Detection and Magnetic Source Imaging of Fast Oscillations (40-160 Hz) Recorded with Magnetoencephalography in Focal Epilepsy Patients.
ABSTRACT: We present a framework to detect fast oscillations (FOs) in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and to perform magnetic source imaging (MSI) to determine the location and extent of their generators in the cortex. FOs can be of physiologic origin associated to sensory processing and memory consolidation. In epilepsy, FOs are of pathologic origin and biomarkers of the epileptogenic zone. Seventeen patients with focal epilepsy previously confirmed with identified FOs in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) were evaluated. To handle data deriving from large number of sensors (275 axial gradiometers) we used an automatic detector with high sensitivity. False positives were discarded by two human experts. MSI of the FOs was performed with the wavelet based maximum entropy on the mean method. We found FOs in 11/17 patients, in only one patient the channel with highest FO rate was not concordant with the epileptogenic region and might correspond to physiologic oscillations. MEG FOs rates were very low: 0.02-4.55 per minute. Compared to scalp EEG, detection sensitivity was lower, but the specificity higher in MEG. MSI of FOs showed concordance or partial concordance with proven generators of seizures and epileptiform activity in 10/11 patients. We have validated the proposed framework for the non-invasive study of FOs with MEG. The excellent overall concordance with other clinical gold standard evaluation tools indicates that MEG FOs can provide relevant information to guide implantation for intracranial EEG pre-surgical evaluation and for surgical treatment, and demonstrates the important added value of choosing appropriate FOs detection and source localization methods.
Project description:We investigated the relationship between the scalp distribution of fast (40-150 Hz) oscillations (FOs) and epileptogenic lesions in West syndrome (WS) and related disorders. Subjects were 9 pediatric patients with surgically confirmed structural epileptogenic pathology (age at initial electroencephalogram [EEG] recording: mean 7.1 months, range 1-22 months). The diagnosis was WS in 7 patients, Ohtahara syndrome in 1, and a transitional state from Ohtahara syndrome to WS in the other. In the scalp EEG data of these patients, we conservatively detected FOs, and then examined the distribution of FOs. In five patients, the scalp distribution of FOs was consistent and concordant with the lateralization of cerebral pathology. In another patient, FOs were consistently dominant over the healthy cerebral hemisphere, and the EEG was relatively low in amplitude over the pathological atrophic hemisphere. In the remaining 3 patients, the dominance of FOs was inconsistent and, in 2 of these patients, the epileptogenic hemisphere was reduced in volume, which may result from atrophy or hypoplasia. The correspondence between the scalp distribution of FOs and the epileptogenic lesion should be studied, taking the type of lesion into account. The factors affecting scalp FOs remain to be elucidated.
Project description:Sleep spindles are approximately 1 s bursts of 10-16 Hz activity that occur during stage 2 sleep. Spindles are highly synchronous across the cortex and thalamus in animals, and across the scalp in humans, implying correspondingly widespread and synchronized cortical generators. However, prior studies have noted occasional dissociations of the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) from the EEG during spindles, although detailed studies of this phenomenon have been lacking. We systematically compared high-density MEG and EEG recordings during naturally occurring spindles in healthy humans. As expected, EEG was highly coherent across the scalp, with consistent topography across spindles. In contrast, the simultaneously recorded MEG was not synchronous, but varied strongly in amplitude and phase across locations and spindles. Overall, average coherence between pairs of EEG sensors was approximately 0.7, whereas MEG coherence was approximately 0.3 during spindles. Whereas 2 principle components explained approximately 50% of EEG spindle variance, >15 were required for MEG. Each PCA component for MEG typically involved several widely distributed locations, which were relatively coherent with each other. These results show that, in contrast to current models based on animal experiments, multiple asynchronous neural generators are active during normal human sleep spindles and are visible to MEG. It is possible that these multiple sources may overlap sufficiently in different EEG sensors to appear synchronous. Alternatively, EEG recordings may reflect diffusely distributed synchronous generators that are less visible to MEG. An intriguing possibility is that MEG preferentially records from the focal core thalamocortical system during spindles, and EEG from the distributed matrix system.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes at the time of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) identify their associated vascular/hemodynamic responses. BOLD activations and deactivations can be found within the epileptogenic zone but also at a distance. Source imaging identifies electric (ESI) and magnetic (MSI) sources of IEDs, with the advantage of a higher temporal resolution. Therefore, the objective of our study was to evaluate the spatial concordance between ESI/MSI and BOLD responses for similar IEDs.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty-one patients with similar IEDs in simultaneous electroencephalogram/functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) and in simultaneous EEG/magnetoencephalogram (MEG) recordings were studied. IEDs in EEG/fMRI acquisition were analyzed in an event-related paradigm within a general linear model (GLM). ESI/MSI of averaged IEDs was performed using the Maximum Entropy on the Mean. We assessed the spatial concordance between ESI/MSI and clusters of BOLD activations/deactivations with surface-based metrics.<h4>Results</h4>ESI/MSI were concordant with one BOLD cluster for 20/21 patients (concordance with activation: 14/21 patients, deactivation: 6/21 patients, no concordance: 1/21 patients; concordance with MSI only: 3/21, ESI only: 2/21). These BOLD clusters exhibited in 19/20 cases the most significant voxel. BOLD clusters that were spatially concordant with ESI/MSI were concordant with IEDs from invasive recordings in 8/11 patients (activations: 5/8, deactivations: 3/8).<h4>Conclusion</h4>As the results of BOLD, ESI and MSI are often concordant, they reinforce our confidence in all of them. ESI and MSI confirm the most significant BOLD cluster within BOLD maps, emphasizing the importance of these clusters for the definition of the epileptic focus.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has a suppressing effect on epileptic activity. This effect might be directly related to neuronal desynchronization mediated by cholinergic neurotransmission. We investigated whether interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and high frequency oscillations-a biomarker of the epileptogenic zone-are evenly distributed across phasic and tonic REM sleep. We hypothesized that IEDs are more suppressed during phasic REM sleep because of additional cholinergic drive.<h4>Methods</h4>Twelve patients underwent polysomnography during long-term combined scalp-intracerebral electroencephalography (EEG) recording. After sleep staging in the scalp EEG, we identified segments of REM sleep with rapid eye movements (phasic REM) and segments of REM sleep without rapid eye movements (tonic REM). In the intracerebral EEG, we computed the power in frequencies <30 Hz and from 30 to 500 Hz, and marked IEDs, ripples (>80 Hz) and fast ripples (>250 Hz). We grouped the intracerebral channels into channels in the seizure-onset zone (SOZ), the exclusively irritative zone (EIZ), and the normal zone (NoZ).<h4>Results</h4>Power in frequencies <30 Hz was lower during phasic than tonic REM sleep (p < 0.001), most likely reflecting increased desynchronization. IEDs, ripples and fast ripples, were less frequent during phasic than tonic REM sleep (phasic REM sleep: 39% of spikes, 35% of ripples, 18% of fast ripples, tonic REM sleep: 61% of spikes, 65% of ripples, 82% of fast ripples; p < 0.001). In contrast to ripples in the epileptogenic zone, physiologic ripples were more abundant during phasic REM sleep (phasic REM sleep: 73% in NoZ, 30% in EIZ, 28% in SOZ, tonic REM sleep: 27% in NoZ, 70% in EIZ, 72% in SOZ; p < 0.001).<h4>Significance</h4>Phasic REM sleep has an enhanced suppressive effect on IEDs, corroborating the role of EEG desynchronization in the suppression of interictal epileptic activity. In contrast, physiologic ripples were increased during phasic REM sleep, possibly reflecting REM-related memory consolidation and dreaming.
Project description:Simultaneous scalp EEG/functional MRI measures non-invasively haemodynamic responses to interictal epileptic discharges, which are related to the epileptogenic zone. High frequency oscillations are also an excellent indicator of this zone, but are primarily recorded from intracerebral EEG. We studied the spatial overlap of these two important markers in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy to assess if their combination could help better define the extent of the epileptogenic zone. We included patients who underwent EEG-functional MRI and later intracerebral EEG. Based on intracerebral EEG findings, we separated patients with unifocal seizures from patients with multifocal or unknown onset seizures. Haemodynamic t-maps were coregistered with the intracerebral electrode positions. Each EEG channel was classified as pertaining to one of the following categories: primary haemodynamic cluster (maximum t-value), secondary cluster (t-value > 90% of the primary cluster) or outside the primary and secondary clusters. We marked high frequency oscillations (ripples: 80-250 Hz; fast ripples: 250-500 Hz) during 1 h of slow wave sleep, and compared their rates in each haemodynamic category. After classifying channels as high- or low-rate, the proportion of high-rate channels within the primary or primary plus secondary clusters was compared to the proportion expected by chance. Twenty-five patients, 11 with unifocal and 14 with multifocal/unknown seizure onsets, were studied. We found a significantly higher median high frequency oscillation rate in the primary cluster compared to secondary cluster and outside these two clusters for the unifocal group (P < 0.0001), but not for the multifocal/unknown group. For the unifocal group, the number of high-rate channels within the primary or primary plus secondary clusters was significantly higher than expected by chance. This held only for the high-ripple-rate channels in the multifocal/unknown group. At the patient level, most patients (18/25, or 72%) had at least one high-rate channel within a primary cluster. In patients with unifocal epilepsy, the maximum haemodynamic response (primary cluster) related to scalp interictal discharges overlaps with the tissue generating high frequency oscillations at high rates. If intracranial EEG is warranted, this response should be explored. As a tentative clinical use of the combination of these techniques we propose that higher high frequency oscillation rates inside than outside the maximum response indicates that the patient has indeed a focal epileptogenic zone demarcated by this response, whereas similar rates inside and outside may indicate a widespread epileptogenic zone or an epileptogenic zone not covered by the implantation.
Project description:Sleep spindles are approximately 1-second bursts of 10-15 Hz activity, occurring during normal stage 2 sleep. In animals, sleep spindles can be synchronous across multiple cortical and thalamic locations, suggesting a distributed stable phase-locked generating system. The high synchrony of spindles across scalp EEG sites suggests that this may also be true in humans. However, prior MEG studies suggest multiple and varying generators.We recorded 306 channels of MEG simultaneously with 60 channels of EEG during naturally occurring spindles of stage 2 sleep in 7 healthy subjects. High-resolution structural MRI was obtained in each subject, to define the shells for a boundary element forward solution and to reconstruct the cortex providing the solution space for a noise-normalized minimum norm source estimation procedure. Integrated across the entire duration of all spindles, sources estimated from EEG and MEG are similar, diffuse and widespread, including all lobes from both hemispheres. However, the locations, phase and amplitude of sources simultaneously estimated from MEG versus EEG are highly distinct during the same spindles. Specifically, the sources estimated from EEG are highly synchronous across the cortex, whereas those from MEG rapidly shift in phase, hemisphere, and the location within the hemisphere.The heterogeneity of MEG sources implies that multiple generators are active during human sleep spindles. If the source modeling is correct, then EEG spindles are generated by a different, diffusely synchronous system. Animal studies have identified two thalamo-cortical systems, core and matrix, that produce focal or diffuse activation and thus could underlie MEG and EEG spindles, respectively. Alternatively, EEG spindles could reflect overlap at the sensors of the same sources as are seen from the MEG. Although our results generally match human intracranial recordings, additional improvements are possible and simultaneous intra- and extra-cranial measures are needed to test their accuracy.
Project description:Objective: The aim of this study was to use voxel-based MRI post-processing in detection of subtle FCD in drug-resistant operculoinsular epilepsy patients with negative presurgical MRI, and by combining magnetoencephalography (MEG) to improve the localization of epileptogenic zone. Methods: Operculoinsular epilepsy patients with a negative presurgical MRI were included in this study. MRI post-processing was performed using a Morphometric Analysis Program (MAP) on T1-weighted volumetric MRI. Clinical information including semiology, MEG, scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), intracranial EEG and surgical strategy was retrospectively reviewed. The pertinence of MAP-positive areas was confirmed by surgical outcome and pathology. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed with operculoinsular epilepsy had non-lesional MRI during 2010-2018, of which 11 patients with resective surgeries were included. MEG showed clusters of single equivalent current dipole (SECD) in inferior frontal regions in five patients and temporal-insular/ frontal-temporal-insular/parietal-insular regions in five patients. Four out of 11 patients had positive MAP results. The MAP positive rate was 36.4%. The positive regions were in insular in one patient and operculoinsular regions in three patients. Three of the four patients who were MAP-positive got seizure-free after successfully resect the MAP-positive and MEG-positive regions (the pathology results were FCD IIb in two patients and FCD IIa in one patient). Conclusions: MAP is a useful tool in detection the epileptogenic lesions in patients with MRI-negative operculoinsular epilepsy. Notably, in order to make a right surgical regime decision, MAP results should always be interpreted in the context of the patient's anatomo-electroclinical presentation.
Project description:Drug-resistant focal epilepsy is a major clinical problem and surgery is under-used. Better non-invasive techniques for epileptogenic zone localization are needed when MRI shows no lesion or an extensive lesion. The problem is interictal and ictal localization before propagation from the epileptogenic zone. High-density EEG (HDEEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) offer millisecond-order temporal resolution to address this but co-acquisition is challenging, ictal MEG studies are rare, long-term prospective studies are lacking, and fundamental questions remain. Should HDEEG-MEG discharges be assessed independently [electroencephalographic source localization (ESL), magnetoencephalographic source localization (MSL)] or combined (EMSL) for source localization? Which phase of the discharge best characterizes the epileptogenic zone (defined by intracranial EEG and surgical resection relative to outcome)? Does this differ for interictal and ictal discharges? Does MEG detect mesial temporal lobe discharges? Thirteen patients (10 non-lesional, three extensive-lesional) underwent synchronized HDEEG-MEG (72-94 channel EEG, 306-sensor MEG). Source localization (standardized low-resolution tomographic analysis with MRI patient-individualized boundary-element method) was applied to averaged interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) and ictal discharges at three phases: 'early-phase' (first latency 90% explained variance), 'mid-phase' (first of 50% rising-phase, 50% mean global field power), 'late-phase' (negative peak). 'Earliest-solution' was the first of the three early-phase solutions (ESL, MSL, EMSL). Prospective follow-up was 3-21 (median 12) months before surgery, 14-39 (median 21) months after surgery. IEDs (n = 1474) were recorded, seen in: HDEEG only, 626 (42%); MEG only, 232 (16%); and both 616 (42%). Thirty-three seizures were captured, seen in: HDEEG only, seven (21%); MEG only, one (3%); and both 25 (76%). Intracranial EEG was done in nine patients. Engel scores were I (9/13, 69%), II (2/13,15%), and III (2/13). MEG detected baso-mesial temporal lobe epileptogenic zone sources. Epileptogenic zone OR [odds ratio(s)] were significantly higher for earliest-solution versus early-phase IED-surgical resection and earliest-solution versus all mid-phase and late-phase solutions. ESL outperformed EMSL for ictal-surgical resection [OR 3.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-11.55, P = 0.036]. MSL outperformed EMSL for IED-intracranial EEG (OR 4.67, 95% CI 1.19-18.34, P = 0.027). ESL outperformed MSL for ictal-surgical resection (OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.16-12.03, P = 0.028) but was outperformed by MSL for IED-intracranial EEG (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.73, P = 0.017). Thus, (i) HDEEG and MEG source solutions more accurately localize the epileptogenic zone at the earliest resolvable phase of interictal and ictal discharges, not mid-phase (as is common practice) or late peak-phase (when signal-to-noise ratios are maximal); (ii) from empirical observation of the differential timing of HDEEG and MEG discharges and based on the superiority of ESL plus MSL over either modality alone and over EMSL, concurrent HDEEG-MEG signals should be assessed independently, not combined; (iii) baso-mesial temporal lobe sources are detectable by MEG; and (iv) MEG is not 'more accurate' than HDEEG-emphasis is best placed on the earliest signal (whether HDEEG or MEG) amenable to source localization. Our findings challenge current practice and our reliance on invasive monitoring in these patients. 10.1093/brain/awz015_video1 awz015media1 6018582479001.
Project description:In this paper, we analyze spatial sampling of electro- (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), where the electric or magnetic field is typically sampled on a curved surface such as the scalp. By simulating fields originating from a representative adult-male head, we study the spatial-frequency content in EEG as well as in on- and off-scalp MEG. This analysis suggests that on-scalp MEG, off-scalp MEG and EEG can benefit from up to 280, 90 and 110 spatial samples, respectively. In addition, we suggest a new approach to obtain sensor locations that are optimal with respect to prior assumptions. The approach also allows to control, e.g., the uniformity of the sensor locations. Based on our simulations, we argue that for a low number of spatial samples, model-informed non-uniform sampling can be beneficial. For a large number of samples, uniform sampling grids yield nearly the same total information as the model-informed grids.