Apocynin and ebselen reduce influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.
ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Oxidative stress is increased in COPD, IAV-induced lung inflammation and AECOPD. Therefore, we investigated whether targeting oxidative stress with the Nox2 oxidase inhibitors and ROS scavengers, apocynin and ebselen could ameliorate lung inflammation in a mouse model of AECOPD. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) generated from 9 cigarettes per day for 4 days. On day 5, mice were infected with 1 × 10(4.5) PFUs of the IAV Mem71 (H3N1). BALF inflammation, viral titers, superoxide production and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression were assessed 3 and 7 days post infection. IAV infection resulted in a greater increase in BALF inflammation in mice that had been exposed to CS compared to non-smoking mice. This increase in BALF inflammation in CS-exposed mice caused by IAV infection was associated with elevated gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and proteases, compared to CS alone mice. Apocynin and ebselen significantly reduced the exacerbated BALF inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine, chemokine and protease expression caused by IAV infection in CS mice. Targeting oxidative stress using apocynin and ebselen reduces IAV-induced lung inflammation in CS-exposed mice and may be therapeutically exploited to alleviate AECOPD.
Project description:Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease largely caused by cigarette smoking (CS) and is characterized by lung inflammation and airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. Approximately 50% of people with COPD die of a cardiovascular comorbidity and current pharmacological strategies provide little benefit. Therefore, drugs that target the lung and the cardiovascular system concurrently may be an advantageous therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to see whether losartan, an angiotensin-II AT1a receptor antagonist widely used to treat hypertension associated with cardiovascular disease, protects against CS-induced lung inflammation in mice. Male BALB/c mice were exposed to CS for 8 weeks and treated with either losartan (30?mg/kg) or vehicle daily. Mice were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) inflammation, and whole lung cytokine, chemokine and protease mRNA expression assessed. CS caused significant increases in BALF total cells, macrophages, neutrophils and whole lung IL-6, TNF-?, CXCL-1, IL-17A and MMP12 mRNA expression compared to sham-exposed mice. However, losartan only reduced CS-induced increases in IL-6 mRNA expression. Angiotensin-II receptor expression was reduced in lung tissue from CS-exposed mice. In conclusion, losartan did not inhibit CS-induced BALF cellularity despite reducing whole lung IL-6 mRNA and Ang-II receptor expression.
Project description:Cigarette smoke (CS) has been reported to induce oxidative stress and inflammatory process in the lungs. However, the role of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in the regulation of pulmonary inflammation remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of hUC-MSCs on lung inflammation in the acute CS-induced pulmonary inflammation animal model. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were intravenously administered 3 × 106, 1 × 107, and 3 × 107 cells/kg of hUC-MSCs as well as normal saline alone (control) after 3 days of CS exposure. Mice exposed to high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtered room air served as the CS control group. High-dose (3 × 107 cells/kg) hUC-MSC administration significantly decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of CS-exposed mice (p < 0.05). The chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 1/keratinocyte chemoattractant (CXCL1/KC) in BALF were significantly reduced by low-dose (3 × 106 cells/kg) and high-dose (3 × 107 cells/kg) hUC-MSC (p < 0.05). Medium-dose hUC-MSC administration decreased interleukin (IL)-1? in lung of mice, and TNF-? and caspase-3 were decreased in the lung of CS-exposed mice by medium- and high-dose MSC (p < 0.05). Low-dose hUC-MSCs significantly elevated serum CXCL1/KC and IL-1? in CS-exposed mice (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that high-dose hUC-MSCs reduced pulmonary inflammation and had antiapoptotic effects in acute pulmonary inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although epidemiological studies reveal that cigarette smoke (CS) facilitates the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, these studies offer limited information on the mechanisms involved. The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is involved in cell adhesion and acts as a receptor for hyaluronic acid and osteopontin. We aimed to investigate the role of CD44 in a murine model of CS-facilitated allergic airway inflammation.<h4>Methods</h4>Wild type (WT) and CD44 knock-out (KO) mice were exposed simultaneously to house dust mite (HDM) extract and CS. Inflammatory cells, hyaluronic acid (HA) and osteopontin (OPN) levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Proinflammatory mediators, goblet cell metaplasia and peribronchial eosinophilia were assessed in lung tissue. T-helper (Th) 1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine production was evaluated in mediastinal lymph node cultures.<h4>Results</h4>In WT mice, combined HDM/CS exposure increased the number of inflammatory cells and the levels of HA and OPN in BALF and Th2 cytokine production in mediastinal lymph nodes compared to control groups exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)/CS, HDM/Air or PBS/Air. Furthermore, HDM/CS exposure significantly increased goblet cell metaplasia, peribronchial eosinophilia and inflammatory mediators in the lung. CD44 KO mice exposed to HDM/CS had significantly fewer inflammatory cells in BALF, an attenuated Th2 cytokine production, as well as decreased goblet cells and peribronchial eosinophils compared to WT mice. In contrast, the levels of inflammatory mediators were similar or higher than in WT mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We demonstrate for the first time that the aggravation of pulmonary inflammation upon combined exposure to allergen and an environmental pollutant is CD44-dependent. Data from this murine model of concomitant exposure to CS and HDM might be of importance for smoking allergic asthmatics.
Project description:Daily oscillations of pulmonary function depend on the rhythmic activity of the circadian timing system. Environmental tobacco/cigarette smoke (CS) disrupts circadian clock leading to enhanced inflammatory responses. Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) increases hospitalization rates and death in susceptible individuals, including patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We hypothesized that molecular clock disruption is enhanced by IAV infection, altering cellular and lung function, leading to severity in airway disease phenotypes. C57BL/6J mice exposed to chronic CS, BMAL1 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates were infected with IAV. Following infection, we measured diurnal rhythms of clock gene expression in the lung, locomotor activity, pulmonary function, inflammatory, pro-fibrotic and emphysematous responses. Chronic CS exposure combined with IAV infection altered the timing of clock gene expression and reduced locomotor activity in parallel with increased lung inflammation, disrupted rhythms of pulmonary function, and emphysema. BMAL1 KO mice infected with IAV showed pronounced detriments in behavior and survival, and increased lung inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses. This suggests that remodeling of lung clock function following IAV infection alters clock-dependent gene expression and normal rhythms of lung function, enhanced emphysematous and injurious responses. This may have implications for the pathobiology of respiratory virus-induced airway disease severity and exacerbations.
Project description:Cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed mice have been used to model airway inflammation and emphesema in humans; however, the impact of exposure duration, sex, and strain differences in susceptibility to progression of airway inflammation and to emphesema are poorly investigated. This study was designed to determine the association between inflammation and emphysema by exposing 2 strains of mice, C3H/HeN (C3H) and C57BL/6 (Bl/6), to filtered air (FA) or CS for 10, 16, or 22 weeks. Both genders and strains of CS-exposed mice developed pulmonary inflammation as characterized by cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the BALF. CS exposure caused persistently higher number of BALF macrophages in C3H compared to BL/6 mice, while more BALF neutrophils and persistently higher MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were observed in BL/6 mice. The mean linear intercept (Lm) increased progressively by 26%, 33%, and 55% at 10, 16, and 22 weeks, respectively, in CS-exposed C3H mice compared to the matched air controls. In BL/6 mice, although CS exposure also increased the Lm compared to FA controls, no further increase in Lm beyond the levels observed at 16 weeks of exposure was observed by 22 weeks. These findings suggest that extent of inflammation is not associated with severity of emphysema and underscores the importance of carefully selecting the mouse strains and endpoints when exploring effective treatments for emphesema.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third leading cause of death globally and is characterized by airflow limitation that is progressive and not fully reversible. Cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD. Fifty percent of deaths in the COPD population are due to a cardiovascular event and it is now recognised that COPD is a risk factor for stroke. Whether COPD increases stroke severity has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether functional and histological endpoints of stroke outcomes in mice after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) were more severe in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). 7-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to room air or CS generated from 9 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week for 2, 8 and 12 weeks. Following air or CS exposure, mice underwent tMCAO surgery with an ischaemic period of 30-40 min or sham surgery. Mice were euthanised 24 h following the induction of ischaemia and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lungs and brains collected. Mice exposed to CS for 2 weeks and subjected to a stroke had similar BALF macrophages to air-exposed and stroke mice. However, CS plus stroke mice had significantly more BALF total cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes than air plus stroke mice. Mice exposed to CS for 8 and 12 weeks had significantly greater BALF total cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes than air-exposed mice, but stroke did not affect CS-induced BALF cellularity. Prior CS exposure did not worsen stroke-induced neurological deficit scores, reduced foregrip strength, infarct and oedema volumes. Collectively, we found that although CS exposure caused significant BALF inflammation, it did not worsen acute post-stroke outcomes in mice. This data suggests that while patients with COPD are at increased risk of stroke, it may not translate to COPD patients having more severe stroke outcomes.
Project description:Essentials H1N1 Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a hemostatic challenge for the lung. Tissue factor (TF) on lung epithelial cells maintains lung hemostasis after IAV infection. Reduced TF-dependent activation of coagulation leads to alveolar hemorrhage. Anticoagulation might increase the risk for hemorrhages into the lung during severe IAV infection.Background Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is a common respiratory tract infection that causes considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objective To investigate the effect of genetic deficiency of tissue factor (TF) in a mouse model of IAV infection. Methods Wild-type mice, low-TF (LTF) mice and mice with the TF gene deleted in different cell types were infected with a mouse-adapted A/Puerto Rico/8/34 H1N1 strain of IAV. TF expression was measured in the lungs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected to measure extracellular vesicle TF, activation of coagulation, alveolar hemorrhage, and inflammation. Results IAV infection of wild-type mice increased lung TF expression, activation of coagulation and inflammation in BALF, but also led to alveolar hemorrhage. LTF mice and mice with selective deficiency of TF in lung epithelial cells had low basal levels of TF and failed to increase TF expression after infection; these two strains of mice had more alveolar hemorrhage and death than controls. In contrast, deletion of TF in either myeloid cells or endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells did not increase alveolar hemorrhage or death after IAV infection. These results indicate that TF expression in the lung, particularly in epithelial cells, is required to maintain alveolar hemostasis after IAV infection. Conclusion Our study indicates that TF-dependent activation of coagulation is required to limit alveolar hemorrhage and death after IAV infection.
Project description:This observational study catalogues the overlap in metabolites between matched bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma, identifies the degree of congruence between these metabolomes in human and mouse, and determines how molecules may change in response to cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. Matched BALF and plasma was collected from mice (ambient air or CS-exposed) and humans (current or former smokers), and analyzed using mass spectrometry. There were 1155 compounds in common in all 4 sample types; fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids strongly overlapped between groups. In humans and mice, more than half of the metabolites present in BALF were also present in plasma. Mouse BALF and human BALF had a strong positive correlation with 2040 metabolites in common, suggesting that mouse models can be used to interrogate human lung metabolome changes. While power was affected by small sample size in the mouse study, the BALF metabolome appeared to be more affected by CS than plasma. CS-exposed mice showed increased plasma and BALF glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. This is the first report cataloguing the metabolites present across mouse and human, BALF and plasma. Findings are relevant to translational studies where mouse models are used to examine human disease, and where plasma may be interrogated in lieu of BALF or lung tissue.
Project description:Influenza A virus pandemics and emerging anti-viral resistance highlight the urgent need for novel generic pharmacological strategies that reduce both viral replication and lung inflammation. We investigated whether the primary enzymatic source of inflammatory cell ROS (reactive oxygen species), Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase, is a novel pharmacological target against the lung inflammation caused by influenza A viruses. Male WT (C57BL/6) and Nox2(-/y) mice were infected intranasally with low pathogenicity (X-31, H3N2) or higher pathogenicity (PR8, H1N1) influenza A virus. Viral titer, airways inflammation, superoxide and peroxynitrite production, lung histopathology, pro-inflammatory (MCP-1) and antiviral (IL-1β) cytokines/chemokines, CD8(+) T cell effector function and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis were assessed. Infection of Nox2(-/y) mice with X-31 virus resulted in a significant reduction in viral titers, BALF macrophages, peri-bronchial inflammation, BALF inflammatory cell superoxide and lung tissue peroxynitrite production, MCP-1 levels and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis when compared to WT control mice. Lung levels of IL-1β were ∼3-fold higher in Nox2(-/y) mice. The numbers of influenza-specific CD8+D(b)NP(366)+ and D(b)PA(224)+ T cells in the BALF and spleen were comparable in WT and Nox2(-/y) mice. In vivo administration of the Nox2 inhibitor apocynin significantly suppressed viral titer, airways inflammation and inflammatory cell superoxide production following infection with X-31 or PR8. In conclusion, these findings indicate that Nox2 inhibitors have therapeutic potential for control of lung inflammation and damage in an influenza strain-independent manner.
Project description:Although smoking cessation shows clear cardiovascular risk benefits, lung-related disease risk remains higher in former smokers than in never smokers. To better understand the factors involved in this phenomenon, ApoE-/- mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) or a smoking cessation-mimicking protocol for up to six months. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from CS-exposed ApoE-/- mice revealed the presence of high concentrations of mediators involved in functions ranging from inflammation to cell proliferation and tissue remodeling. Gene expression levels for many analytes found elevated in BALF were also increased in lung tissue, indicating that the inflammatory response was the result of local tissue activation and the contribution of recruited inflammatory cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of expression data from lungs of CS-exposed mice showed activation of pathways involved in cell proliferation and tissue remodeling and a progressive deactivation upon smoke exposure cessation. Distinct activation patterns of inflammation, complement, and xenobiotic metabolism pathways were found in nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma during CS exposure and smoking cessation. Exposure of ApoE-/- mice to CS for up to 6 months induced adaptive and inflammatory responses in the respiratory tract that were partially deactivated upon cessation. We were able to reveal molecular perturbations accompanying these changes during CS exposure and cessation. Differential CS-mediated responses of pulmonary and nasal tissues reflect common mechanisms but also the varying degrees of epithelial functional specialization along the respiratory tract. These findings provide novel clues for the identification of markers of COPD progression.