Fast Virtual Stenting with Active Contour Models in Intracranical Aneurysm.
ABSTRACT: Intracranial stents are becoming increasingly a useful option in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Image simulation of the releasing stent configuration together with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation prior to intervention will help surgeons optimize intervention scheme. This paper proposed a fast virtual stenting of IAs based on active contour model (ACM) which was able to virtually release stents within any patient-specific shaped vessel and aneurysm models built on real medical image data. In this method, an initial stent mesh was generated along the centerline of the parent artery without the need for registration between the stent contour and the vessel. Additionally, the diameter of the initial stent volumetric mesh was set to the maximum inscribed sphere diameter of the parent artery to improve the stenting accuracy and save computational cost. At last, a novel criterion for terminating virtual stent expanding that was based on the collision detection of the axis aligned bounding boxes was applied, making the stent expansion free of edge effect. The experiment results of the virtual stenting and the corresponding CFD simulations exhibited the efficacy and accuracy of the ACM based method, which are valuable to intervention scheme selection and therapy plan confirmation.
Project description:Flow diversion is a novel concept for intracranial aneurysm treatment. The recently developed Enterprise Vascular Reconstruction Device (Codman Neurovascular, Raynham MA) provides easy delivery and repositioning. Although designed specifically for restraining coils within an aneurysm, this stent has theoretical effects on modifying flow dynamics, which have not been studied. The goal of this study was to quantify the effect of single and multiple self-expanding Enterprise stents alone or in combination with balloon-mounted stents on aneurysm hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).The geometry of a wide-necked, saccular, basilar trunk aneurysm was reconstructed from computed tomographic angiography images. Various combinations of 1-3 stents were "virtually" conformed to fit into the vessel lumen and placed across the aneurysm orifice. CFD analysis was performed to calculate hemodynamic parameters considered important in aneurysm pathogenesis and thrombosis for each model.The complex aneurysmal flow pattern was suppressed by stenting. Stent placement lowered average flow velocity in the aneurysm; further reduction was achieved by additional stent deployment. Aneurysmal flow turnover time, an indicator of stasis, was increased to 114-117% for single-stent, 127-128% for double-stent, and 141% for triple-stent deployment. Furthermore, aneurysmal wall shear stress (WSS) decreased with increasing number of deployed stents.This is the first study analyzing flow modifications associated with placement of Enterprise stents for aneurysm occlusion. Placement of 2-3 stents significantly reduced intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic activities, thereby increasing the likelihood of inducing aneurysm thrombotic occlusion.
Project description:Patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) are prone to morbidity including atherosclerotic plaque that has been shown to correlate with altered wall shear stress (WSS) in the descending thoracic aorta (dAo). We created the first patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a CoA patient treated by Palmaz stenting to date, and compared resulting WSS distributions to those from virtual implantation of Genesis XD and modified NuMED CP stents, also commonly used for CoA. CFD models were created from magnetic resonance imaging, fluoroscopy and blood pressure data. Simulations incorporated vessel deformation, downstream vascular resistance and compliance to match measured data and generate blood flow velocity and time-averaged WSS (TAWSS) results. TAWSS was quantified longitudinally and circumferentially in the stented region and dAo. While modest differences were seen in the distal portion of the stented region, marked differences were observed downstream along the posterior dAo and depended on stent type. The Genesis XD model had the least area of TAWSS values exceeding the threshold for platelet aggregation in vitro, followed by the Palmaz and NuMED CP stents. Alterations in local blood flow patterns and WSS imparted on the dAo appear to depend on the type of stent implanted for CoA. Following confirmation in larger studies, these findings may aid pediatric interventional cardiologists in selecting the most appropriate stent for each patient, and ultimately reduce long-term morbidity following treatment for CoA by stenting.
Project description:We investigated the flow modifications induced by a large panel of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) intracranial stents in an idealized sidewall intracranial aneurysm (IA). Flow velocities in IA silicone model were assessed with and without stent implantation using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). The use of the recently developed multi-time-lag method has allowed for uniform and precise measurements of both high and low velocities at IA neck and dome, respectively. Flow modification analysis of both regular (RSs) and flow diverter stents (FDSs) was subsequently correlated with relevant geometrical stent parameters. Flow reduction was found to be highly sensitive to stent porosity variations for regular stents RSs and moderately sensitive for FDSs. Consequently, two distinct IA flow change trends, with velocity reductions up to 50% and 90%, were identified for high-porosity RS and low-porosity FDS, respectively. The intermediate porosity (88%) regular braided stent provided the limit at which the transition in flow change trend occurred with a flow reduction of 84%. This transition occurred with decreasing stent porosity, as the driving force in IA neck changed from shear stress to differential pressure. Therefore, these results suggest that stents with intermediate porosities could possibly provide similar flow change patterns to FDS, favourable to curative thrombogenesis in IAs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to assess the ability of a novel virtual coronary intervention (VCI) tool based on invasive angiography to predict the patient's physiological response to stenting. BACKGROUND:Fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with improved clinical and economic outcomes compared with angiographic guidance alone. Virtual (v)FFR can be calculated based upon a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the coronary anatomy from the angiogram, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. This technology can be used to perform virtual stenting, with a predicted post-PCI FFR, and the prospect of optimized treatment planning. METHODS:Patients undergoing elective PCI had pressure-wire-based FFR measurements pre- and post-PCI. A 3D reconstruction of the diseased artery was generated from the angiogram and imported into the VIRTUheart workflow, without the need for any invasive physiological measurements. VCI was performed using a radius correction tool replicating the dimensions of the stent deployed during PCI. Virtual FFR (vFFR) was calculated pre- and post-VCI, using CFD analysis. vFFR pre- and post-VCI were compared with measured (m)FFR pre- and post-PCI, respectively. RESULTS:Fifty-four patients and 59 vessels underwent PCI. The mFFR and vFFR pre-PCI were 0.66 ± 0.14 and 0.68 ± 0.13, respectively. Pre-PCI vFFR deviated from mFFR by ±0.05 (mean Δ = -0.02; SD = 0.07). The mean mFFR and vFFR post-PCI/VCI were 0.90 ± 0.05 and 0.92 ± 0.05, respectively. Post-VCI vFFR deviated from post-PCI mFFR by ±0.02 (mean Δ = -0.01; SD = 0.03). Mean CFD processing time was 95 s per case. CONCLUSIONS:The authors have developed a novel VCI tool, based upon the angiogram, that predicts the physiological response to stenting with a high degree of accuracy.
Project description:We aimed to examine aneurysm hemodynamics with intra-saccular pressure measurement, and compare the effects of coiling, stenting and stent-assisted coiling in proximal segments of intracranial circulation. A cohort of 45 patients underwent elective endovascular coil embolization (with or without stent) for intracranial aneurysm at our department. Arterial pressure transducer was used for all measurements. It was attached to proximal end of the microcatheter. Measurements were taken in the parent artery before and after embolization, at the aneurysm dome before embolization, after stent implantation, and after embolization. Stent-assisted coiling was performed with 4 different stents: LVIS and LVIS Jr (Microvention, Tustin, CA, USA), Leo (Balt, Montmorency, France), Barrel VRD (Medtronic/ Covidien, Irvine, CA, USA). Presence of the stent showed significant reverse correlation with intra-aneurysmal pressure-both systolic and diastolic-after its implantation (r = -0.70 and r = -0.75, respectively), which was further supported by correlations with stent cell size-r = 0.72 and r = 0.71, respectively (P<0.05). Stent implantation resulted in significant decrease in diastolic intra-aneurysmal pressure (p = 0.046). Systolic or mean intra-aneurysmal pressure did not differ significantly. Embolization did not significantly change the intra-aneurysmal pressure in matched pairs, regardless of the use of stent (p>0.05). In conclusion, low-profile braided stents show a potential to divert blood flow, there was significant decrease in diastolic pressure after stent placement. Flow-diverting properties were related to stent porosity. Coiling does not significantly change the intra-aneurysmal pressure, regardless of packing density.
Project description:Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed "virtual surgeries". The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.
Project description:Atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis (CS) continues to be a common cause of acute ischaemic stroke. Optimised medical therapy (OMT), the first-line treatment modality in CS, may reduce or delay - but it does not abolish - CS-related strokes. As per current AHA/ASA and ESC/ESVS/ESO guidelines, carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a less-invasive alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for CS revascularisation in primary and secondary stroke prevention. Ten-year follow-up from the CREST trial in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic CS confirmed equipoise of CAS and CEA in the primary endpoint. Nevertheless CAS - using a widely open-cell, first-generation stent and first-generation (distal/filter) neuroprotection - has been criticised for its relative excess of (mostly minor) strokes by 30 days, a significant proportion of which were post-procedural. Atherosclerotic plaque protrusion through conventional carotid stent struts, confirmed on intravascular imaging, has been implicated as a leading mechanism of the relative excess of strokes with CAS vs. CEA, including delayed strokes with CAS. Different designs of mesh-covered carotid stents have been developed to prevent plaque prolapse. Several multi-centre/multi-specialty clinical studies with CGurad MicroNet-Covered Embolic Prevention Stent System (EPS) and RoadSaver/Casper were recently published and included routine DW-MRI cerebral imaging peri-procedurally and at 30 days (CGuard EPS). Data from more than 550 patients in mesh-covered carotid stent clinical studies to-date show an overall 30-day complication rate of ~1% with near-elimination of post-procedural events. While more (and long-term) evidence is still anticipated, these results - taken together with optimised intra-procedural neuroprotection in CAS (increased use of proximal systems including trans-carotid dynamic flow reversal) and the positive 12-month mesh-covered stent data reports in 2017 - are transforming the carotid revascularisation field today. Establishing effective algorithms to identify the asymptomatic subjects at stroke risk despite OMT, and large-scale studies with mesh-covered stents including long-term clinical and duplex ultrasound outcomes, are the next major goals.
Project description:Oesophageal stenting is now standard treatment for managing both benign and malignant stenosis of the oesophagus. There is a wide choice in oesophageal stents currently available on the market, with variations in the stent material, size and design. Most oesophageal stents are made from metal alloy compounds for use in malignant strictures, although there are stents made of durable polymers, and now of biodegradable (BD) material, for use in both benign and malignant strictures. With the development of self-expanding plastic stents, self-expanding metal stents and BD stents, stent placement for oesophageal pathologies can be safe and cost-effective. Oesophageal stenting has several challenges for a therapeutic endoscopist which is determined by the location of stricture or tumour, the anatomy of the stenosis and the nature of stent selected. Strictures that have narrow or tortuous lumens can be particularly difficult to stent as the luminal diameter must allow access of at least a 0.035 inch guide wire. This review covers the indications and outcomes of different stents in clinical situations to help rational decision-making.
Project description:In aortic endovascular repair, the prediction of stented vessel remodeling informs treatment plans and risk evaluation; however, there are no highly accurate and efficient methods to quantitatively simulate stented vessels. This study developed a fast virtual stenting algorithm to simulate stent-induced aortic remodeling to assist in real-time thoracic endovascular aortic repair planning. Methods: The virtual stenting algorithm was established based on simplex deformable mesh and mechanical contact analysis. The key parameters of the mechanical contact analysis were derived from mechanical tests on aortic tissue (n=40) and commonly used stent-grafts (n=6). Genetic algorithm was applied to select weighting parameters. Testing and validation of the algorithm were performed using pre- and post-treatment computed tomography angiography datasets of type-B aortic dissection cases (n=66). Results: The algorithm was efficient in simulating stent-induced aortic deformation (mean computing time on a single processor: 13.78±2.80s) and accurate at the morphological (curvature difference: 1.57±0.57%; cross-sectional area difference: 4.11±0.85%) and hemodynamic (similarity of wall shear stress-derived parameters: 90.16-90.94%) levels. Stent-induced wall deformation was higher (p<0.05) in distal stent-induced new entry cases than in successfully treated cases, and this deformation did not differ significantly among the different stent groups. Additionally, the high stent-induced wall deformation regions and the new-entry sites overlapped, indicating the usefulness of wall deformation to evaluate the risks of device-induced complications. Conclusion: The novel algorithm provided fast real-time and accurate predictions of stent-graft deployment with luminal deformation tracking, thereby potentially informing individualized stenting planning and improving endovascular aortic repair outcomes. Large, multicenter studies are warranted to extend the algorithm validation and determine stress-induced wall deformation cutoff values for the risk stratification of particular complications.
Project description:Currently, endovascular treatment is indicated to treat femoropopliteal lesions ?15 cm. However, the Achilles' heel of femoropopliteal endovascular repair remains restenosis. Paclitaxel eluting stents have shown promising results to prevent restenosis in femoropopliteal lesions compared to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. A recently released prospective registry using a newer generation of self-expandable nitinol stents (Misago®; Terumo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) supports primary bare metal stenting as a first-line treatment for femoropopliteal lesions. To date, no studies have been designed to compare bare metal stents to paclitaxel eluting stents for the treatment of femoropoliteal lesions. The BATTLE trial was designed to compare paclitaxel eluting stents (Zilver® PTX®) and a last generation bare self-expandable nitinol stents (Misago® RX, Terumo Corp., Tokyo, Japan) in the treatment of intermediate length femoropopliteal lesions (?14 cm).A prospective, randomized (1:1), controlled, multicentric and international study has been designed. One hundred and eighty-six patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria will be randomized to one of the two assessments of endovascular repair to treat de novo femoropopliteal lesions ?14 cm in symptomatic patients (Rutherford 2 to 5): bare stent group and paclitaxel eluting stent group. The primary endpoint is freedom from in-stent restenosis at 1 year defined by a peak systolic velocity index >2.4 (restenosis of >50%) at the target lesion and assessed by duplex scan. Our main objective is to demonstrate the clinical superiority of primary stenting using Zilver® PTX® stent system versus bare metal self-expandable stenting in the treatment of femoropopliteal lesions in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease.This is the first randomized and controlled study to compare the efficacy of bare metal stents and paclitaxel eluting stents for the treatment of femoropopliteal lesions. It may clarify the indication of stent choice for femoropopliteal lesions of intermediate length.Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02004951. 3 December 2013.