Differential expression of pancreatic protein and chemosensing receptor mRNAs in NKCC1-null intestine.
ABSTRACT: AIM:To investigate the intestinal functions of the NKCC1 Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl cotransporter (SLC12a2 gene), differential mRNA expression changes in NKCC1-null intestine were analyzed. METHODS:Microarray analysis of mRNA from intestines of adult wild-type mice and gene-targeted NKCC1-null mice (n = 6 of each genotype) was performed to identify patterns of differential gene expression changes. Differential expression patterns were further examined by Gene Ontology analysis using the online Gorilla program, and expression changes of selected genes were verified using northern blot analysis and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction. Histological staining and immunofluorescence were performed to identify cell types in which upregulated pancreatic digestive enzymes were expressed. RESULTS:Genes typically associated with pancreatic function were upregulated. These included lipase, amylase, elastase, and serine proteases indicative of pancreatic exocrine function, as well as insulin and regenerating islet genes, representative of endocrine function. Northern blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that differential expression of exocrine pancreas mRNAs was specific to the duodenum and localized to a subset of goblet cells. In addition, a major pattern of changes involving differential expression of olfactory receptors that function in chemical sensing, as well as other chemosensing G-protein coupled receptors, was observed. These changes in chemosensory receptor expression may be related to the failure of intestinal function and dependency on parenteral nutrition observed in humans with SLC12a2 mutations. CONCLUSION:The results suggest that loss of NKCC1 affects not only secretion, but also goblet cell function and chemosensing of intestinal contents via G-protein coupled chemosensory receptors.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Infections resulting from intestinal yeast and bacteria affect a large number of patients with deficits in absorptive or secretory epithelial transport mechanisms. The basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) has been implicated in intestinal epithelial fluid secretion. Two patients with deleterious heterozygous (NKCC1-DFX, DFX for Asp-Phe-stop codon) or homozygous (Kilquist) mutations in SLC12A2 (NKCC1) suffered from gastrointestinal deficits. Because of chronic infections, the colon and the small intestine of the NKCC1-DFX patient were resected surgically. METHODS:To investigate how NKCC1 affects the integrity and function of the gut epithelia, we used a mouse model recapitulating the NKCC1-DFX patient mutation. Electron microscopy and immunostaining were used to analyze the integrity of the colonic mucus layers and immune cell infiltration. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on the distal colon sections to measure bacteria translocation to the mucosa and submucosa. Citrobacter rodentium was used to measure mouse ability to clear enteric infection. A multiplex cytokine assay was used to analyze mouse inflammatory response to infection. RESULTS:We show that NKCC1-DFX expression causes defective goblet cell mucus granule exocytosis, leading to secretion of intact granules into the lumen of the large intestine. In addition, NKCC1-DFX colon submucosal glands secrete mucus that remained attached to the epithelium. Importantly, expression of the mutant NKCC1 or complete loss of NKCC1 function leads to aggravated inflammatory response to C rodentium infection. Compared with wild-type, NKCC1-DFX mice showed decreased expression of claudin-2, a tight junction protein involved in paracellular Na+ and water transport and enteric infection clearance. CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that NKCC1-DFX impairs gut barrier function by affecting mucus secretion and immune properties.
Project description:This study describes a 13-yr-old girl with orthostatic intolerance, respiratory weakness, multiple endocrine abnormalities, pancreatic insufficiency, and multiorgan failure involving the gut and bladder. Exome sequencing revealed a de novo, loss-of-function allele in SLC12A2, the gene encoding the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter-1. The 11-bp deletion in exon 22 results in frameshift (p.Val1026Phefs*2) and truncation of the carboxy-terminal tail of the cotransporter. Preliminary studies in heterologous expression systems demonstrate that the mutation leads to a nonfunctional transporter, which is expressed and trafficked to the plasma membrane alongside wild-type NKCC1. The truncated protein, visible at higher molecular sizes, indicates either enhanced dimerization or misfolded aggregate. No significant dominant-negative effect was observed. K+ transport experiments performed in fibroblasts from the patient showed reduced total and NKCC1-mediated K+ influx. The absence of a bumetanide effect on K+ influx in patient fibroblasts only under hypertonic conditions suggests a deficit in NKCC1 regulation. We propose that disruption in NKCC1 function might affect sensory afferents and/or smooth muscle cells, as their functions depend on NKCC1 creating a Cl- gradient across the plasma membrane. This Cl- gradient allows the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor or other Cl- channels to depolarize the membrane affecting processes such as neurotransmission or cell contraction. Under this hypothesis, disrupted sensory and smooth muscle function in a diverse set of tissues could explain the patient's phenotype.
Project description:Among the electroneutral Na<sup>+</sup>-dependent chloride transporters, NKCC1 had until now evaded identification as a protein causing human diseases. The closely related <i>SLC12A</i> transporters, NKCC2 and NCC have been identified some 25 years ago as responsible for Bartter and Gitelman syndromes: two renal-dependent salt wasting disorders. Absence of disease was most surprising since the NKCC1 knockout mouse was shown in 1999 to be viable, albeit with a wide range of deleterious phenotypes. Here we summarize the work of the past 5 years that introduced us to clinical cases involving NKCC1. The most striking cases are of 3 children with inherited mutations, who have complete absence of NKCC1 expression. These cases establish that lack of NKCC1 causes deafness; CFTR-like secretory defects with mucus accumulation in lung and intestine; severe xerostomia, hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Another intriguing case is of a patient with a dominant deleterious <i>SLC12A2</i> allele. This <i>de novo</i> mutation introduced a premature stop codon leading to a truncated protein. This mutant transporter seems to exert dominant-negative effect on wild-type transporter only in epithelial cells. The patient who suffers from lung, bladder, intestine, pancreas, and multiple endocrine abnormalities has, however, normal hearing and cognition. Finally, new reports substantiate the haploinsufficiency prediction of the <i>SLC12A2</i> gene. Cases with single allele mutations in <i>SLC12A2</i> have been linked to hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disorders.
Project description:The Na(+)K(+)2Cl(-) cotransporter-1 (Slc12a2, NKCC1) is widely distributed and involved in cell volume/ion regulation. Functional NKCC1 locates in the plasma membrane of all cells studied, particularly in the basolateral membrane of most polarized cells. Although the mechanisms involved in plasma membrane sorting of NKCC1 are poorly understood, it is assumed that N-glycosylation is necessary. Here, we characterize expression, N-glycosylation, and distribution of NKCC1 in COS7 cells. We show that ~25% of NKCC1 is complex N-glycosylated whereas the rest of it corresponds to core/high-mannose and hybrid-type N-glycosylated forms. Further, ~10% of NKCC1 reaches the plasma membrane, mostly as core/high-mannose type, whereas ~90% of NKCC1 is distributed in defined intracellular compartments. In addition, inhibition of the first step of N-glycan biosynthesis with tunicamycin decreases total and plasma membrane located NKCC1 resulting in almost undetectable cotransport function. Moreover, inhibition of N-glycan maturation with swainsonine or kifunensine increased core/hybrid-type NKCC1 expression but eliminated plasma membrane complex N-glycosylated NKCC1 and transport function. Together, these results suggest that (i) NKCC1 is delivered to the plasma membrane of COS7 cells independently of its N-glycan nature, (ii) most of NKCC1 in the plasma membrane is core/hybrid-type N-glycosylated, and (iii) the minimal proportion of complex N-glycosylated NKCC1 is functionally active.
Project description:Na+K+2Cl- co-transporters (NKCCs) effect the electroneutral movement of Na+-K+ and 2Cl- ions across the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells. There are two known NKCC isoforms, NKCC1 (Slc12a2) and NKCC2 (Slc12a1). NKCC1 is a ubiquitously expressed transporter involved in cell volume regulation, Cl- homeostasis and epithelial salt secretion, whereas NKCC2 is abundantly expressed in kidney epithelial cells of the thick ascending loop of Henle, where it plays key roles in NaCl reabsorption and electrolyte homeostasis. Although NKCC1 and NKCC2 co-transport the same ions with identical stoichiometry, NKCC1 actively co-transports water whereas NKCC2 does not. There is growing evidence showing that NKCC2 is expressed outside the kidney, but its function in extra-renal tissues remains unknown. The present study shows molecular and functional evidence of endogenous NKCC2 expression in COS7 cells, a widely used mammalian cell model. Endogenous NKCC2 is primarily found in recycling endosomes, Golgi cisternae, Golgi-derived vesicles, and to a lesser extent in the endoplasmic reticulum. Unlike NKCC1, NKCC2 is minimally hybrid/complex N-glycosylated under basal conditions and yet it is trafficked to the plasma membrane region of hyper-osmotically challenged cells through mechanisms that require minimal complex N-glycosylation or functional Golgi cisternae. Control COS7 cells exposed to slightly hyperosmotic (~6.7%) solutions for 16 h were not shrunken, suggesting that either one or both NKCC1 and NKCC2 may participate in cell volume recovery. However, NKCC2 targeted to the plasma membrane region or transient over-expression of NKCC2 failed to rescue NKCC1 in COS7 cells where NKCC1 had been silenced. Further, COS7 cells in which NKCC1, but not NKCC2, was silenced exhibited reduced cell size compared to control cells. Altogether, these results suggest that NKCC2 does not participate in cell volume recovery and therefore, NKCC1 and NKCC2 are functionally different Na+K+2Cl- co-transporters.
Project description:Bumetanide (BTN or BUM) is a FDA-approved potent loop diuretic (LD) that acts by antagonizing sodium-potassium-chloride (Na-K-Cl) cotransporters, NKCC1 (SLc12a2) and NKCC2. While NKCC1 is expressed both in the CNS and in systemic organs, NKCC2 is kidney-specific. The off-label use of BTN to modulate neuronal transmembrane Cl- gradients by blocking NKCC1 in the CNS has now been tested as an anti-seizure agent and as an intervention for neurological disorders in pre-clinical studies with varying results. BTN safety and efficacy for its off-label use has also been tested in several clinical trials for neonates, children, adolescents, and adults. It failed to meet efficacy criteria for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) neonatal seizures. In contrast, positive outcomes in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), autism, and schizophrenia trials have been attributed to BTN in studies evaluating its off-label use. NKCC1 is an electroneutral neuronal Cl- importer and the dominance of NKCC1 function has been proposed as the common pathology for HIE seizures, TLE, autism, and schizophrenia. Therefore, the use of BTN to antagonize neuronal NKCC1 with the goal to lower internal Cl- levels and promote GABAergic mediated hyperpolarization has been proposed. In this review, we summarize the data and results for pre-clinical and clinical studies that have tested off-label BTN interventions and report variable outcomes. We also compare the data underlying the developmental expression profile of NKCC1 and KCC2, highlight the limitations of BTN's brain-availability and consider its actions on non-neuronal cells.
Project description:Early in development, GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in adults, is excitatory. NKCC1 (SLC12A2) encodes one of two cation chloride cotransporters mediating the conversion of GABA from excitatory to inhibitory. Using 3' and 5' RACE and PCR, we verified previously characterized alternative transcripts of NKCC1a (1-27) and NKCC1b (1-27(?21)), identified new NKCC1 transcripts, and explored their expression patterns during human prefrontal cortical development. A novel ultra-short transcript (1-2a) was expressed preferentially in the fetus. Expression of NKCC1b and 1-2a were decreased in schizophrenia compared with controls (NKCC1b: 0.8-fold decrease, p = 0.013; 1-2a: 0.8-fold decrease, p = 0.006). Furthermore, the expression of NKCC1b was associated with NKCC1 polymorphism rs3087889. The minor allele at rs3087889, associated with reduced NKCC1b expression (homozygous for major allele: N = 37; homozygous for minor allele: N = 15; 1.5-fold decrease; p < 0.01), was also associated with a modest increase in schizophrenia risk in a case-control sample (controls: N = 435; cases: N = 397, OR = 1.5). This same allele was then found associated with cognitive (n = 369) and fMRI (n = 313) intermediate phenotypes associated with schizophrenia-working memory (Cohen's d = 0.35), global cognition or g (d = 0.18), and prefrontal inefficiency (d = 0.36) as measured by BOLD fMRI during a working memory task. Together, these preclinical and clinical results suggest that variation in NKCC1 may increase risk for schizophrenia via alterations of mRNA expression at the molecular level and impairment of optimal prefrontal function at the macro or systems level.
Project description:GABA signaling molecules are critical for both human brain development and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We examined the expression of transcripts derived from three genes related to GABA signaling [GAD1 (GAD67 and GAD25), SLC12A2 (NKCC1), and SLC12A5 (KCC2)] in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampal formation of a large cohort of nonpsychiatric control human brains (n = 240) across the lifespan (from fetal week 14 to 80 years) and in patients with schizophrenia (n = 30-31), using quantitative RT-PCR. We also examined whether a schizophrenia risk-associated promoter SNP in GAD1 (rs3749034) is related to expression of these transcripts. Our studies revealed that development and maturation of both the PFC and hippocampal formation are characterized by progressive switches in expression from GAD25 to GAD67 and from NKCC1 to KCC2. Previous studies have demonstrated that the former leads to GABA synthesis, and the latter leads to switching from excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission. In the hippocampal formation, GAD25/GAD67 and NKCC1/KCC2 ratios are increased in patients with schizophrenia, reflecting a potentially immature GABA physiology. Remarkably, GAD25/GAD67 and NKCC1/KCC2 expression ratios are associated with rs3749034 genotype, with risk alleles again predicting a relatively less mature pattern. These findings suggest that abnormalities in GABA signaling critical to brain development contribute to genetic risk for schizophrenia.
Project description:Endolymph is the specialised extracellular fluid present inside the inner ear. In mammals, disruptions to endolymph homeostasis can result in either collapse or distension of the endolymphatic compartment in the cochlea, with concomitant hearing loss. The zebrafish little ears (lte) mutant shows a collapse of the otic vesicle in the larva, apparently owing to a loss of endolymphatic fluid in the ear, together with an over-inflation of the swim bladder. Mutant larvae display signs of abnormal vestibular function by circling and swimming upside down. The two available alleles of lte are homozygous lethal: mutant larvae fail to thrive beyond 6 days post-fertilisation. Patterning of the otic vesicle is apparently normal. However, the expression of several genes thought to play a role in endolymph production is downregulated, including the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter gene nkcc1 (slc12a2) and several Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase channel subunit genes. We show here that lte mutations correspond to lesions in nkcc1. Each allele has a point mutation that disrupts splicing, leading to frame shifts in the coding region that predict the generation of truncated products. Endolymph collapse in the lte/nkcc1 mutant shows distinct parallels to that seen in mouse Nkcc1 mutants, validating zebrafish as a model for the study of endolymph disorders. The collapse in ear volume can be ameliorated in the to27d allele of lte by injection of a morpholino that blocks splicing at an ectopic site introduced by the mutation. This exemplifies the use of morpholinos as potential therapeutic agents for genetic disease.
Project description:Chemosensing is a primary sense in nature, however little is known about its mechanism in Chelicerata. As a model organism we used the mite Varroa destructor, a key parasite of honeybees. Here we describe a transcriptomic analysis of two physiological stages for the Varroa foreleg, the site of primary olfactory organ. The transcriptomic analysis revealed transcripts of chemosensory related genes belonging to several groups. These include Niemann-Pick disease protein, type C2 (NPC2), gustatory receptors (GRs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and odorant binding proteins (OBP). However, no insect odorant receptors (ORs) and odorant co-receptors (ORcos) were found. In addition, we identified a homolog of the most ancient IR co-receptor, IR25a, in Varroa as well as in other members of Acari. High expression of this transcript in the mite's forelegs, while not detectable in the other pairs of legs, suggests a function for this IR25a-like in Varroa chemosensing.