Ndel1 suppresses ciliogenesis in proliferating cells by regulating the trichoplein-Aurora A pathway.
ABSTRACT: Primary cilia protrude from the surface of quiescent cells and disassemble at cell cycle reentry. We previously showed that ciliary reassembly is suppressed by trichoplein-mediated Aurora A activation pathway in growing cells. Here, we report that Ndel1, a well-known modulator of dynein activity, localizes at the subdistal appendage of the mother centriole, which nucleates a primary cilium. In the presence of serum, Ndel1 depletion reduces trichoplein at the mother centriole and induces unscheduled primary cilia formation, which is reverted by forced trichoplein expression or coknockdown of KCTD17 (an E3 ligase component protein for trichoplein). Serum starvation induced transient Ndel1 degradation, subsequent to the disappearance of trichoplein at the mother centriole. Forced expression of Ndel1 suppressed trichoplein degradation and axonemal microtubule extension during ciliogenesis, similar to trichoplein induction or KCTD17 knockdown. Most importantly, the proportion of ciliated and quiescent cells was increased in the kidney tubular epithelia of newborn Ndel1-hypomorphic mice. Thus, Ndel1 acts as a novel upstream regulator of the trichoplein-Aurora A pathway to inhibit primary cilia assembly.
Project description:Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that organize numerous key signals during developments and tissue homeostasis. Ciliary microtubule doublet, named axoneme, is grown directly from the distal end of mother centrioles through a multistep process upon cell cycle exit; however, the instructive signals that initiate these events are poorly understood. Here we show that ubiquitin-proteasome machinery removes trichoplein, a negative regulator of ciliogenesis, from mother centrioles and thereby causes Aurora-A inactivation, leading to ciliogenesis. Ciliogenesis is blocked if centriolar trichoplein is stabilized by treatment with proteasome inhibitors or by expression of non-ubiquitylatable trichoplein mutant (K50/57R). Started from two-stepped global E3 screening, we have identified KCTD17 as a substrate-adaptor for Cul3-RING E3 ligases (CRL3s) that polyubiquitylates trichoplein. Depletion of KCTD17 specifically arrests ciliogenesis at the initial step of axoneme extension through aberrant trichoplein-Aurora-A activity. Thus, CRL3-KCTD17 targets trichoplein to proteolysis to initiate the axoneme extension during ciliogenesis.
Project description:Ciliogenesis is generally inhibited in dividing cells, however, it has been unclear which signaling cascades regulate the phenomenon. Here, we report that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase suppresses ciliogenesis by directly phosphorylating the deubiquitinase USP8 on Tyr-717 and Tyr-810 in RPE1 cells. These phosphorylations elevate the deubiquitinase activity, which then stabilizes the trichoplein-Aurora A pathway, an inhibitory mechanism of ciliogenesis. EGFR knockdown and serum starvation result in ciliogenesis through downregulation of the USP8-trichoplein-Aurora A signal. Moreover, primary cilia abrogation, which is induced upon IFT20 or Cep164 depletion, ameliorates the cell cycle arrest of EGFR knockdown cells. The present data reveal that the EGFR-USP8-trichoplein-Aurora A axis is a critical signaling cascade that restricts ciliogenesis in dividing cells, and functions to facilitate cell proliferation. We further show that usp8 knockout zebrafish develops ciliopathy-related phenotypes including cystic kidney, suggesting that USP8 is a regulator of ciliogenesis in vertebrates.
Project description:Cilia are found on most human cells and exist as motile cilia or non-motile primary cilia. Primary cilia play sensory roles in transducing various extracellular signals, and defective ciliary functions are involved in a wide range of human diseases. Centrosomes are the principal microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells and contain two centrioles. We observed that DNA damage causes centriole splitting in non-transformed human cells, with isolated centrioles carrying the mother centriole markers CEP170 and ninein but not kizuna or cenexin. Loss of centriole cohesion through siRNA depletion of C-NAP1 or rootletin increased radiation-induced centriole splitting, with C-NAP1-depleted isolated centrioles losing mother markers. As the mother centriole forms the basal body in primary cilia, we tested whether centriole splitting affected ciliogenesis. While irradiated cells formed apparently normal primary cilia, most cilia arose from centriolar clusters, not from isolated centrioles. Furthermore, C-NAP1 or rootletin knockdown reduced primary cilium formation. Therefore, the centriole cohesion apparatus at the proximal end of centrioles may provide a target that can affect primary cilium formation as part of the DNA damage response.
Project description:The primary cilium is an antenna-like, microtubule-based organelle on the surface of most vertebrate cells for receiving extracellular information. Although primary cilia form in the quiescent phase, ciliary disassembly occurs when quiescent cells re-enter the proliferative phase. It was shown that a mitotic kinase, Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), is required for cell-proliferation-coupled primary cilia disassembly. Here, we report that kinesin superfamily protein 2A (KIF2A), phosphorylated at T554 by PLK1, exhibits microtubule-depolymerizing activity at the mother centriole to disassemble the primary cilium in a growth-signal-dependent manner. KIF2A-deficient hTERT-RPE1 cells showed the impairment of primary cilia disassembly following growth stimulation. It was also found that the PLK1-KIF2A pathway is constitutively active in cells from patients with premature chromatid separation (PCS) syndrome and is responsible for defective ciliogenesis in this syndrome. These findings provide insights into the roles of the PLK1-KIF2A pathway in physiological cilia disassembly and cilia-associated disorders.
Project description:Centrosomes serve to organize new centrioles in cycling cells, whereas in quiescent cells they assemble primary cilia. We have recently shown that the mitochondrial porin VDAC3 is also a centrosomal protein that is predominantly associated with the mother centriole and modulates centriole assembly by recruiting Mps1 to centrosomes. Here, we show that depletion of VDAC3 causes inappropriate ciliogenesis in cycling cells, while expression of GFP-VDAC3 suppresses ciliogenesis in quiescent cells. Mps1 also negatively regulates ciliogenesis, and the inappropriate ciliogenesis caused by VDAC3 depletion can be bypassed by targeting Mps1 to centrosomes independently of VDAC3. Thus, our data show that a VDAC3-Mps1 module at the centrosome promotes ciliary disassembly during cell cycle entry and suppresses cilia assembly in proliferating cells. Our data also suggests that VDAC3 might be a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and ciliopathies in mammalian cells.
Project description:The mother centriole of the centrosome is distinguished from immature daughter centrioles by the presence of accessory structures (distal and subdistal appendages), which play an important role in the organization of the primary cilium in quiescent cells. Primary cilia serve as sensory organelles, thus have been implicated in mediating intracellular signal transduction pathways. Here we report that Chibby (Cby), a highly conserved antagonist of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, is a centriolar component specifically located at the distal end of the mother centriole and essential for assembly of the primary cilium. Cby appeared as a discrete dot in the middle of a ring-like structure revealed by staining with a distal appendage component of Cep164. Cby interacted with one of the appendage components, Cenexin (Cnx), which thereby abrogated the inhibitory effect of Cby on ?-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation in a dose-dependent manner. Cby and Cnx did not precisely align, as Cby was detected at a more distal position than Cnx. Cnx emerged earlier than Cby during the cell cycle and was required for recruitment of Cby to the mother centriole. However, Cby was dispensable for Cnx localization to the centriole. During massive centriogenesis in in vitro cultured mouse tracheal epithelial cells, Cby and Cnx were expressed in a similar pattern, which was coincident with the expression of Foxj1. Our results suggest that Cby plays an important role in organization of both primary and motile cilia in collaboration with Cnx.
Project description:Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that play important roles in development and disease . They are required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling. Primary cilia grow from the older of the two centrioles of the centrosome, referred to as the mother centriole. In cycling cells, the cilium typically grows in G1 and is lost before mitosis, but the regulation of its growth is poorly understood. Centriole duplication at G1/S results in two centrosomes, one with an older mother centriole and one with a new mother centriole, that are segregated in mitosis. Here we report that primary cilia grow asynchronously in sister cells resulting from a mitotic division and that the sister cell receiving the older mother centriole usually grows a primary cilium first. We also show that the signaling proteins inversin and PDGFRalpha localize asynchronously to sister cell primary cilia and that sister cells respond asymmetrically to Shh. These results suggest that the segregation of differently aged mother centrioles, an asymmetry inherent to every animal cell division, can influence the ability of sister cells to respond to environmental signals, potentially altering the behavior or fate of one or both sister cells.
Project description:Primary cilia, which are essential for normal development and tissue homeostasis, are extensions of the mother centriole, but the mechanisms that remodel the centriole to promote cilia initiation are poorly understood. Here we show that mouse embryos that lack the small guanosine triphosphatase RSG1 die at embryonic day 12.5, with developmental abnormalities characteristic of decreased cilia-dependent Hedgehog signaling. Rsg1 mutant embryos have fewer primary cilia than wild-type embryos, but the cilia that form are of normal length and traffic Hedgehog pathway proteins within the cilium correctly. Rsg1 mother centrioles recruit proteins required for cilia initiation and dock onto ciliary vesicles, but axonemal microtubules fail to elongate normally. RSG1 localizes to the mother centriole in a process that depends on tau tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2), the CPLANE complex protein Inturned (INTU), and its own GTPase activity. The data suggest a specific role for RSG1 in the final maturation of the mother centriole and ciliary vesicle that allows extension of the ciliary axoneme.
Project description:Centrosomes are major microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells that consist of two centrioles. In mitotic cells, centrosomes are duplicated to serve as the poles of the mitotic spindle, while in quiescent cells, centrosomes move to the apical membrane where the oldest centriole is transformed into a basal body to assemble a primary cilium. We recently showed that mitochondrial outer membrane porin VDAC3 localizes to centrosomes where it negatively regulates ciliogenesis. We show here that the other two family members, VDAC1 and VDAC2, best known for their function in mitochondrial bioenergetics, are also found at centrosomes. Like VDAC3, centrosomal VDAC1 is predominantly localized to the mother centriole, while VDAC2 localizes to centriolar satellites in a microtubule-dependent manner. Down-regulation of VDAC1 leads to inappropriate ciliogenesis, while its overexpression suppresses cilia formation, suggesting that VDAC1 and VDAC3 both negatively regulate ciliogenesis. However, this negative effect on ciliogenesis is not shared by VDAC2, which instead appears to promote maturation of primary cilia. Moreover, because overexpression of VDAC3 cannot compensate for depletion of VDAC1, our data suggest that while the entire VDAC family localizes to centrosomes, they have non-redundant functions in cilogenesis.
Project description:Centriole duplication occurs once per cell cycle, ensuring that each cell contains two centrosomes, each containing a mother-daughter pair of tightly engaged centrioles at mitotic entry. Loss of the tight engagement between mother and daughter centrioles appears to license the next round of centriole duplication. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating this process remain largely unknown. Mutations in CDK5RAP2, which encodes a centrosomal protein, cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly in humans. Here we show that CDK5RAP2 loss of function in mice causes centriole amplification with a preponderance of single, unpaired centrioles and increased numbers of daughter-daughter centriole pairs. These results indicate that CDK5RAP2 is required to maintain centriole engagement and cohesion, thereby restricting centriole replication. Early in mitosis, amplified centrosomes assemble multipolar spindles in CDK5RAP2 mutant cells. Moreover, both mother and daughter centrioles are amplified and the excess mother centrioles template multiple primary cilia in CDK5RAP2 mutant cells.