Identification of a prostaglandin D2 metabolite as a neuritogenesis enhancer targeting the TRPV1 ion channel.
ABSTRACT: Mast cells play important roles in allergic inflammation by secreting various mediators. In the present study, based on the finding that the medium conditioned by activated RBL-2H3 mast cells enhanced the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuritogenesis of PC12 cells, we attempted to isolate an active compound from the mast cell conditioned culture medium. Our experiment identified 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), one of the PGD2 metabolites, as a potential enhancer of neuritogenesis. 15d-PGJ2 strongly enhanced the neuritogenesis elicited by a low-concentration of NGF that alone was insufficient to induce the neuronal differentiation. This 15d-PGJ2 effect was exerted in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, but independently of the NGF receptor TrkA. Importantly, 15d-PGJ2 activated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-type 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel, leading to the Ca(2+) influx. In addition, we observed that (i) NGF promoted the insertion of TRPV1 into the cell surface membrane and (ii) 15d-PGJ2 covalently bound to TRPV1. These findings suggest that the NGF/15d-PGJ2-induced neuritogenesis may be regulated by two sets of mechanisms, one for the translocation of TRPV1 into the cell surface by NGF and one for the activation of TRPV1 by 15d-PGJ2. Thus, there is most likely a link between allergic inflammation and activation of the neuronal differentiation.
Project description:The signaling lipid molecule 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has multiple cellular functions, including anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities. Here, we report that 15d-PGJ2 blocks translation through inactivation of translational initiation factor eIF4A. Binding of 15d-PGJ2 to eIF4A blocks the interaction between eIF4A and eIF4G that is essential for translation of many mRNAs. Cysteine 264 in eIF4A is the target site of 15d-PGJ2. The antineoplastic activity of 15d-PGJ2 is likely attributed to inhibition of translation. Moreover, inhibition of translation by 15d-PGJ2 results in stress granule (SG) formation, into which TRAF2 is sequestered. The sequestration of TRAF2 contributes to the anti-inflammatory activity of 15d-PGJ2. These findings reveal a novel cross-talk between translation and inflammatory response, and offer new approaches to develop anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs that target translation factors including eIF4A.
Project description:15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an anti-inflammatory/anti-neoplastic prostaglandin that functions through covalent binding to cysteine residues of various target proteins. We previously showed that 15d-PGJ2 mediated anti-inflammatory responses are dependent on the translational inhibition through its interaction with eIF4A (Kim et al., 2007). Binding of 15d-PGJ2 to eIF4A specifically blocks the interaction between eIF4G and eIF4A, which leads to the formation of stress granules (SGs), which then cluster mRNAs with inhibited translation. Here, we show that the binding between 15d-PGJ2 and eIF4A specifically blocks the interaction between the MIF4G domain of eIF4G and eIF4A. To reveal the mechanism of this interaction, we used computational simulation-based docking studies and identified that the carboxyl tail of 15d-PGJ2 could stabilize the binding of 15d-PGJ2 to eIF4A through arginine 295 of eIF4A, which is the first suggestion that the 15d-PGJ2 tail plays a physiological role. Interestingly, the putative 15d-PGJ2 binding site on eiF4A is conserved across many species, suggesting a biological role. Our data propose that studying 15d-PGJ2 and its targets may uncover new therapeutic approaches in anti-inflammatory drug discovery.
Project description:Urinary obstruction is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, leading to renal dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Using a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model, we examined the effects of 15d-PGJ2 on oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidney. Mice were subjected to UUO for 3 days and treated with 15d-PGJ2. Protein and RNA expression were examined using immunoblotting and qPCR. 15d-PGJ2 increased NF-E2-related nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf2) protein expression in response to UUO, and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a downstream target of Nrf2, was induced by 15d-PGJ2. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2 prevented protein carbonylation, a UUO-induced oxidative stress marker. Inflammation, measured by nuclear NF-?B, F4/80, and MCP-1, was increased in response to UUO and further increased by 15d-PGJ2. Renal injury was aggravated by 15d-PGJ2 treatment as measured by kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and cortical caspase 3 content. No effect of 15d-PGJ2 was observed on renal function in mice subjected to UUO. This study illustrates differentiated functioning of 15d-PGJ2 on inflammation and oxidative stress in response to obstructive nephropathy. High concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 protects against oxidative stress during 3-day UUO in mice; however, it aggravates the associated inflammation.
Project description:PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) is a nuclear receptor that is activated by natural lipid metabolites, including 15d-PGJ2 (15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2). We previously reported that several oxidized lipid metabolites covalently bind to PPARgamma through a Michael-addition to activate transcription. To separate the ligand-entering (dock) and covalent-binding (lock) steps in PPARgamma activation, we investigated the binding kinetics of 15d-PGJ2 to the PPARgamma LBD (ligand-binding domain) by stopped-flow spectroscopy. We analysed the spectral changes of 15d-PGJ2 by multi-wavelength global fitting based on a two-step chemical reaction model, in which an intermediate state represents the 15d-PGJ2-PPARgamma complex without covalent binding. The extracted spectrum of the intermediate state in wild-type PPARgamma was quite similar to the observed spectrum of 15d-PGJ2 in the C285S mutant, which cannot be activated by 15d-PGJ2, indicating that the complex remains in the inactive, intermediate state in the mutant. Thus 'lock' rather than 'dock' is one of the critical steps in PPARgamma activation by 15d-PGJ2.
Project description:An endogenous anticancer agent, 15-deoxy -?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) induces apoptosis in the chemoresistant renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor for 15d-PGJ2, and mediates the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2 in many cancerous cells. However, 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis independently of PPAR? in human RCC cell line such as Caki-2. In the present study, we found that 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated the chemoresistance to one of anthracycline antibiotics, doxorubicin, in Caki-2 cells. Doxorubicin alone exhibited weak cytotoxicity at the concentrations effective for other cancer cells such as Hela cells. In addition, it did not activate caspase 3. However, the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin was increased remarkably and accompanied with the caspase- 3 activation in the presence of 15d-PGJ2. Doxorubicin alone damaged plasma membrane, and the combined application of 15d-PGJ2 with doxorubicin increased the membrane permeability slightly. PPAR? was involved in neither the anti-tumor activity nor the synergistic effect of 15d-PGJ2. 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis in Caki-2 cells via suppressing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. The effect of PI3K inhibitor on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin was additive, but not synergistic. Although the PI3K inhibitor mimicked the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2, it might not be involved in the synergism between 15d-PGJ2 and doxorubicin. In conclusion, 15d-PGJ2 enhanced the chemosensitivity of doxorubicin via the pathway independent of PPAR? and PI3K.
Project description:The prostaglandin, 15-deoxy ?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the control of chronic inflammatory disease. However, the role of prostanoid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not well determined. We demonstrated the therapeutic effect of 15d-PGJ2 in an experimental model of arthritis. Daily administration of 15d-PGJ2 attenuated the severity of CIA, reducing the clinical score, pain, and edema. 15d-PGJ2 treatment was associated with a marked reduction in joint levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Although the mRNA expression of ROR-?t was profoundly reduced, FOXP3 was enhanced in draining lymph node cells from 15d-PGJ2-treated arthritic mice. The specific and polyclonal CD4+ Th17 cell responses were limited during the addition of prostaglandin to cell culture. Moreover, in vitro 15d-PGJ2 increased the expression of FOXP3, GITR, and CTLA-4 in the CD4+CD25- population, suggesting the induction of Tregs on conventional T cells. Prostanoid addition to CD4+CD25- cells selectively suppressed Th17 differentiation and promoted the enhancement of FOXP3 under polarization conditions. Thus, 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis by regulating Th17 differentiation, concomitant with the induction of Tregs, and, consequently, protected mice from diseases aggravation. Altogether, these results indicate that 15d-PGJ2 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in RA.
Project description:PPAR? belongs to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors. Upon activation by an agonist, PPAR? controls a variety of physiological processes via regulation of its target genes. 15-Deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is a cyclopentenone prostaglandin that features an electrophilic, ?,?-unsaturated ketone (an enone) in the cyclopentenone ring. Many of 15d-PGJ2's biological effects result from covalent interaction between C9 and the thiol group of a catalytic cysteine (Cys) in target proteins. In this study, we investigated whether 15d-PGJ2 activates PPAR? by forming a covalent adduct. Our data show that 15d-PGJ2 activates PPAR?'s transcriptional activity through formation of a covalent adduct between its endocyclic enone at C9 and Cys249 in the receptor's ligand-binding domain. As expected, no adduct formation was seen following a Cys-to-Ser mutation at residue 249 (C249S) of PPAR? or with a PGD2/PGJ2 analogue that lacks the electrophilic C9. Furthermore, the PPAR? C249S mutation weakened induction of the receptor's DNA binding activity by 15d-PGJ2, which highlights the biological significance of our findings. Calculated chemical properties as well as data from molecular orbital calculations, reactive molecular dynamics simulations, and intrinsic reaction coordinate modeling also supported the selectivity of 15d-PGJ2's C9 toward PPAR?'s Cys thiol. In summary, our results provide the molecular, chemical, and structural basis of 15d-PGJ2-mediated PPAR? activation, designating 15d-PGJ2 as the first covalent PPAR? ligand to be identified.
Project description:15-Deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has a dual action of stimulating anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation when exogenously administered at high doses. However, at lower doses, it can be toxic inducing opposite actions, ie, stimulation of both inflammation and cell proliferation. This biphasic phenomenon of 15d-PGJ2 is believed to be due to its multitarget behavior. In this study, we provide a strategy for controlling such biphasic pharmacodynamics by separating its dual actions while retaining the beneficial one by using a nanoemulsion (NE). The 15d-PGJ2 was encapsulated in the NE composed of triolein/distearoyl phosphatidylcholine/Tween 80 at a high encapsulation ratio (>83%). Furthermore, NE enhanced drug retention by slowing down its release rate, which was, unconventionally, inversely dependent on the total surface area of the NE system. Next, focusing on the biphasic effect on cell proliferation, we found that the 15d-PGJ2-loaded slow-release NE showed only a dose-dependent inhibition of the viability of a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, although a fast-release NE as well as free 15d-PGJ2 exerted a biphasic effect. The observed slow-release kinetics are believed to be responsible for elimination of the biphasic pharmacodynamics of 15d-PGJ2 mainly for two reasons: 1) a high proportion of 15d-PGJ2 that is retained in the NE was delivered to the cytosol, where proapoptotic targets are located and 2) 15d-PGJ2 was able to bypass cell membrane-associated targets that lead to the induction of cellular proliferation. Collectively, our strategy of eliminating the 15d-PGJ2-induced biphasic pharmacodynamics was based on the delivery of 15d-PGJ2 to its desired site of action, excluding undesired sites, on a subcellular level.
Project description:We showed earlier that 15 deoxy Delta(12,14) prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) inactivates Drp1 and induces mitochondrial fusion . However, prolonged incubation of cells with 15d-PGJ2 resulted in remodeling of fused mitochondria into large swollen mitochondria with irregular cristae structure. While initial fusion of mitochondria by 15d-PGJ2 required the presence of both outer (Mfn1 and Mfn2) and inner (OPA1) mitochondrial membrane fusion proteins, later mitochondrial changes involved increased degradation of the fusion protein OPA1 and ubiquitination of newly synthesized OPA1 along with decreased expression of Mfn1 and Mfn2, which likely contributed to the loss of tubular rigidity, disorganization of cristae, and formation of large swollen degenerated dysfunctional mitochondria. Similar to inhibition of Drp1 by 15d-PGJ2, decreased expression of fission protein Drp1 by siRNA also resulted in the loss of fusion proteins. Prevention of 15d-PGJ2 induced mitochondrial elongation by thiol antioxidants prevented not only loss of OPA1 isoforms but also its ubiquitination. These findings provide novel insights into unforeseen complexity of molecular events that modulate mitochondrial plasticity.
Project description:15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an anti-inflammatory downstream product of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. It has been implicated to play a protective role in a variety of inflammatory mediated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, neural damage, and myocardial infarctions. Here we show that 15d-PGJ2 also plays a role in Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to survive and replicate inside phagocytic immune cells, allowing for bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. Salmonella species cause a wide range of morbidity and mortality due to gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Previously we have shown that in mouse models of typhoid fever, Salmonella infection causes a major perturbation in the prostaglandin pathway. Specifically, we saw that 15d-PGJ2 production was significantly increased in both liver and feces. In this work we show that 15d-PGJ2 production is also significantly increased in macrophages infected with Salmonella. Furthermore, we show that the addition of 15d-PGJ2 to Salmonella infected RAW264.7, J774, and bone marrow derived macrophages is sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial colonization. We also show evidence that 15d-PGJ2 is reducing bacterial uptake by macrophages. 15d-PGJ2 reduces the inflammatory response of these infected macrophages, as evidenced by a reduction in the production of cytokines and reactive nitrogen species. The inflammatory response of the macrophage is important for full Salmonella virulence, as it can give the bacteria cues for virulence. The reduction in bacterial colonization is independent of the expression of Salmonella virulence genes SPI1 and SPI2, and is independent of the 15d-PGJ2 ligand PPAR-?. 15d-PGJ2 also causes an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in infected macrophages. In conclusion, we show here that 15d-PGJ2 mediates the outcome of bacterial infection, a previously unidentified role for this prostaglandin.