with 6-CP and SAM also reveal electron density consistent with the ester product being formed in crystallo. The differential reactivity of 6-CP under reducing and nonreducing conditions highlights the ability of radical SAM enzymes to carry out both polar and radical transformations in the same active site.
Project description:Keeping the potential synergy of biological activity of synthetic anomalous derivatives of deazapurines and l-ascorbic acid (l-AA) in mind, we have synthesized new 3-, 7- and 9-deazapurine derivatives of l-ascorbic (1-4, 8-10, 13-15) and imino-l-ascorbic acid (5-7, 11, 12, 16-19). These novel compounds were evaluated for their cytostatic and antiviral activity in vitro against a panel of human malignant tumour cell lines and normal murine fibroblasts (3T3). Among all evaluated compounds, the 9-deazapurine derivative of l-AA (13) exerted the most potent inhibitory activity on the growth of CEM/0 cells (IC50 = 4.1 ± 1.8 ?M) and strong antiproliferative effect against L1210/0 (IC50 = 4.7 ± 0.1 ?M) while the 9-deazahypoxanthine derivative of l-AA (15) showed the best effect against HeLa cells (IC50 = 5.6 ± 1.3 ?M) and prominent effect on L1210/0 (IC50 = 4.5 ± 0.5 ?M). Furthermore, the 9-deazapurine derivative disubstituted with two imino-l-AA moieties (18) showed the best activity against L1210/0 tumour cells (IC50 = 4.4 ± 0.3 ?M) and the most pronounced antiproliferative effects against MiaPaCa-2 cells (IC50 = 5.7 ± 0.2 ?M). All these compounds showed selective cytostatic effect on tumour cell lines in comparison with embryonal murine fibroblasts (3T3). When evaluating their antiviral activity, the 3-deazapurine derivative of l-AA (3) exhibited the highest activity against both laboratory-adapted strains of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) (AD-169 and Davis) with EC50 values comparable to those of the well-known anti-HCMV drug ganciclovir and without cytotoxic effects on normal human embryonal lung (HEL) cells.
Project description:Pyrrolopyrimidines are an important class of natural products with a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer or anti-inflammatory. Here, we present the identification of a biosynthetic gene cluster from the rare actinomycete strain Kutzneria albida DSM 43870, which leads to the production of huimycin, a new member of the pyrrolopyrimidine family of compounds. The huimycin gene cluster was successfully expressed in the heterologous host strain Streptomyces albus Del14. The compound was purified, and its structure was elucidated by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The minimal huimycin gene cluster was identified through sequence analysis and a series of gene deletion experiments. A model for huimycin biosynthesis is also proposed in this paper.
Project description:We have developed an efficient and robust route to synthesize 4,5,7-trisubstituted pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines as potent kinase inhibitors. This solution-phase synthesis features a SNAr substitution reaction, cross-coupling reaction, one-pot reduction/reductive amination and N-alkylation reaction. These reactions occur rapidly with high yields and have broad substrate scopes. A variety of groups can be selectively introduced into the N5 and C7 positions of 4,5,7-trisubstituted pyrrolopyrimidines at a late stage of the synthesis, thereby providing a highly efficient approach to explore the structure-activity relationships of pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives. Four synthetic analogs have been profiled against a panel of 48 kinases and a new and selective FLT3 inhibitor 9 is identified.